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Introduction to Research
Methods Supercourse
Formulating Research
Problems, Questions
and Hypotheses
Introduction to the course
and to your assignment
This project is made possible by
the support of the American
people through the United States
Agency for International
Development (USAID).
2
Special thank you to
workshop organizers and
Nazarbayev University for
hosting us
3
4
What is this course designed
to achieve?
 Introduce the concept of research
methods
 Describe basic biostatistical methods
 Introduce trainees to biostatistical
software
 Introduce trainees to publication and
research process
 Introduce steps needed in research
development
 Introduce the Central Asian Journal of
Global Health (CAJGH)
5
6
Course assignment:
Develop a research project
 Learn the general steps in the research process
from research idea to project implementation
 Identify a research problem
 Define research questions, directional and non-
directional hypotheses
 Identify the best possible research design for your
hypotheses
7
Research Defined
 Research is an organized and
systematic way to find answers to
questions
 Research is a creative process
8
Why is research important to
medicine and public health?
 Knowledge obtained from sound
research is transformed into clinical
practice, leading to medical practice
that is evidence-based.
9
The Research Idea
 Professional experience
 Burning questions
 Literature
 Professional meetings
 Discussions
10
Criteria for developing a good
research question
 Feasible
 Interesting
 Novel
 Ethical
 Relevant
 Cummings et al. 2001
11
Good research question?
 Feasible
 Subjects
 Resources
 Manageable
 Data available?
 Interesting
 Novel
 In relation to previous
findings
 Confirm or refute?
 New setting, new
population
 Ethical
 Social or scientific value
 Safe
 Relevant
 Advance scientific
knowledge?
 Influence clinical practice?
 Impact health policy?
 Guide future research?
12
A Research Question Must
Identify
1. The variables under study
2. The population being studied
3. The testability of the question
13
Variables in research
 Have 2 or more properties or qualities
 Age, sex, weight, height
 Is one variable related to another?
 “ Is X related to Y? What is the effect of X on Y?” etc.
14
Variables in research
 Independent
variable:
 has a presumed effect
on the dependent
variable (outcome)
 May or may not be
manipulated
 Dependent variable:
 Something that varies
with a change in the
independent variable
 Outcome variable
15
Hypothesis
 Statement about the relationship
between 2 or more variables
 Converts the question into a statement
that predicts an expected outcome
 A unit or subset of the research
problem
16
Characteristics of hypotheses
 Declarative statement that identifies the
predicted relationship between 2 or
more variables
 Testability
 Based on sound scientific
theory/rationale
17
Directional vs. Non-Directional
Hypotheses
 Directional hypothesis
Specifies the direction of the relationship
between independent and dependent
variables
 Non-directional hypothesis
Shows the existence of a relationship
between variables but no direction is specified
Finding appropriate research
design
 Cohort
 Cross sectional
 Case control
 Clinical trial
 ?
18
Prepare PowerPoint
presentaiton
 10 minutes long
 ~10 slides
 Select 1 presenter from each group
 Present during the last day
 Each presentation should include
research area, significance, hypothesis,
and rough design of the experiment
Practical applications of this
project?
 Create your own research project
 Understand published research papers
 Understand presentations at scientific
conferences
 Publish your research!!
20
Central Asian
Journal of Global
Health
Welcome!
What is CAJGH
 Biannual open access journal
 Focus area is Central Asian Region
 Peer reviewed
 Started in April 2012 as a part of USAID
project
 Distinguished Editorial Advisory board
Questions?
Faina.linkov@gmail.com
24
2/2/2023

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Research.ppt

  • 1. Introduction to Research Methods Supercourse Formulating Research Problems, Questions and Hypotheses Introduction to the course and to your assignment
  • 2. This project is made possible by the support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). 2
  • 3. Special thank you to workshop organizers and Nazarbayev University for hosting us 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. What is this course designed to achieve?  Introduce the concept of research methods  Describe basic biostatistical methods  Introduce trainees to biostatistical software  Introduce trainees to publication and research process  Introduce steps needed in research development  Introduce the Central Asian Journal of Global Health (CAJGH) 5
  • 6. 6 Course assignment: Develop a research project  Learn the general steps in the research process from research idea to project implementation  Identify a research problem  Define research questions, directional and non- directional hypotheses  Identify the best possible research design for your hypotheses
  • 7. 7 Research Defined  Research is an organized and systematic way to find answers to questions  Research is a creative process
  • 8. 8 Why is research important to medicine and public health?  Knowledge obtained from sound research is transformed into clinical practice, leading to medical practice that is evidence-based.
  • 9. 9 The Research Idea  Professional experience  Burning questions  Literature  Professional meetings  Discussions
  • 10. 10 Criteria for developing a good research question  Feasible  Interesting  Novel  Ethical  Relevant  Cummings et al. 2001
  • 11. 11 Good research question?  Feasible  Subjects  Resources  Manageable  Data available?  Interesting  Novel  In relation to previous findings  Confirm or refute?  New setting, new population  Ethical  Social or scientific value  Safe  Relevant  Advance scientific knowledge?  Influence clinical practice?  Impact health policy?  Guide future research?
  • 12. 12 A Research Question Must Identify 1. The variables under study 2. The population being studied 3. The testability of the question
  • 13. 13 Variables in research  Have 2 or more properties or qualities  Age, sex, weight, height  Is one variable related to another?  “ Is X related to Y? What is the effect of X on Y?” etc.
  • 14. 14 Variables in research  Independent variable:  has a presumed effect on the dependent variable (outcome)  May or may not be manipulated  Dependent variable:  Something that varies with a change in the independent variable  Outcome variable
  • 15. 15 Hypothesis  Statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables  Converts the question into a statement that predicts an expected outcome  A unit or subset of the research problem
  • 16. 16 Characteristics of hypotheses  Declarative statement that identifies the predicted relationship between 2 or more variables  Testability  Based on sound scientific theory/rationale
  • 17. 17 Directional vs. Non-Directional Hypotheses  Directional hypothesis Specifies the direction of the relationship between independent and dependent variables  Non-directional hypothesis Shows the existence of a relationship between variables but no direction is specified
  • 18. Finding appropriate research design  Cohort  Cross sectional  Case control  Clinical trial  ? 18
  • 19. Prepare PowerPoint presentaiton  10 minutes long  ~10 slides  Select 1 presenter from each group  Present during the last day  Each presentation should include research area, significance, hypothesis, and rough design of the experiment
  • 20. Practical applications of this project?  Create your own research project  Understand published research papers  Understand presentations at scientific conferences  Publish your research!! 20
  • 21. Central Asian Journal of Global Health Welcome!
  • 22. What is CAJGH  Biannual open access journal  Focus area is Central Asian Region  Peer reviewed  Started in April 2012 as a part of USAID project  Distinguished Editorial Advisory board
  • 23.

Editor's Notes

  1. All lectures from Workshop - http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/CentralAsia/workshop.htm This project is made possible by the support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents are the sole responsibility of the University of Pittsburgh and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States  Government.