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RESPIRATORY
EMERGENCIES & CPR
PREPARED BY
Ms.DHIVYA BHARATHI.A, M.Sc(N)
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, VNCW
BREATHING PROCESS
• Air (oxygen) into nose and mouth ---- passes through pharynx ---- travels
through trachea ---- lungs ---- blood ---- delivered to brain, organs, muscles
(provides energy)
BRAIN and OXYGEN
• Brain is very sensitive to oxygen starvation
• Brain cells start to die in 4 – 6 minutes without oxygen
• Brain controls breathing
• Adjusts rate and depth of breaths based on Oxygen and Carbon dioxide
levels
• Requires respiratory, circulatory, nervous and musculoskeletal systems to
work together
TIME FRAME
• 0 minutes: breathing stops, heart will soon stop breathing
• 4 – 6 minutes: brain damage possible
• 6- 10 minutes: brain damage likely
• Over 10 minutes: irreversible brain damage certain
ASPHYXIA
• Asphyxia is a deficiency of oxygen in the blood and an increase of carbon
dioxide in blood and tissues.
• Occurs due to the interruption in the normal exchange of oxygen and
carbon dioxide between the lungs and atmospheric air.
RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES
• An obstructed airway (Choking)
• Illness such as Pneumonia
• Respiratory conditions
• Electrocution
• Shock
• Drowning
• Heart attack or heart disease
CONTD…
• Chest or lung injury
• Allergic reactions
• Drugs
• Poisoning
• Hyperventilation
• Hanging , Strangulation, etc
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS – I STAGE
• RR increases
• SOB
• Neck veins become swollen
• Face, lips, nails, fingers and toes turn blue
• Pulse gets faster and feeble
S/S – II STAGE
• Consciousness is lost totally or partially
• Froth may appear at the mouth and nostrils
• Fits may occur
DROWNING
FIRST AID - DROWNING
• Immediately, put the victim in prone position and make sure that air passage
is not obstructed.
• Pull tongue forward and remove any foreign material.
• Raise the middle part of the body with your hands to cause water to drain
out of the lungs
• Remove wet clothing, keep body warm and continue artificial breathing until
breathing comes back.
CHOKING
• Occurs due to blockage of the throat by foreign object.
• There is difficulty in speaking and breathing.
FIRST AID – CHOKING (ADULT)
• Reassure the casualty, bend her forward so that his head is lower than the
chest.
• Give upto 5 sharp blows to her back between the shoulder blades , with the
palm of your hand.
• If it fails, try abdominal thrust.
• If this does not free the blockage, try again 4 times
• Then alternate five back blows with five thrusts.
BACK BLOWS & ABD. THRUST
FIRST AID – CHOKING (for child)
• Place the child over knee, head down, slap him between the shoulder blades
• If back blow fails, use the abdominal thrust.
FIRST AID – CHOKING (for baby)
• Lay the baby along forearm
• Slap the baby between shoulder blades
• If the baby becomes unconscious, begin resuscitation and do not use
abdominal thrust
CHOKING CHILD & BABY
INHALATION OF FUMES & GASES
• Inhalation of toxic fumes are dangerous
• Carbon monoxide- lighter than air
• Found in car exhaust fumes, burning coal, coal mines, during fire, etc.
• Carbon dioxide – heavier than air
• Found in coal mines, sewerage.
FIRST AID MEASURES
• Before attempting to rescue a person, always open door and windows for
proper ventilation
• Pull out the casualty quickly while holding your breath
• Crawl along the floor if the gas is (CO)
• Enter in upright position if poisonous gas is heavier than air (CO2)
• After bringing out the casualty in fresh air, if there is breathing difficulty, give
artificial respiration.
CARDIOPULMONARY
RESUSCITATION (CPR)
• Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation – is an emergency lifesaving procedure
performed when the heart stops beating.
• Immediate CPR can double or triple chances of survival after cardiac arrest.
HIGH QUALITY CPR
High-quality CPR should be performed by anyone - including bystanders.
There are five critical components:
• Minimize interruptions in chest compressions
• Provide compressions of adequate rate and depth
• Avoid leaning on the victim between compressions
• Ensure proper hand placement
• Avoid excessive ventilation
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx

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Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx

  • 1. RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES & CPR PREPARED BY Ms.DHIVYA BHARATHI.A, M.Sc(N) ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, VNCW
  • 2. BREATHING PROCESS • Air (oxygen) into nose and mouth ---- passes through pharynx ---- travels through trachea ---- lungs ---- blood ---- delivered to brain, organs, muscles (provides energy)
  • 3. BRAIN and OXYGEN • Brain is very sensitive to oxygen starvation • Brain cells start to die in 4 – 6 minutes without oxygen • Brain controls breathing • Adjusts rate and depth of breaths based on Oxygen and Carbon dioxide levels • Requires respiratory, circulatory, nervous and musculoskeletal systems to work together
  • 4. TIME FRAME • 0 minutes: breathing stops, heart will soon stop breathing • 4 – 6 minutes: brain damage possible • 6- 10 minutes: brain damage likely • Over 10 minutes: irreversible brain damage certain
  • 5. ASPHYXIA • Asphyxia is a deficiency of oxygen in the blood and an increase of carbon dioxide in blood and tissues. • Occurs due to the interruption in the normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and atmospheric air.
  • 6. RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES • An obstructed airway (Choking) • Illness such as Pneumonia • Respiratory conditions • Electrocution • Shock • Drowning • Heart attack or heart disease
  • 7. CONTD… • Chest or lung injury • Allergic reactions • Drugs • Poisoning • Hyperventilation • Hanging , Strangulation, etc
  • 8. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS – I STAGE • RR increases • SOB • Neck veins become swollen • Face, lips, nails, fingers and toes turn blue • Pulse gets faster and feeble
  • 9. S/S – II STAGE • Consciousness is lost totally or partially • Froth may appear at the mouth and nostrils • Fits may occur
  • 11. FIRST AID - DROWNING • Immediately, put the victim in prone position and make sure that air passage is not obstructed. • Pull tongue forward and remove any foreign material. • Raise the middle part of the body with your hands to cause water to drain out of the lungs • Remove wet clothing, keep body warm and continue artificial breathing until breathing comes back.
  • 12. CHOKING • Occurs due to blockage of the throat by foreign object. • There is difficulty in speaking and breathing.
  • 13. FIRST AID – CHOKING (ADULT) • Reassure the casualty, bend her forward so that his head is lower than the chest. • Give upto 5 sharp blows to her back between the shoulder blades , with the palm of your hand. • If it fails, try abdominal thrust. • If this does not free the blockage, try again 4 times • Then alternate five back blows with five thrusts.
  • 14. BACK BLOWS & ABD. THRUST
  • 15. FIRST AID – CHOKING (for child) • Place the child over knee, head down, slap him between the shoulder blades • If back blow fails, use the abdominal thrust.
  • 16. FIRST AID – CHOKING (for baby) • Lay the baby along forearm • Slap the baby between shoulder blades • If the baby becomes unconscious, begin resuscitation and do not use abdominal thrust
  • 18. INHALATION OF FUMES & GASES • Inhalation of toxic fumes are dangerous • Carbon monoxide- lighter than air • Found in car exhaust fumes, burning coal, coal mines, during fire, etc. • Carbon dioxide – heavier than air • Found in coal mines, sewerage.
  • 19. FIRST AID MEASURES • Before attempting to rescue a person, always open door and windows for proper ventilation • Pull out the casualty quickly while holding your breath • Crawl along the floor if the gas is (CO) • Enter in upright position if poisonous gas is heavier than air (CO2) • After bringing out the casualty in fresh air, if there is breathing difficulty, give artificial respiration.
  • 20. CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR) • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation – is an emergency lifesaving procedure performed when the heart stops beating. • Immediate CPR can double or triple chances of survival after cardiac arrest.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. HIGH QUALITY CPR High-quality CPR should be performed by anyone - including bystanders. There are five critical components: • Minimize interruptions in chest compressions • Provide compressions of adequate rate and depth • Avoid leaning on the victim between compressions • Ensure proper hand placement • Avoid excessive ventilation