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By
Pamela M. Veroy RN, MAN
 Ethical dilemmas – research problems in
which participants’ rights and study demands are
put in direct conflict
 Codes of Ethics – have been developed to
guide the efforts of researchers
 The term “ethics” – refers to questions of right
and wrong. The researcher must ask themselves
if it is right to conduct a study or investigate a
certain question.
 As conforming to the standards of conduct of a
given profession or group.
 The educator carries out the research with respect
and concern for the dignity and welfare of the
people who participate.
 Basic question to ask when researcher think about
“ethics”:
 “Will any physical or psychological harm
come to anyone as a result of my
research?”
1. Nuremberg Code –developed after the Nazi
atrocities were made public in the Nuremberg
trials
2. Declaration of Helsinki – adopted in 1964 by the
World Medical Association and then revised in
2000
3. Ethical Guidelines in the Conduct,
Dissemination, and Implementation of Nursing
Research (1995)
4. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of
Conduct (1992)
 1. The protection of participants from harm
 2. The ensuring of confidentiality of
research data
 3. The question of deception of the
subjects.
 How can these issues be addressed?
 How can the interests of the subjects
involved in research be protected?
 The Principle of Beneficence
 Wherein it encompasses the maxim: Above all, do no
harm.
a. Freedom from harm
b. Freedom from exploitation
c. Benefits from research
d. The risk/benefit ratio
 The researcher should carefully consider whether there
is any likelihood of risk involved, and if there is, provide
full information followed by formal consent to
participants (or their guardians).
 INFORMED CONSENT
 Means that participants have adequate
information regarding the research, are
capable of comprehending the
information, and have the power of free
choice, enabling them to consent to or
decline participation voluntarily.
 The risk/benefit ratio:
 Minimal risk – is defined as risks anticipated to
be no greater than those ordinarily encountered in
daily life or during routine physical or
psychological tests or procedures.
 Any sort of the study that is likely to cause lasting,
or even serious harm or discomfort to any
participant should not be considered, unless;
 The researcher has the potential to provide
information of extreme benefit to human beings..
No way required to participate.
 The Principle of Respect for Human Dignity
a. The right to self-determination
Self-determination – means that prospective
participants have the right to decide voluntarily
whether to participate in the study, without
risking any penalty or prejudicial treatment.
b. The right to full disclosure- the participants
should be fully informed of the dangers
involved
 The Principle of Justice
a. The right to fair treatment
b. The right to privacy
 Researcher should make sure that no one else (other
than perhaps a few key research assistants) had
access to the data.
 The name of the subjects should be removed and
must assign by letters or numbers (code) that not
even the researcher can link the data to the subject.
 The studies cannot be carried out unless
some deception of subjects takes place.
 Sometime it would be better if the researcher will
employ a “Confederate”.
 Sometimes it is better to deceive subjects than to
cause them pain or trauma.
 Example: The famous Milgram study of
obedience:
 To give electric shocks to another subject whom
they could not see sitting behind a screen.
 The dependent variable is the level of shock subjects
administered before they refused to administered
anymore.
 26 out of 40 followed the “orders”.
 FACTS: The individual who were administering the
shocks was a confederate of the experimenter, and
no shock were actually being administered.
 This study produced widespread controversy.
 The study not only has deception but also
harm; some participants could have suffered
emotionally from their actions.
 Current professional guidelines are as
follows:
 1. The study conducted must not use of any
means of deception towards the participants
 2. If alternative methods cannot be devised, the
researcher must determine whether the use of
deception is justified by the prospective study’s
scientific, educational, or applied value
 3. If the participants are deceived the researcher
must ensure that the participants are provided
with sufficient explanation as soon as possible.
 It affects the reputation of the scientific community
 The public would think that scientists and
researchers were liars; and the overall image of
science may suffer.
 Fewer and fewer people will be willing to
participate in research investigations.
 Our search for reliable knowledge about the world
may be impeded.
1. Participant status
2. Study goals
3. Type of data
4. Procedures
5. Nature of the commitment
6. Sponsorship
7. Participant selection
8. Potential risks
9. Potential benefits
10. Alternatives
11. Compensation
12. Confidentiality pledge
13. Voluntary consent
14. Right to withdraw and withhold information
15. Contact information
1. Children
2. Mentally or emotionally disabled people
3. Severely ill or physically disabled people
4. The terminally ill
5. Institutionalized people
6. Pregnant women
 Children are more vulnerable, have fewer legal
rights, and often do not understand the meaning
of “informed consent”.
 Require a group of high school sophomores to sign
a form in which they agree to participate in a
research study
 Asks first graders sensitive questions without
obtaining the consent of their parents to question
them
 Deletes data he collects that do not support his
hypotheses
 Requires university students to fill out a
questionnaire about their sexual practices
 Before any research involving human beings can
be conducted at an institution that receives federal
funds, it must be reviewed by an institutional
review board (IRB) at the institution.
 The federal agency that has the major
responsibility for establishing the guidelines for
research studies that involve human subjects is
the Department of Health (DOH) and Human
Services.
 Directions: Answer the following questions
 1. My research title is:_____________
 2. The possibilities for harm to participants (if any) are as
follows:_________________
 I would handle these problems as follows:___
 3. The possibilities of problems of confidentiality (if any)
are as follows:______
 I would handle these problems as follows:___
 4. The possibilities of problems of deception (if any) are
as follows:__________
 I would handle these problems as follows:___
 5. If you think your proposed study would fit the
guidelines for exempt status, state why
here:___________________
Research Ethics

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Research Ethics

  • 2.  Ethical dilemmas – research problems in which participants’ rights and study demands are put in direct conflict  Codes of Ethics – have been developed to guide the efforts of researchers  The term “ethics” – refers to questions of right and wrong. The researcher must ask themselves if it is right to conduct a study or investigate a certain question.
  • 3.  As conforming to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group.  The educator carries out the research with respect and concern for the dignity and welfare of the people who participate.  Basic question to ask when researcher think about “ethics”:  “Will any physical or psychological harm come to anyone as a result of my research?”
  • 4. 1. Nuremberg Code –developed after the Nazi atrocities were made public in the Nuremberg trials 2. Declaration of Helsinki – adopted in 1964 by the World Medical Association and then revised in 2000 3. Ethical Guidelines in the Conduct, Dissemination, and Implementation of Nursing Research (1995) 4. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (1992)
  • 5.  1. The protection of participants from harm  2. The ensuring of confidentiality of research data  3. The question of deception of the subjects.  How can these issues be addressed?  How can the interests of the subjects involved in research be protected?
  • 6.  The Principle of Beneficence  Wherein it encompasses the maxim: Above all, do no harm. a. Freedom from harm b. Freedom from exploitation c. Benefits from research d. The risk/benefit ratio  The researcher should carefully consider whether there is any likelihood of risk involved, and if there is, provide full information followed by formal consent to participants (or their guardians).
  • 7.  INFORMED CONSENT  Means that participants have adequate information regarding the research, are capable of comprehending the information, and have the power of free choice, enabling them to consent to or decline participation voluntarily.
  • 8.  The risk/benefit ratio:  Minimal risk – is defined as risks anticipated to be no greater than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during routine physical or psychological tests or procedures.  Any sort of the study that is likely to cause lasting, or even serious harm or discomfort to any participant should not be considered, unless;  The researcher has the potential to provide information of extreme benefit to human beings.. No way required to participate.
  • 9.  The Principle of Respect for Human Dignity a. The right to self-determination Self-determination – means that prospective participants have the right to decide voluntarily whether to participate in the study, without risking any penalty or prejudicial treatment. b. The right to full disclosure- the participants should be fully informed of the dangers involved
  • 10.  The Principle of Justice a. The right to fair treatment b. The right to privacy  Researcher should make sure that no one else (other than perhaps a few key research assistants) had access to the data.  The name of the subjects should be removed and must assign by letters or numbers (code) that not even the researcher can link the data to the subject.
  • 11.  The studies cannot be carried out unless some deception of subjects takes place.  Sometime it would be better if the researcher will employ a “Confederate”.  Sometimes it is better to deceive subjects than to cause them pain or trauma.  Example: The famous Milgram study of obedience:  To give electric shocks to another subject whom they could not see sitting behind a screen.
  • 12.  The dependent variable is the level of shock subjects administered before they refused to administered anymore.  26 out of 40 followed the “orders”.  FACTS: The individual who were administering the shocks was a confederate of the experimenter, and no shock were actually being administered.  This study produced widespread controversy.  The study not only has deception but also harm; some participants could have suffered emotionally from their actions.
  • 13.  Current professional guidelines are as follows:  1. The study conducted must not use of any means of deception towards the participants  2. If alternative methods cannot be devised, the researcher must determine whether the use of deception is justified by the prospective study’s scientific, educational, or applied value  3. If the participants are deceived the researcher must ensure that the participants are provided with sufficient explanation as soon as possible.
  • 14.  It affects the reputation of the scientific community  The public would think that scientists and researchers were liars; and the overall image of science may suffer.  Fewer and fewer people will be willing to participate in research investigations.  Our search for reliable knowledge about the world may be impeded.
  • 15. 1. Participant status 2. Study goals 3. Type of data 4. Procedures 5. Nature of the commitment 6. Sponsorship 7. Participant selection 8. Potential risks
  • 16. 9. Potential benefits 10. Alternatives 11. Compensation 12. Confidentiality pledge 13. Voluntary consent 14. Right to withdraw and withhold information 15. Contact information
  • 17. 1. Children 2. Mentally or emotionally disabled people 3. Severely ill or physically disabled people 4. The terminally ill 5. Institutionalized people 6. Pregnant women  Children are more vulnerable, have fewer legal rights, and often do not understand the meaning of “informed consent”.
  • 18.  Require a group of high school sophomores to sign a form in which they agree to participate in a research study  Asks first graders sensitive questions without obtaining the consent of their parents to question them  Deletes data he collects that do not support his hypotheses  Requires university students to fill out a questionnaire about their sexual practices
  • 19.  Before any research involving human beings can be conducted at an institution that receives federal funds, it must be reviewed by an institutional review board (IRB) at the institution.  The federal agency that has the major responsibility for establishing the guidelines for research studies that involve human subjects is the Department of Health (DOH) and Human Services.
  • 20.  Directions: Answer the following questions  1. My research title is:_____________  2. The possibilities for harm to participants (if any) are as follows:_________________  I would handle these problems as follows:___  3. The possibilities of problems of confidentiality (if any) are as follows:______  I would handle these problems as follows:___  4. The possibilities of problems of deception (if any) are as follows:__________  I would handle these problems as follows:___  5. If you think your proposed study would fit the guidelines for exempt status, state why here:___________________