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Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Dr. Scott W. McIntosh
Director, High Altitude Observatory
Associate Director, National Center for Atmospheric Research
We Live In The Atmosphere Of Our Star
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Courtesy NASA/VisLab
Space Weather Impacts on Society
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
The US research community is meeting a new National Space
Weather strategy that will require parallel advances in observational
and numerical science to improve forecast skill for critical systems.
Power Grid VulnerabilityRaw Natural Beauty Space Infrastructure Vulnerability Financial System Vulnerability
Critical Needs
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
The Storm Track of Hurricane Ike
Improvements in Space Weather forecasting REQUIRE the
improved estimates of the environment between Sun and Earth.
Before	
  
After	
  
Improvements in Key Areas To Improve The Space Weather Enterprise
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Ø  Observations of the Sun’s complete magnetic
atmosphere.
Ø  Observations of interplanetary space to track
the disturbance.
Ø  Observations of the magnetosphere/ionosphere
Interface.
Ø  End-to-end modeling capability to interpret the
suite of observations.
Ø  Capability to feed next-generation models with
these new observations.
Ø  Models to increase forecast capability to weeks
and beyond…. Hunting for extreme event
origins.
Solar Observation
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Ø  CoSMO is a suite of three instruments.
Ø  CoSMO is capable of measuring the critical
magneto-thermal environment of the inner
solar system.
Terrestrial Impact
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
The ionosphere is the nexus of space and
weather in the Earth’s upper atmosphere.
Next generation observations and models of the
Earth’s upper atmosphere are required to study
the balance of “bottom-up” and “top-down”
influence on this region housing critical
infrastructure.
Data Assimilation
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Space weather forecast skill will
be increased by utilizing
observations and models
t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h d a t a
a s s i m i l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s
c o m m o n l y e x p l o i t e d i n
terrestrial meteorology.
Take Home Message & Hand Off
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Ø  Space weather is a full-time concern.
Ø  Benign and extreme flavors of space weather
can impact society and critical infrastructure
at different levels.
Ø  There could be a hefty price to pay for
negligence in forecasting episodes of extreme
space weather.
Ø  Improved observations and modeling
capabilities working hand-in-hand are
required to improve forecast skill.
Ø  NCAR is working with the university
community to develop key pieces of
infrastructure at the critical boundaries of the
Sun-Earth Connection.
Research Frontiers in
Space Weather, II
Dr. Thomas H. Zurbuchen
Professor, University of Michigan
Nature of Space Weather in Research Community
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Space	
  Weather	
  is	
  to	
  Space	
  Researchers	
  
what	
  Cancer	
  is	
  to	
  Biological	
  Scien5sts:	
  A	
  
way	
  to	
  demonstrate	
  the	
  value	
  and	
  impact	
  
of	
  one’s	
  work!	
  	
  	
  
Role of University Community
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Ø  Fundamental research on physical processes through theoretical
investigations, data analysis, and models
Ø  Knowledge and understanding of instrument designs of instrument
used today and needed in the future
Ø  Applied research by building large-scale models, analysis of
predictions and improved prediction methodologies
Ø  Educate talent equipped with both skillsets
Space Weather Facts
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Ø  Small CMEs today affect operations of power grid at $10B/yr in USA
and Europe alone
Ø  A Carrington-like event is estimated to cause$2 trillion in damage
Ø  The current estimate of occurrence of such an event is 12% in 10
years
Key question
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Ø  How do we get from forecasts of 48 minutes to forecasts of 48 hours?
Ø  Modeling challenge, observational challenge, education challenge
?	
  
Modeling Challenge: University of Michigan Space Weather Modeling Framework
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Ø  Multi-physics, multi-scale system only addressed by SWMF.
SWMF Control & Infrastructure
Eruption
Generator
Solar Corona
Inner
Heliosphere
Global
Magnetosphere
Polar Wind
Inner
Magnetosphere
Ionospheric
Electrodynamics
Thermosphere
& Ionosphere
Solar
Energetic
Particles
Radiation
Belts
3D Outer
Heliosphere
Couplers
Flare/CME
Observations
Upstream
Monitors
F10.7 Flux
Gravity
Waves
Magneto-
grams,
rotation
tomography
Particle in Cell
Particle
Tracker
Convection
Zone
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Ran External Evaluation
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Ø  The University of Michigan’s SWMF was ranked #1 in
prediction skill among all available models
Ø  Result: SWMF runs in predictive mode now 24/7 on
NOAA’s super-computers
March 2015 St Patrick’s Day Storm
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
New Architectures: Space Weather Distributed Sensor Network
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Ø  Status quo: looking at Sun from Earth, L1, some observations in
magnetosphere
Ø  Future architectures: multi-point measurements of significantly
cheaper spacecraft operated as system
Ø  Discussed and recommended in new report by National Academies
!
New Architectures: Severe Storm Example
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Ø  Eight nano-spacecraft provide comparable measurements at ~10% of
cost, and with repeat times 5-10 times quicker than traditional
technologies
!
!
Cyclone	
  Global	
  Naviga1on	
  
Satellite	
  System	
  (CYGNSS)	
  	
  
CubeSats as Development Platform
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Current 	
   	
  Emerging	
   	
   	
  Developing	
  
Demonstrated	
   	
  Within	
  2	
  years	
   	
   	
  Expected	
  in	
  5	
  years	
  
	
  
0.1	
  degrees 	
   	
  0.02	
  degrees 	
   	
   	
  0.0003	
  degrees	
  
	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  (arc-­‐minute) 	
   	
   	
  (arc-­‐second)	
  
AAtude	
  Control	
  
Current 	
   	
  Emerging	
   	
   	
  Developing	
  
Demonstrated	
   	
  Within	
  2	
  years	
   	
   	
  Expected	
  in	
  5	
  years	
  
	
  
N/A 	
   	
   	
  Inert	
  gas,	
  3D	
  printed 	
   	
  Micro	
  Electrospray	
  
	
   	
   	
  50	
  m/s	
   	
   	
   	
  300	
  m/s 	
  	
  
Propulsion	
  
Current 	
   	
  Emerging	
   	
   	
  Developing	
  
Demonstrated	
   	
  Within	
  2	
  years	
   	
   	
  Expected	
  in	
  5	
  years	
  
	
  
10	
  krad	
  Si	
  total	
  dose 	
  Selec1ve	
  hardened 	
   	
  Radia1on	
  hardened	
  bus	
  
12	
  months	
  LEO 	
  12	
  months	
  interplanetary 	
  Mul1-­‐year	
  interplanetary 	
  	
  
Radia5on	
  Tolerance	
  
Blue	
  Canyon	
  XACT	
  	
  
aUtude	
  control	
  system	
  
Astrium	
  LEON	
  microprocessor	
  
JPL	
  Indium	
  MEP	
  thruster	
  
Educational and Training Challenge
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
Ø  Education, mobilize workforce to
Ø  Develop new, more compact sensors and
systems
Ø  Analyze data with fundamental and
applied problems
Ø  Develop and run models for research
and forecasting
!
Space	
  Weather	
  Predic5on	
  Next	
  Steps:	
  
An	
  industry	
  and	
  military	
  perspec5ve
GeoOptics, Inc. Pasadena, CA
June 14, 2016
Dr. Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr. CEO
Vice Admiral, ret. USN
Slide Title
National Space Weather Strategy*
“The Nation must continue to leverage existing public and
private network of expertise and capabilities and pursue
targeted enhancements to improve the ability to manage risks
associated with space weather.”
“The Strategy and Action Plan build on recent efforts to
reduce risks associated with natural hazards and reduce
risks associated with natural hazards and improve resilience
of essential facilities and systems, aiming to foster a
collaborative environment in which government, industry,
and the American people can better understand and prepare
for the effects of space weather.”
.
Introduction
*https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/
final_nationalspaceweatherstrategy_20151028.pdf
Industry & Military Perspective
National Space Weather Strategy*
1.  Establish	
  Benchmarks	
  for	
  Space	
  Weather	
  Events	
  
2.  Enhance	
  Response	
  and	
  Recovery	
  Capabili1es	
  
3.  Improve	
  Protec1on	
  and	
  Mi1ga1on	
  Efforts	
  Public	
  Good	
  &	
  
Government	
  Control	
  
4.  Improve	
  Assessment,	
  Modeling,	
  and	
  Predic1on	
  of	
  Impacts	
  on	
  
Cri1cal	
  Infrastructure	
  
5.  Improve	
  Space	
  Weather	
  Services	
  through	
  Advancing	
  
Understanding	
  and	
  Forecas1ng	
  
6.  Increase	
  Interna1onal	
  Coopera1on	
  
Strategic Goals
*https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/
final_nationalspaceweatherstrategy_20151028.pdf
Industry & Military Perspective
American Commercial Space Weather Association
•  Algorithm development
•  Automatic event detections (flares, solar
energetic particles, geoeffective CMEs)
•  Calibration/validation
•  Data assimilation
•  GPS modeling and services
•  HF propagation
•  Numerical modeling and simulation
•  Sun, interplanetary medium
•  magnetosphere, ionosphere
•  thermosphere, lower atmosphere
•  Operational implementations /
Research to Operations (R2O)
•  Risk and threat analyses for
infrastructure and space resources
•  Satellite data analysis & data product
development
•  Sensor hardware & modeling
•  Software tools
•  Application development (web-based and
smart phone)
•  Data hosting / data product delivery
•  Data / model visualization
•  Space Situational Awareness (SSA)
•  Spacecraft anomaly prediction and
assessment
•  Space weather data product and
service distribution
•  Space weather now-casting/forecasting
Capabilities*
*http://www.acswa.us/capabilities.html
Industry & Military Perspective
Dilemma
?
Federal	
  
Budget	
  
National
needs
To Meet
Industry & Military Perspective
Partnership
Federal	
  
Budget	
  
National
needs
Gov’tGov’t
Space Weax
Academia
Space Weax
Commercial
Space Weax
Academia
Commercial
To Meet
Filled by:
Coordinated
National
Public
Private
Effort
Essential
Industry & Military Perspective
U.S. Government Space Policy*
•  Purchase	
  commercial	
  space	
  services	
  to	
  the	
  maximum	
  extent	
  	
  
•  Modify	
  commercial	
  space	
  services	
  when	
  cost	
  effec1ve	
  &	
  1mely	
  
•  Explore	
  nontradi1onal	
  arrangements	
  for	
  acquiring	
  commercial	
  space	
  services	
  
•  Develop	
  USG	
  space	
  systems	
  only	
  when	
  no	
  US	
  commercial	
  service	
  available	
  
•  Refrain	
  from	
  ac5vi5es	
  that	
  compete	
  with	
  US	
  commercial	
  space	
  ac5vi5es	
  
•  Pursue	
  opportuni5es	
  for	
  transferring	
  rou5ne	
  space	
  func5ons	
  to	
  the	
  
commercial	
  space	
  sector	
  
•  Cul1vate	
  entrepreneurship	
  in	
  the	
  commercial	
  space	
  sector	
  through	
  
incen1ves	
  	
  
•  Ensure	
  USG	
  space	
  technology	
  available	
  for	
  commercial	
  use	
  
To promote a robust domestic commercial space industry, agencies shall:
*http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/national_space_policy_6-28-10.pdf
Industry & Military Perspective
Space Weather Industry
Products and Services
Upstream
Mid-Stream
Downstream
•  Research
•  Observations
•  Instrumentation
•  Data
•  Data Processing
•  Computation
•  Algorithms
•  Models
•  Forecasts
•  Warnings
•  Services
•  Emergency Mgt
Value Chain
www.acswa.us
Industry & Military Perspective
Military Perspective
•  Solar	
  Storms	
  will	
  affect	
  military	
  opera1ons	
  and	
  readiness	
  
–  White	
  House	
  emergency	
  ac1on	
  will	
  be	
  ini1ated	
  based	
  on	
  current	
  plans	
  
–  Assets	
  may	
  have	
  to	
  be	
  moved	
  to	
  cover	
  areas	
  without	
  power	
  or	
  communica1on	
  
–  Reac1ons	
  are	
  1me	
  sensi1ve	
  	
  
–  Military	
  forces	
  rou1nely	
  train	
  for	
  defense	
  against	
  nuclear	
  warfare	
  scenarios	
  
•  Nuclear	
  Elector-­‐magne1c	
  Pulse	
  (EMP)	
  or	
  High	
  al1tude	
  EMP	
  (HEMP)	
  
–  Caused	
  by	
  nuclear	
  bomb	
  detona1on	
  
–  Effects	
  vary	
  based	
  of	
  al1tude	
  and	
  bomb	
  size	
  
–  Effects	
  (E3)	
  similar	
  to	
  a	
  geomagne1c	
  storm	
  caused	
  by	
  a	
  solar	
  flare	
  
–  Major	
  effects	
  include	
  communica1ons	
  disrup1ons	
  
–  Detona1on	
  in	
  outer	
  space	
  could	
  affect	
  long	
  term	
  viability	
  of	
  mul1ple	
  satellites	
  
•  2013,	
  House	
  considered	
  "Secure	
  High-­‐voltage	
  Infrastructure	
  for	
  Electricity	
  from	
  
Lethal	
  Damage	
  Act"	
  	
  	
  (surge	
  protec1on	
  ~300	
  large	
  transformers.)	
  
Download Slides
Research Frontiers In
Space Weather
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Research Frontiers in Space Weather, Part I

  • 1. Research Frontiers In Space Weather Dr. Scott W. McIntosh Director, High Altitude Observatory Associate Director, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • 2. We Live In The Atmosphere Of Our Star Research Frontiers In Space Weather Courtesy NASA/VisLab
  • 3. Space Weather Impacts on Society Research Frontiers In Space Weather The US research community is meeting a new National Space Weather strategy that will require parallel advances in observational and numerical science to improve forecast skill for critical systems. Power Grid VulnerabilityRaw Natural Beauty Space Infrastructure Vulnerability Financial System Vulnerability
  • 4. Critical Needs Research Frontiers In Space Weather The Storm Track of Hurricane Ike Improvements in Space Weather forecasting REQUIRE the improved estimates of the environment between Sun and Earth. Before   After  
  • 5. Improvements in Key Areas To Improve The Space Weather Enterprise Research Frontiers In Space Weather Ø  Observations of the Sun’s complete magnetic atmosphere. Ø  Observations of interplanetary space to track the disturbance. Ø  Observations of the magnetosphere/ionosphere Interface. Ø  End-to-end modeling capability to interpret the suite of observations. Ø  Capability to feed next-generation models with these new observations. Ø  Models to increase forecast capability to weeks and beyond…. Hunting for extreme event origins.
  • 6. Solar Observation Research Frontiers In Space Weather Ø  CoSMO is a suite of three instruments. Ø  CoSMO is capable of measuring the critical magneto-thermal environment of the inner solar system.
  • 7. Terrestrial Impact Research Frontiers In Space Weather The ionosphere is the nexus of space and weather in the Earth’s upper atmosphere. Next generation observations and models of the Earth’s upper atmosphere are required to study the balance of “bottom-up” and “top-down” influence on this region housing critical infrastructure.
  • 8. Data Assimilation Research Frontiers In Space Weather Space weather forecast skill will be increased by utilizing observations and models t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h d a t a a s s i m i l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s c o m m o n l y e x p l o i t e d i n terrestrial meteorology.
  • 9. Take Home Message & Hand Off Research Frontiers In Space Weather Ø  Space weather is a full-time concern. Ø  Benign and extreme flavors of space weather can impact society and critical infrastructure at different levels. Ø  There could be a hefty price to pay for negligence in forecasting episodes of extreme space weather. Ø  Improved observations and modeling capabilities working hand-in-hand are required to improve forecast skill. Ø  NCAR is working with the university community to develop key pieces of infrastructure at the critical boundaries of the Sun-Earth Connection.
  • 10. Research Frontiers in Space Weather, II Dr. Thomas H. Zurbuchen Professor, University of Michigan
  • 11. Nature of Space Weather in Research Community Research Frontiers In Space Weather Space  Weather  is  to  Space  Researchers   what  Cancer  is  to  Biological  Scien5sts:  A   way  to  demonstrate  the  value  and  impact   of  one’s  work!      
  • 12. Role of University Community Research Frontiers In Space Weather Ø  Fundamental research on physical processes through theoretical investigations, data analysis, and models Ø  Knowledge and understanding of instrument designs of instrument used today and needed in the future Ø  Applied research by building large-scale models, analysis of predictions and improved prediction methodologies Ø  Educate talent equipped with both skillsets
  • 13. Space Weather Facts Research Frontiers In Space Weather Ø  Small CMEs today affect operations of power grid at $10B/yr in USA and Europe alone Ø  A Carrington-like event is estimated to cause$2 trillion in damage Ø  The current estimate of occurrence of such an event is 12% in 10 years
  • 14. Key question Research Frontiers In Space Weather Ø  How do we get from forecasts of 48 minutes to forecasts of 48 hours? Ø  Modeling challenge, observational challenge, education challenge ?  
  • 15. Modeling Challenge: University of Michigan Space Weather Modeling Framework Research Frontiers In Space Weather Ø  Multi-physics, multi-scale system only addressed by SWMF. SWMF Control & Infrastructure Eruption Generator Solar Corona Inner Heliosphere Global Magnetosphere Polar Wind Inner Magnetosphere Ionospheric Electrodynamics Thermosphere & Ionosphere Solar Energetic Particles Radiation Belts 3D Outer Heliosphere Couplers Flare/CME Observations Upstream Monitors F10.7 Flux Gravity Waves Magneto- grams, rotation tomography Particle in Cell Particle Tracker Convection Zone
  • 16. NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Ran External Evaluation Research Frontiers In Space Weather Ø  The University of Michigan’s SWMF was ranked #1 in prediction skill among all available models Ø  Result: SWMF runs in predictive mode now 24/7 on NOAA’s super-computers
  • 17. March 2015 St Patrick’s Day Storm Research Frontiers In Space Weather
  • 18. New Architectures: Space Weather Distributed Sensor Network Research Frontiers In Space Weather Ø  Status quo: looking at Sun from Earth, L1, some observations in magnetosphere Ø  Future architectures: multi-point measurements of significantly cheaper spacecraft operated as system Ø  Discussed and recommended in new report by National Academies !
  • 19. New Architectures: Severe Storm Example Research Frontiers In Space Weather Ø  Eight nano-spacecraft provide comparable measurements at ~10% of cost, and with repeat times 5-10 times quicker than traditional technologies ! ! Cyclone  Global  Naviga1on   Satellite  System  (CYGNSS)    
  • 20. CubeSats as Development Platform Research Frontiers In Space Weather Current    Emerging      Developing   Demonstrated    Within  2  years      Expected  in  5  years     0.1  degrees    0.02  degrees      0.0003  degrees                                (arc-­‐minute)      (arc-­‐second)   AAtude  Control   Current    Emerging      Developing   Demonstrated    Within  2  years      Expected  in  5  years     N/A      Inert  gas,  3D  printed    Micro  Electrospray        50  m/s        300  m/s     Propulsion   Current    Emerging      Developing   Demonstrated    Within  2  years      Expected  in  5  years     10  krad  Si  total  dose  Selec1ve  hardened    Radia1on  hardened  bus   12  months  LEO  12  months  interplanetary  Mul1-­‐year  interplanetary     Radia5on  Tolerance   Blue  Canyon  XACT     aUtude  control  system   Astrium  LEON  microprocessor   JPL  Indium  MEP  thruster  
  • 21. Educational and Training Challenge Research Frontiers In Space Weather Ø  Education, mobilize workforce to Ø  Develop new, more compact sensors and systems Ø  Analyze data with fundamental and applied problems Ø  Develop and run models for research and forecasting !
  • 22. Space  Weather  Predic5on  Next  Steps:   An  industry  and  military  perspec5ve GeoOptics, Inc. Pasadena, CA June 14, 2016 Dr. Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr. CEO Vice Admiral, ret. USN
  • 23. Slide Title National Space Weather Strategy* “The Nation must continue to leverage existing public and private network of expertise and capabilities and pursue targeted enhancements to improve the ability to manage risks associated with space weather.” “The Strategy and Action Plan build on recent efforts to reduce risks associated with natural hazards and reduce risks associated with natural hazards and improve resilience of essential facilities and systems, aiming to foster a collaborative environment in which government, industry, and the American people can better understand and prepare for the effects of space weather.” . Introduction *https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ final_nationalspaceweatherstrategy_20151028.pdf
  • 24. Industry & Military Perspective National Space Weather Strategy* 1.  Establish  Benchmarks  for  Space  Weather  Events   2.  Enhance  Response  and  Recovery  Capabili1es   3.  Improve  Protec1on  and  Mi1ga1on  Efforts  Public  Good  &   Government  Control   4.  Improve  Assessment,  Modeling,  and  Predic1on  of  Impacts  on   Cri1cal  Infrastructure   5.  Improve  Space  Weather  Services  through  Advancing   Understanding  and  Forecas1ng   6.  Increase  Interna1onal  Coopera1on   Strategic Goals *https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ final_nationalspaceweatherstrategy_20151028.pdf
  • 25. Industry & Military Perspective American Commercial Space Weather Association •  Algorithm development •  Automatic event detections (flares, solar energetic particles, geoeffective CMEs) •  Calibration/validation •  Data assimilation •  GPS modeling and services •  HF propagation •  Numerical modeling and simulation •  Sun, interplanetary medium •  magnetosphere, ionosphere •  thermosphere, lower atmosphere •  Operational implementations / Research to Operations (R2O) •  Risk and threat analyses for infrastructure and space resources •  Satellite data analysis & data product development •  Sensor hardware & modeling •  Software tools •  Application development (web-based and smart phone) •  Data hosting / data product delivery •  Data / model visualization •  Space Situational Awareness (SSA) •  Spacecraft anomaly prediction and assessment •  Space weather data product and service distribution •  Space weather now-casting/forecasting Capabilities* *http://www.acswa.us/capabilities.html
  • 26. Industry & Military Perspective Dilemma ? Federal   Budget   National needs To Meet
  • 27. Industry & Military Perspective Partnership Federal   Budget   National needs Gov’tGov’t Space Weax Academia Space Weax Commercial Space Weax Academia Commercial To Meet Filled by: Coordinated National Public Private Effort Essential
  • 28. Industry & Military Perspective U.S. Government Space Policy* •  Purchase  commercial  space  services  to  the  maximum  extent     •  Modify  commercial  space  services  when  cost  effec1ve  &  1mely   •  Explore  nontradi1onal  arrangements  for  acquiring  commercial  space  services   •  Develop  USG  space  systems  only  when  no  US  commercial  service  available   •  Refrain  from  ac5vi5es  that  compete  with  US  commercial  space  ac5vi5es   •  Pursue  opportuni5es  for  transferring  rou5ne  space  func5ons  to  the   commercial  space  sector   •  Cul1vate  entrepreneurship  in  the  commercial  space  sector  through   incen1ves     •  Ensure  USG  space  technology  available  for  commercial  use   To promote a robust domestic commercial space industry, agencies shall: *http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/national_space_policy_6-28-10.pdf
  • 29. Industry & Military Perspective Space Weather Industry Products and Services Upstream Mid-Stream Downstream •  Research •  Observations •  Instrumentation •  Data •  Data Processing •  Computation •  Algorithms •  Models •  Forecasts •  Warnings •  Services •  Emergency Mgt Value Chain www.acswa.us
  • 30. Industry & Military Perspective Military Perspective •  Solar  Storms  will  affect  military  opera1ons  and  readiness   –  White  House  emergency  ac1on  will  be  ini1ated  based  on  current  plans   –  Assets  may  have  to  be  moved  to  cover  areas  without  power  or  communica1on   –  Reac1ons  are  1me  sensi1ve     –  Military  forces  rou1nely  train  for  defense  against  nuclear  warfare  scenarios   •  Nuclear  Elector-­‐magne1c  Pulse  (EMP)  or  High  al1tude  EMP  (HEMP)   –  Caused  by  nuclear  bomb  detona1on   –  Effects  vary  based  of  al1tude  and  bomb  size   –  Effects  (E3)  similar  to  a  geomagne1c  storm  caused  by  a  solar  flare   –  Major  effects  include  communica1ons  disrup1ons   –  Detona1on  in  outer  space  could  affect  long  term  viability  of  mul1ple  satellites   •  2013,  House  considered  "Secure  High-­‐voltage  Infrastructure  for  Electricity  from   Lethal  Damage  Act"      (surge  protec1on  ~300  large  transformers.)  
  • 31. Download Slides Research Frontiers In Space Weather PDF of Slides Available