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International Research Journal      ISSN-0975-3486       VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4         RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097

                                    Research Paper—Geography
                                     IDENTIFICATION OF SLUM
                                  ENVIRONMENT USING SATELLITE
                                      DATA: A CASE STUDY OF
                                         LATUR CITY (M.S.)
                                      *Dr. H. S. Waghmare **Dr. Suresh J. Phule
 Dec.-09—Jan.-2010                    ***Mr. S. R. Dharashive
            * Head, Dept. of Geography Sambhaji College, Murud (M.S.)
 **Reader & Research Guide Deptt. of Geog. Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur
         ***Department of Geography, R.S. Mahavidyalaya, Latur (M.S.)

 A B S T R A C T
     In this study, an attempt has been made to identify of slums using the (1m and 4m) satellite images and
     assessment of slum environment in GIS supported by ground verification. The slums were identified on
     the basis of visual interpretation and were captured manually using on-screen digitization method.
     Finally database was created and labeled with the help of necessary ground checks. The visual
     interpretation of the study area showed clearly the location and areal distribution of the slums. For
     this purpose, interpretation parameters like, pattern (layout), shape (roof types etc), size (small,
     medium, big), and tone and association were used. Then the slum areas were identified and labeled
     after detailed ground check. Detailed mapping of a particular slum area was carried out and data-
     base was prepared with the help of a structured questionnaire (household and physical infrastruc’ture).
     The parameters taken for the case study were individual condition of houses like: roof material, wall
     material, access to houses, drainage (water logged or not), water supply (per capita, stand pipes,
     duration of supply, and storage of water), electricity, sewerage/ sanitation and street lighting.

Introduction :                                            surroundings to improve quality of life of slum dwell-
In the developing countries like India, the acute prob-   ers. Under these circumstances, remote sensing plays
lem of slum formation is found not only in the big        a leading role by virtue of its repetitive and synoptic
cities but also in medium and small cities and towns.     coverage that may become a base map for many gov-
Due to rapid urbanization and consequent haphazard        ernment and semi government organization in a very
growth, most of these cities have become congested        rapidly growing urban area.
and unhygienic. It is clear that rapid processes of ac-   Objectives & Methodology :
cretion as a result of incessant flows of immigrants            The aim of the study was to locate slums and
caused the present changes in aerial size of slum. In     identify the physical characteristics of the slum areas
most of the municipal bodies proper up-to-date maps       that could be interpreted through high-resolution
of slums along with proper database and genesis of its    Ikonos satellite imagery. To present a comprehensive
growth are not available which create problem in de-      picture of the slums, two aspects, i.e. spatial distribu-
velopmental process. Thus, it is important to analyze     tion and growth, and physical infrastructural services
the slum formation, slum morphology and impact on         related to slums has been taken into account. High-
24
International Research Journal        ISSN-0975-3486       VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4             RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097
resolution satellite imagery (Ikonos satellite Data ac-     cost. It is observed that though the extent of slums
quired April 2000 was used to detect, identify and de-      area is more in residential pockets, but there is a tre-
lineate the slums in Latur to detect the changes that       mendous growth in the existing slum located along
has taken place in terms of new slum development and        the linear features like drainage channels, roads, and
to map condition of slum environment. GIS was used          railways and as a result mostly are linear in nature. The
to identify the slum areas that had fallen under flood      slums in inner city area are less in extent and are in
vulnerability.                                              stagnant situation than the slums in peripheries (as no
Analysis :                                                  provision for further growth is there).
Slums in Latur City as a Whole                                   In Latur, the slums, in inner city area did not regis-
     The slums are in the form of hutments, where there     ter any increase in number between 1996-2000, whereas
is no proper light, ventilation and other sanitary con-     the slums in the peripheral area registered a high
dition etc. it is generally observed that the land owner    growth. The internal land use and utility were studied
                                                            through satellite imagery and through field survey to
converts the plots irregular shape and of substandard
                                                            find out the causes for sporadic and haphazard devel-
area and sale them out to the needy person without
                                                            opment of Slums. The present study area constitute 7
having proper planning for their land. This has resulted
                                                            different slums , namely Ganjgolai, Ambedkar Nagar,
in unplanned development having a public amenities,         Budda Nagar, Mahada, Prakash Nagar, Nanded Naka,
no proper roads and sanitation for healthy develop-         Shideshwar Mandir road. Thus, the satellite imagery
ment of the town. To checkup and improvements of            was found very useful in marking the layout pattern of
such development a timely control is very necessary.        slums, by-lanes, counting the buildings (structures),
Municipal council, Latur has provided a list and map        water logged areas etc. However the imagery does not
of notified slums. There are 24 notified slums declared     show the activity within buildings, but show only the
in Maharashtra Govt. Gazette dt. 15/12/83, which in-        site adaptation. Detailed building uses e.g. the shops,
cludes an area about 215.92 ha. area in Latur city. The     small temples etc. could only be confirmed only dur-
slum expansion is due to the pressure of the popula-        ing field survey.
tion mostly on un-used, un-protected and un-suitable             Conclusions :
government land. In highly developed areas, the slum             Most of the slums have developed in the periph-
pockets do not expand as the land is not available for      ery along the natural drainage channels. Most of the
expansion and is better protected due to the higher         slums may wash out and may cause immense loss to

                                  Table-1: Composition of Roof Material
                 Ganjgolai    Ambedkar Budda     Mahada Nanded          Shideshwar Prakash                   Total
                               Nagar    Nagar                Naka         Mandir    Nagar
 Asbestos            24          13        20        30        32           22        11                      152
 Concret, Tin        5            2           4             5        17                12           25         70
 Concrete           78            70         105           195       114              148           75        785
 Co. & Plastic       1             0          0             2          0               0             2          5
 Co.&Tin            10             4          5            16          2               0             2         39
 Plastic             4             0          0             1         0                2             0          7
 Tin                 5             0          8            13         1                7             3         37
 Tin&Plastic        15            29         40            25         47              65            51        272
 Wo.& Pl.            0             0          2            0           0               0             0         2



çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ                                                                                     25
International Research Journal         ISSN-0975-3486           VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4        RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097
human life and property. Regarding the study area it most of the slums in Latur were formed by encroach-
has been observed that although most of the slums ing the major drainage channel, and flash flood may
are marginal slums, but the condition is not so bad in damage most of the slums located in this area. So,
terms of living. The large number of pakka houses, proper care, planning and management should be taken
better sanitation condition, available electricity, access to mitigate the flood risk vulnerability in slums. The
to house etc. gives us picture of a slum area having urban planner therefore, has to take these facts into
mixed socio-economic condition.                            consideration and also monitor the vulnerable areas
     From the above study it may be concluded that for checking the growth and expansion of the slums.
                                      Table-2: Composition of wall material
               Ganjgolai Ambedkar          Budda Mahada Nanded           Shideshwar Prakash           Total
                             Nagar         Nagar              Naka          Mandir       Nagar
  Brick           117             68          119        294         179           149           139          1065
  Brick and        -               -           -           1          -             -              -            1
  Stone
  Mud              1              -            -          5           5             -             12          23
  Mud and          -              -            -           -          3             -              -           3
  Plastic
  Plastic          -              -            -          -           -             8             6            14
  Tin              -              -            -          -           3             -             -            3
  nburned-        14              12           -         12           4             16             54          112
  Brick
  Wood             -              -            -          -           1             -             -            1
                                       Table-3: Physical Infrastructural Facilities
                Water Supply           Electric Supply Sanitation        Drainage            Street Lighting
                    Yes / No              Yes/ No              Yes / No        Yes / No           Yes / No
  Ganjgolai          83 / 49               96/ 36               84 / 48         40/ 92            62 / 70
  Am.Nagar             34 / 46            49/ 31                31/ 49           32/ 48            36 / 44
  Bu.Nagar             90 / 29            86/ 33                89 / 30          94/ 25            76 / 43
  Mahada               229 / 83          242/ 70               228 / 84         205 / 107         203 / 109
  Pra.Nagar            102/ 92           141 / 53              124 / 70          122 /72          103 / 91
  Na.Naka              87 / 86           130 / 43               116 / 57        105 / 68           62 / 111
  Shi.Mandir           77 / 135          147 / 65              108 / 104        194 / 18           41 / 171
  TOTAL             702 / 520             891/ 33             780 / 442        792 / 430          583 / 639


R E F E R E N C E
      1.Mohanan, G. et. all; 1983-84 ; Urban Landuse Survey: A Case Study of Coimbatore City; Unpublished Report, Human
Settlement Analysis Course, Indian Institute of Remote Sensing. 2. Lecture Notes; 2003: Human Settlement Analysis Division,
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing Publication 3. A to Z of Housing Census; Summary Results on Houses, Household Amenities
and Assets: Census of India, 2001 4. Socio-Economic Abstract of Latur district. 5. Town Planning Office, Latur. 6. www.
gis.com.’
26

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RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION

  • 1. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 Research Paper—Geography IDENTIFICATION OF SLUM ENVIRONMENT USING SATELLITE DATA: A CASE STUDY OF LATUR CITY (M.S.) *Dr. H. S. Waghmare **Dr. Suresh J. Phule Dec.-09—Jan.-2010 ***Mr. S. R. Dharashive * Head, Dept. of Geography Sambhaji College, Murud (M.S.) **Reader & Research Guide Deptt. of Geog. Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur ***Department of Geography, R.S. Mahavidyalaya, Latur (M.S.) A B S T R A C T In this study, an attempt has been made to identify of slums using the (1m and 4m) satellite images and assessment of slum environment in GIS supported by ground verification. The slums were identified on the basis of visual interpretation and were captured manually using on-screen digitization method. Finally database was created and labeled with the help of necessary ground checks. The visual interpretation of the study area showed clearly the location and areal distribution of the slums. For this purpose, interpretation parameters like, pattern (layout), shape (roof types etc), size (small, medium, big), and tone and association were used. Then the slum areas were identified and labeled after detailed ground check. Detailed mapping of a particular slum area was carried out and data- base was prepared with the help of a structured questionnaire (household and physical infrastruc’ture). The parameters taken for the case study were individual condition of houses like: roof material, wall material, access to houses, drainage (water logged or not), water supply (per capita, stand pipes, duration of supply, and storage of water), electricity, sewerage/ sanitation and street lighting. Introduction : surroundings to improve quality of life of slum dwell- In the developing countries like India, the acute prob- ers. Under these circumstances, remote sensing plays lem of slum formation is found not only in the big a leading role by virtue of its repetitive and synoptic cities but also in medium and small cities and towns. coverage that may become a base map for many gov- Due to rapid urbanization and consequent haphazard ernment and semi government organization in a very growth, most of these cities have become congested rapidly growing urban area. and unhygienic. It is clear that rapid processes of ac- Objectives & Methodology : cretion as a result of incessant flows of immigrants The aim of the study was to locate slums and caused the present changes in aerial size of slum. In identify the physical characteristics of the slum areas most of the municipal bodies proper up-to-date maps that could be interpreted through high-resolution of slums along with proper database and genesis of its Ikonos satellite imagery. To present a comprehensive growth are not available which create problem in de- picture of the slums, two aspects, i.e. spatial distribu- velopmental process. Thus, it is important to analyze tion and growth, and physical infrastructural services the slum formation, slum morphology and impact on related to slums has been taken into account. High- 24
  • 2. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 resolution satellite imagery (Ikonos satellite Data ac- cost. It is observed that though the extent of slums quired April 2000 was used to detect, identify and de- area is more in residential pockets, but there is a tre- lineate the slums in Latur to detect the changes that mendous growth in the existing slum located along has taken place in terms of new slum development and the linear features like drainage channels, roads, and to map condition of slum environment. GIS was used railways and as a result mostly are linear in nature. The to identify the slum areas that had fallen under flood slums in inner city area are less in extent and are in vulnerability. stagnant situation than the slums in peripheries (as no Analysis : provision for further growth is there). Slums in Latur City as a Whole In Latur, the slums, in inner city area did not regis- The slums are in the form of hutments, where there ter any increase in number between 1996-2000, whereas is no proper light, ventilation and other sanitary con- the slums in the peripheral area registered a high dition etc. it is generally observed that the land owner growth. The internal land use and utility were studied through satellite imagery and through field survey to converts the plots irregular shape and of substandard find out the causes for sporadic and haphazard devel- area and sale them out to the needy person without opment of Slums. The present study area constitute 7 having proper planning for their land. This has resulted different slums , namely Ganjgolai, Ambedkar Nagar, in unplanned development having a public amenities, Budda Nagar, Mahada, Prakash Nagar, Nanded Naka, no proper roads and sanitation for healthy develop- Shideshwar Mandir road. Thus, the satellite imagery ment of the town. To checkup and improvements of was found very useful in marking the layout pattern of such development a timely control is very necessary. slums, by-lanes, counting the buildings (structures), Municipal council, Latur has provided a list and map water logged areas etc. However the imagery does not of notified slums. There are 24 notified slums declared show the activity within buildings, but show only the in Maharashtra Govt. Gazette dt. 15/12/83, which in- site adaptation. Detailed building uses e.g. the shops, cludes an area about 215.92 ha. area in Latur city. The small temples etc. could only be confirmed only dur- slum expansion is due to the pressure of the popula- ing field survey. tion mostly on un-used, un-protected and un-suitable Conclusions : government land. In highly developed areas, the slum Most of the slums have developed in the periph- pockets do not expand as the land is not available for ery along the natural drainage channels. Most of the expansion and is better protected due to the higher slums may wash out and may cause immense loss to Table-1: Composition of Roof Material Ganjgolai Ambedkar Budda Mahada Nanded Shideshwar Prakash Total Nagar Nagar Naka Mandir Nagar Asbestos 24 13 20 30 32 22 11 152 Concret, Tin 5 2 4 5 17 12 25 70 Concrete 78 70 105 195 114 148 75 785 Co. & Plastic 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 5 Co.&Tin 10 4 5 16 2 0 2 39 Plastic 4 0 0 1 0 2 0 7 Tin 5 0 8 13 1 7 3 37 Tin&Plastic 15 29 40 25 47 65 51 272 Wo.& Pl. 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 25
  • 3. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 human life and property. Regarding the study area it most of the slums in Latur were formed by encroach- has been observed that although most of the slums ing the major drainage channel, and flash flood may are marginal slums, but the condition is not so bad in damage most of the slums located in this area. So, terms of living. The large number of pakka houses, proper care, planning and management should be taken better sanitation condition, available electricity, access to mitigate the flood risk vulnerability in slums. The to house etc. gives us picture of a slum area having urban planner therefore, has to take these facts into mixed socio-economic condition. consideration and also monitor the vulnerable areas From the above study it may be concluded that for checking the growth and expansion of the slums. Table-2: Composition of wall material Ganjgolai Ambedkar Budda Mahada Nanded Shideshwar Prakash Total Nagar Nagar Naka Mandir Nagar Brick 117 68 119 294 179 149 139 1065 Brick and - - - 1 - - - 1 Stone Mud 1 - - 5 5 - 12 23 Mud and - - - - 3 - - 3 Plastic Plastic - - - - - 8 6 14 Tin - - - - 3 - - 3 nburned- 14 12 - 12 4 16 54 112 Brick Wood - - - - 1 - - 1 Table-3: Physical Infrastructural Facilities Water Supply Electric Supply Sanitation Drainage Street Lighting Yes / No Yes/ No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Ganjgolai 83 / 49 96/ 36 84 / 48 40/ 92 62 / 70 Am.Nagar 34 / 46 49/ 31 31/ 49 32/ 48 36 / 44 Bu.Nagar 90 / 29 86/ 33 89 / 30 94/ 25 76 / 43 Mahada 229 / 83 242/ 70 228 / 84 205 / 107 203 / 109 Pra.Nagar 102/ 92 141 / 53 124 / 70 122 /72 103 / 91 Na.Naka 87 / 86 130 / 43 116 / 57 105 / 68 62 / 111 Shi.Mandir 77 / 135 147 / 65 108 / 104 194 / 18 41 / 171 TOTAL 702 / 520 891/ 33 780 / 442 792 / 430 583 / 639 R E F E R E N C E 1.Mohanan, G. et. all; 1983-84 ; Urban Landuse Survey: A Case Study of Coimbatore City; Unpublished Report, Human Settlement Analysis Course, Indian Institute of Remote Sensing. 2. Lecture Notes; 2003: Human Settlement Analysis Division, Indian Institute of Remote Sensing Publication 3. A to Z of Housing Census; Summary Results on Houses, Household Amenities and Assets: Census of India, 2001 4. Socio-Economic Abstract of Latur district. 5. Town Planning Office, Latur. 6. www. gis.com.’ 26