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WEST AFRICAN
INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC
HEALTH (WAIPH)
Health Literacy and Leadership Programme (HLLP).
MONITORING AND EVALUATION IN
PUBLIC HEALTH
Ojore Godday Aghedo, MPH, BLS, AMIIM HRMA,
June 13, 2024
OUTLINE
 Objectives of M&E
 Introduction
 What is Monitoring and Evaluation
(M&E)?
 Importance of M&E
 The M&E Process
 M&E Plans
 Steps to building an M&E Plan
 Challenges and Solutions
 M&E Best Practices
 Tools and Resources
 Conclusion
 Q&A
Objectives of M&E
 Assessing program performance and progress.
 Identifying strengths and weaknesses.
 Informing decision-making and program improvements.
 Ensuring accountability to stakeholders.
INTRODUCTION
What is Monitoring and evaluation (M&E)?
It is a process used to assess the effectiveness of public health
programs and interventions. It involves collecting data, analyzing
it, and making informed decisions based on the findings.
It helps to assess the effectiveness of these programs, identify
areas for improvement, and ensure that resources are being used
efficiently.
WHAT IS “MONITORING”?
 Monitoring is the systematic process of collecting,
analyzing and using information to track a
programme’s progress toward reaching its
objectives and to guide management decisions.
Monitoring is sometimes referred to as process
evaluation because it focuses on the implementation
process and asks key questions:
 How well has the program been implemented?
 How much does implementation vary from site to
site?
 Did the program benefit the intended people? At
what cost?
EXAMPLES OF MONITORING
 Monitoring usually pertains to counting, tracking, and collecting data.
For example:
Counting clients seen or health
workers trained
Tracking condoms distributed
Collecting data on clinic clients
Examples of program elements that can
be monitored
Supply
inventories
Number of
vaccine doses
administered
monthly
Quality of
service
Service coverage
Patient outcomes
(changes in
behavior,
morbidity, etc.)
Human resources
& technical
capacity
ILLUSTRATION OF PROGRAMME
MONITORING
WHAT IS “EVALUATION”?
Evaluation is the systematic assessment
of an activity, project, programme,
strategy, policy, topic, theme, sector,
operational area or institution’s
performance.
 Assessing the outcomes and impact of
public health interventions.
 Determines the extent to which
program goals are achieved.
 Utilizes various methods such as
surveys, interviews, and data
analysis.
REQUIREMENTS FOR AN EVALUATION
 Data collection at the start of a program (to provide a
baseline) and again at the end, rather than at repeated
intervals during program implementation
 A control or comparison group in order to measure
whether the changes in outcomes can be attributed to the
program
 A well-planned study design
Types of Evaluation
 Formative Evaluation
 Conducted during program development or implementation.
 Focuses on identifying areas for improvement and refining program strategies.
 Summative Evaluation:
 Conducted at the end of a program or project.
 Assesses overall effectiveness and impact.
 Provides insights for future planning and replication.
OECD-DAC EVALUATION CRITERIA
Impact
ILLUSTRATION OF PROGRAMME
EVALUATION
EXERCISE…1
 What situation does each of the following call for, “Monitoring” or
“Evaluation”?
1. The National Council of Population and Development is interested in learning
whether the initiatives being implemented in province “A” are lowering
teenage pregnancy rates there.
2. USAID wants to know the number of sex workers that have been reached by
your program this year.
3. A country director is curious to know whether the post-abortion treatment
offered in public clinics satisfies national criteria of quality.
4. A 2 year HIV/AIDS project is being implemented and will close-out in one year
time. The funder wants to know if the services will be sustained after
eventual close-out.
IMPORTANCE OF M&E
Make informed
decisions regarding
program operations
and service delivery
based on objective
evidence
Ensure the most
effective and efficient
use of resources
Meet organizational
reporting and other
requirements, and
convince donors that
their investments have
been worthwhile or
that alternative
approaches should be
considered
Objectively assess the
extent to which the
program is having or
has had the desired
impact, in what areas
it is effective, and
where corrections
need to be considered
It allows us
to track
progress
Identify areas
for
improvement
THE M&E PROCESS
Planning
Implementa
tion
Data
collection
Data
analysis
Reporting
and
Disseminati
on
M&E PLANS
 M&E Plans: This is the fundamental document
that details a program's objectives, the
interventions developed to achieve these
objectives, and describes the procedures that will
be implemented to determine whether or not the
objectives are met.
SIX STEPS TO DEVELOPING AN M&E PLAN
Step-1 •Identify Program Goals and Objectives.
Step-2 •Define Indicators.
Step-3 •Define Data Collection Methods and Timeline.
Step-4 •Identify M&E Roles and Responsibilities.
Step-5 •Create an Analysis Plan and Reporting Templates.
Step-6 •Plan for Dissemination and Donor Reporting.
CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS
 Data Quality: Ensuring accuracy, reliability, and
completeness of data.
 Resource Constraints: Secure multiple sources of funding
and build capacity of staff.
 Complexity: Public health interventions often involve
multiple stakeholders and factors. Identfy stakeholders
and pay advocacy visits to them – involve them.
 Sustainability: Ensuring M&E systems are maintained over
the long term.
M&E BEST PRACTICES
 Stakeholder Engagement: Involving all relevant stakeholders in the M&E process.
 Capacity Building: Training staff in M&E methods and techniques.
 Use of Technology: Leveraging digital tools for data collection, analysis, and reporting.
 Adaptability: Being flexible and responsive to changing needs and circumstances.
 Clearly define the goals and objectives of the monitoring and evaluation process.
 Ensure that data collection methods are appropriate for the specific context and population
being studied.
 Use standardized tools and protocols to ensure consistency and comparability of data.
 Regularly analyze and interpret data to identify trends, patterns, and areas for improvement.
 Involve stakeholders and community members in all stages of the monitoring and evaluation
process.
 Disseminate findings in a timely and accessible manner to all relevant stakeholders.
 Continuously monitor and evaluate the monitoring and evaluation process itself to identify
areas for improvement.
TOOLS AND RESOURSES
 The Framework: Contextual Framework, Results Framework and Logic Model
 M&E Plan
 Training manuals
 Supervisory Checklist
 Data Quality Assessment Checklist
 Databases and HMIS
 Forms and Registers
 Mobile technology for data collection and analysis (Excel, KoboCollect, SPSS,
R, Stata, Epi-Info, Python, CSPro, PowerPoint, Google docs, etc…)
 use of big data and artificial intelligence (AI)
EXERCISE…2
 When Should M&E Take Place?
 As a rule of thumb, what proportion of the budget
should be allocated to M&E?
CONCLUSION
M&E is an integral part of every public health programme that is
planned to succeed, no matter how small or big.
Without proper M&E systems, all public health programmes will
either fail or make little impacts.
M&E activities should be planned for and budgeted for at the
planning stage of the projects.
M&E unit should be properly staffed and equipped to run smoothly.
THANK YOU!
Research, Monitoring and Evaluation, in Public Health

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Research, Monitoring and Evaluation, in Public Health

  • 1. WEST AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTH (WAIPH) Health Literacy and Leadership Programme (HLLP).
  • 2. MONITORING AND EVALUATION IN PUBLIC HEALTH Ojore Godday Aghedo, MPH, BLS, AMIIM HRMA, June 13, 2024
  • 3. OUTLINE  Objectives of M&E  Introduction  What is Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)?  Importance of M&E  The M&E Process  M&E Plans  Steps to building an M&E Plan  Challenges and Solutions  M&E Best Practices  Tools and Resources  Conclusion  Q&A
  • 4. Objectives of M&E  Assessing program performance and progress.  Identifying strengths and weaknesses.  Informing decision-making and program improvements.  Ensuring accountability to stakeholders.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION What is Monitoring and evaluation (M&E)? It is a process used to assess the effectiveness of public health programs and interventions. It involves collecting data, analyzing it, and making informed decisions based on the findings. It helps to assess the effectiveness of these programs, identify areas for improvement, and ensure that resources are being used efficiently.
  • 6. WHAT IS “MONITORING”?  Monitoring is the systematic process of collecting, analyzing and using information to track a programme’s progress toward reaching its objectives and to guide management decisions. Monitoring is sometimes referred to as process evaluation because it focuses on the implementation process and asks key questions:  How well has the program been implemented?  How much does implementation vary from site to site?  Did the program benefit the intended people? At what cost?
  • 7. EXAMPLES OF MONITORING  Monitoring usually pertains to counting, tracking, and collecting data. For example: Counting clients seen or health workers trained Tracking condoms distributed Collecting data on clinic clients
  • 8. Examples of program elements that can be monitored Supply inventories Number of vaccine doses administered monthly Quality of service Service coverage Patient outcomes (changes in behavior, morbidity, etc.) Human resources & technical capacity
  • 10. WHAT IS “EVALUATION”? Evaluation is the systematic assessment of an activity, project, programme, strategy, policy, topic, theme, sector, operational area or institution’s performance.  Assessing the outcomes and impact of public health interventions.  Determines the extent to which program goals are achieved.  Utilizes various methods such as surveys, interviews, and data analysis.
  • 11. REQUIREMENTS FOR AN EVALUATION  Data collection at the start of a program (to provide a baseline) and again at the end, rather than at repeated intervals during program implementation  A control or comparison group in order to measure whether the changes in outcomes can be attributed to the program  A well-planned study design
  • 12. Types of Evaluation  Formative Evaluation  Conducted during program development or implementation.  Focuses on identifying areas for improvement and refining program strategies.  Summative Evaluation:  Conducted at the end of a program or project.  Assesses overall effectiveness and impact.  Provides insights for future planning and replication.
  • 15. EXERCISE…1  What situation does each of the following call for, “Monitoring” or “Evaluation”? 1. The National Council of Population and Development is interested in learning whether the initiatives being implemented in province “A” are lowering teenage pregnancy rates there. 2. USAID wants to know the number of sex workers that have been reached by your program this year. 3. A country director is curious to know whether the post-abortion treatment offered in public clinics satisfies national criteria of quality. 4. A 2 year HIV/AIDS project is being implemented and will close-out in one year time. The funder wants to know if the services will be sustained after eventual close-out.
  • 16. IMPORTANCE OF M&E Make informed decisions regarding program operations and service delivery based on objective evidence Ensure the most effective and efficient use of resources Meet organizational reporting and other requirements, and convince donors that their investments have been worthwhile or that alternative approaches should be considered Objectively assess the extent to which the program is having or has had the desired impact, in what areas it is effective, and where corrections need to be considered It allows us to track progress Identify areas for improvement
  • 18. M&E PLANS  M&E Plans: This is the fundamental document that details a program's objectives, the interventions developed to achieve these objectives, and describes the procedures that will be implemented to determine whether or not the objectives are met.
  • 19. SIX STEPS TO DEVELOPING AN M&E PLAN Step-1 •Identify Program Goals and Objectives. Step-2 •Define Indicators. Step-3 •Define Data Collection Methods and Timeline. Step-4 •Identify M&E Roles and Responsibilities. Step-5 •Create an Analysis Plan and Reporting Templates. Step-6 •Plan for Dissemination and Donor Reporting.
  • 20. CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS  Data Quality: Ensuring accuracy, reliability, and completeness of data.  Resource Constraints: Secure multiple sources of funding and build capacity of staff.  Complexity: Public health interventions often involve multiple stakeholders and factors. Identfy stakeholders and pay advocacy visits to them – involve them.  Sustainability: Ensuring M&E systems are maintained over the long term.
  • 21. M&E BEST PRACTICES  Stakeholder Engagement: Involving all relevant stakeholders in the M&E process.  Capacity Building: Training staff in M&E methods and techniques.  Use of Technology: Leveraging digital tools for data collection, analysis, and reporting.  Adaptability: Being flexible and responsive to changing needs and circumstances.  Clearly define the goals and objectives of the monitoring and evaluation process.  Ensure that data collection methods are appropriate for the specific context and population being studied.  Use standardized tools and protocols to ensure consistency and comparability of data.  Regularly analyze and interpret data to identify trends, patterns, and areas for improvement.  Involve stakeholders and community members in all stages of the monitoring and evaluation process.  Disseminate findings in a timely and accessible manner to all relevant stakeholders.  Continuously monitor and evaluate the monitoring and evaluation process itself to identify areas for improvement.
  • 22. TOOLS AND RESOURSES  The Framework: Contextual Framework, Results Framework and Logic Model  M&E Plan  Training manuals  Supervisory Checklist  Data Quality Assessment Checklist  Databases and HMIS  Forms and Registers  Mobile technology for data collection and analysis (Excel, KoboCollect, SPSS, R, Stata, Epi-Info, Python, CSPro, PowerPoint, Google docs, etc…)  use of big data and artificial intelligence (AI)
  • 23. EXERCISE…2  When Should M&E Take Place?  As a rule of thumb, what proportion of the budget should be allocated to M&E?
  • 24. CONCLUSION M&E is an integral part of every public health programme that is planned to succeed, no matter how small or big. Without proper M&E systems, all public health programmes will either fail or make little impacts. M&E activities should be planned for and budgeted for at the planning stage of the projects. M&E unit should be properly staffed and equipped to run smoothly.