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BIS-2012
Management in IT
 Anna Somozo  Jung Tubo
Master in Public Management (MPM-ZSCMST)
2
Constantly talking isn’t necessarily
communicating
- Joel in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind
DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION
• Communication means an exchange of facts, ideas,
opinions, information or emotions by two or more
persons -Newman & Summer
• Communication is the transfer and understanding of
meaning - Robbins & Coulter
• Communication is a process which aims to transfer and
implement the meaning of symbols from one person,
group or organization to another
3
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS
• Organizational communication is the process by
which activities of an organization are collected and
coordinated to reach the goals of both individuals and the
organization”
• It is the information flow that happens in an organization but
the flow of information has got a structure , direction and
process.
• It flows through its organizational structure, which affects:
 behavior
 human relations
 performance
4
5
ELEMENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
The Sender – initiates message
Encoding – translating thought to message
The Message – what is communicated
The Channel – the medium the message travels through
Decoding – the receiver’s action in making sense of the message
The Receiver – person who gets the message
Noise – things that interfere with the message
Feedback – a return message regarding the initial communication
6
COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Source: Organizational Behaviour (15e) – Stephen P Robbins & Timothy A Judge
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
7
Types of Channels
Formal Channels
Are established by the organization and transmit
messages that are related to the professional
activities of members.
Informal Channels
Used to transmit personal or social messages in the
organization. These informal channels are
spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual
choices.
WAYS OF COMMUNICATION BY CHANNELS
Formal Channels Informal Channels
For Top Management
Memoranda Hosted meals
Policy issuances/statements Use of key informants like
secretaries, aids , runners
Meetings (board, ex-com)
Conferences, briefings
For Middle Management
Memoranda Informal meetings
Reports Liaisons, cliques
Meetings (committee, staff) Bridges
Conference
For Rank and File
Meetings (unions, associations) Small talk
Letters Grapevine
8
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
The Grapevine:
 Informal communication network in organization
Gossip
Rumors
the appointment of new bosses
the relocation of offices
downsizing decisions
or the realignment of work assignments.
9
TWO GRAPEVINE CHAINS
10
Source: Based on Keith Davis and John W. Newstrom, Human Behavior at Work: Organizational Behavior, 7th
ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985).
11
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
• The Grapevine – Why need ?
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
Number of People Involved:
1. Intrapersonal communication
2. Interpersonal communication
3. Group communication
4. Mass communication
12
INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
• This occurs when the sender and the
receiver of the message is one and the
same person, as in someone talking to
himself.
• This could involve self-rationalizing,
daydreaming, or conscience examination.
• This is usually done quietly
13
14
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Oral Communication
Advantages : Speed and feedback.
Disadvantage : Distortion of the message.
15
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Written Communication
 Advantages : Tangible and verifiable.
 Disadvantages : Time consuming and
lacks feedback.
16
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Communication
Advantages : Supports other communications
and provides observable
expression of emotions and
feelings.
Disadvantage : Misperception of body language
or gestures can influence
receiver’s interpretation of
message.
17
GROUP COMMUNICATION AND MASS
COMMUNICATION
GROUP COMMUNICATION
•The process involves several people. A meeting of the
supervisor and the employees in his unit.
MASS COMMUNICATION
•This takes place with an indefinite number of people
which some would term as a faceless audience
18
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Give fuller meaning to
message
Can change
message’s
meaning
Show more emotion
How closer the
relationship
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
Levels of Source and Receiver:
1. Downward
2. Upward
3. Horizontal
4. Circular
5. Cross-Channel/ Diagonal Communication
19
20
DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION
Vertical communication
Horizontal/Lateral communication
Downward Upward
DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION
• Flows from top to bottom, from higher to
lower authority
• Main motivation of downward
communication is to guide and direct the
behavior of those individual as the lower
organization
21
• Communication that flows Downward
from a manager to employees is known
as downward communication.
• It is used to inform , direct , coordinate
and evaluate employees e.g
1. Managers assign goals to their
employees
2. Provide job description
3. Inform about policies and
procedures.
4. Evaluate employee performance.
MERITS DEMERITS
 Helps to get things done
 Serves as the basis of
supervision , motivation
and leadership.
 Keeps employees
informed about plans
and decisions.
 Conveys assessment of
work.
• Long time in
transmission
• Message maybe partly
lost in transmission.
• Distorted information
DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION
UPWARD COMMUNICATION
• Opposite of downward communications
• The group below feels free to initiate and
suggest new programs and projects which
are welcomed by management
• Main aim is to provide higher
organizational levels with information
about what is going on down below
25
• Managers rely on their employees for
information. It keeps managers aware of
how employees feel about their jobs, their
co-workers and the organization in general.
Managers also rely on this for ideas how
things can be improved.
Examples :
1.Reports on performance, suggestions ,
grievances and complaints, appeals
2.Messages in suggestion boxes.
3.Employee attitude surveys.
MERITS DEMERITS
• Necessary feedback.
• Well informed about the
progress of work and
difficulties faced in its
performance.
• Reveals what employees
think of the organization
• Provides constructive
suggestions
• Opportunities to express
problems and grievances.
 Employees hesitate to
communicate upward.
 Criticism maybe
interpreted as a sign of
their own weakness.
 More prone to distortion.
 Depends upon the attitude
of the top management.
UPWARD COMMUNICATION
HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION
• Communication across rather than along
the formal chain of command
• Individuals communicate with others who
are on the same level
• Its main motivation is “task-oriented”
29
HORIZONTAL/LATERAL COMMUNICATION
MERITS DEMERITS
 Facilitates cooperation and
communication between
various departments.
 Helpful for resolving inter-
related problems of two or
more departments.
 Enables exchange of
information without
referring all matters to
higher authorities.
• Persons at same level
maybe reluctant to initiate
communication.
• Inter group rivalry is a
source of potential
conflicts.
CIRCULAR COMMUNICATION
• Starts at any point or level
• Moves on to another point or level
• Moves back and forth in either formal or
informal progression or retrogression
32
CROSS-CHANNEL/DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION
• The direction of information flow takes
this type of communication in inter-unit
exchanges, or in co-orientation activities
• Communication flows across the chain of
command
33
DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION
MERITS DEMERITS
• Helps to speed up flow of
communication by cutting
across departmental
barriers.
• Highly required when Line
managers delegate
functional authority to line
or staff units.
• Violates the principle of
Scalar Chain
• Creates confusion and
conflict as it is contrary to
the principle of Unity of
Command.
©
2005
Prentice
Hall Inc. All
rights
reserved.
10–35
COMPUTER-AIDED COMMUNICATION
• E-mail
Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored;
low cost for distribution.
Disadvantages: information overload, lack of
emotional content, cold and impersonal.
• Instant messaging
Advantage: “real time” e-mail transmitted straight
to the receiver’s desktop.
Disadvantage: can be intrusive and distracting.
©
2005
Prentice
Hall Inc. All
rights
reserved.
10–36
COMPUTER-AIDED COMMUNICATION
• Intranet
A private organization-wide information network.
• Extranet
An information network connecting employees
with external suppliers, customers, and strategic
partners.
• Videoconferencing
An extension of an intranet or extranet that
permits face-to-face virtual meetings via video
links.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE QUALITY OF
COMMUNICATION
37
 Goal Clarity
 Sender
 Receiver
 Shared experience
 Symbol
 Medium
 Pathways
 Information overload
 Feedback
38
 Goal Clarity
- Ultimate goal of communication is to
share meanings and to arrive at the
outcome for which communication is
intended
39
 Sender
- the person or the sender (his qualities,
characteristics, status, role) affects the
communication flows
40
 Receiver
- the person or the recipient (his
qualities, characteristics, status, role,
emotional state) is a factor in the success
or failure of communication
41
 Shared experience
- experience common to participants
helps enhance communication process.
The greater the area of shared experience,
the greater the likelihood that
communication would succeed
42
 Symbol
- communication is largely symbolic. It
is achieved through the use of symbols –
both verbal and non-verbal.
43
 Medium
- it used depends on the content,
objectives, scope of message; the sender’s
choice, resources, skills; the size of the
group to which the message is to be sent
and the time available to formulate the
message
44
 Pathways
- the passages through which the
message travels can either be clear or
clogged up with physical or psychological
disturbances
45
 Information Overload
- due to fast technological processes of
accumulating and transmitting information
thru the radio, television, satellite
network, telecommunications,
newspapers, etc. many of our “managers
are drowning in a flood of numbers, data,
information and indices, and their failure
to cope effectively with such information
overload will have serious and even
disastrous consequences not only for their
organizations but for our entire economy”
46
 Feedback
- Effective interpersonal
communication is achieved only when the
sender obtains the intended response(s)
from the receiver
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
47
1. Physical Barriers
2. Social Barriers
3. Psychological Barriers

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Report Presentation on Human Behavior in Organization on Communication

  • 1. CO M M UN ICATIO N CO M M UN ICATIO N BIS-2012 Management in IT  Anna Somozo  Jung Tubo Master in Public Management (MPM-ZSCMST)
  • 2. 2 Constantly talking isn’t necessarily communicating - Joel in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind
  • 3. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION • Communication means an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions, information or emotions by two or more persons -Newman & Summer • Communication is the transfer and understanding of meaning - Robbins & Coulter • Communication is a process which aims to transfer and implement the meaning of symbols from one person, group or organization to another 3
  • 4. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS • Organizational communication is the process by which activities of an organization are collected and coordinated to reach the goals of both individuals and the organization” • It is the information flow that happens in an organization but the flow of information has got a structure , direction and process. • It flows through its organizational structure, which affects:  behavior  human relations  performance 4
  • 5. 5 ELEMENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS The Sender – initiates message Encoding – translating thought to message The Message – what is communicated The Channel – the medium the message travels through Decoding – the receiver’s action in making sense of the message The Receiver – person who gets the message Noise – things that interfere with the message Feedback – a return message regarding the initial communication
  • 6. 6 COMMUNICATION PROCESS Source: Organizational Behaviour (15e) – Stephen P Robbins & Timothy A Judge
  • 7. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS 7 Types of Channels Formal Channels Are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members. Informal Channels Used to transmit personal or social messages in the organization. These informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices.
  • 8. WAYS OF COMMUNICATION BY CHANNELS Formal Channels Informal Channels For Top Management Memoranda Hosted meals Policy issuances/statements Use of key informants like secretaries, aids , runners Meetings (board, ex-com) Conferences, briefings For Middle Management Memoranda Informal meetings Reports Liaisons, cliques Meetings (committee, staff) Bridges Conference For Rank and File Meetings (unions, associations) Small talk Letters Grapevine 8
  • 9. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION The Grapevine:  Informal communication network in organization Gossip Rumors the appointment of new bosses the relocation of offices downsizing decisions or the realignment of work assignments. 9
  • 10. TWO GRAPEVINE CHAINS 10 Source: Based on Keith Davis and John W. Newstrom, Human Behavior at Work: Organizational Behavior, 7th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985).
  • 11. 11 ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION • The Grapevine – Why need ?
  • 12. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Number of People Involved: 1. Intrapersonal communication 2. Interpersonal communication 3. Group communication 4. Mass communication 12
  • 13. INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION • This occurs when the sender and the receiver of the message is one and the same person, as in someone talking to himself. • This could involve self-rationalizing, daydreaming, or conscience examination. • This is usually done quietly 13
  • 14. 14 INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Oral Communication Advantages : Speed and feedback. Disadvantage : Distortion of the message.
  • 15. 15 INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Written Communication  Advantages : Tangible and verifiable.  Disadvantages : Time consuming and lacks feedback.
  • 16. 16 INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Nonverbal Communication Advantages : Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings. Disadvantage : Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver’s interpretation of message.
  • 17. 17 GROUP COMMUNICATION AND MASS COMMUNICATION GROUP COMMUNICATION •The process involves several people. A meeting of the supervisor and the employees in his unit. MASS COMMUNICATION •This takes place with an indefinite number of people which some would term as a faceless audience
  • 18. 18 INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Give fuller meaning to message Can change message’s meaning Show more emotion How closer the relationship
  • 19. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Levels of Source and Receiver: 1. Downward 2. Upward 3. Horizontal 4. Circular 5. Cross-Channel/ Diagonal Communication 19
  • 20. 20 DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION Vertical communication Horizontal/Lateral communication Downward Upward
  • 21. DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION • Flows from top to bottom, from higher to lower authority • Main motivation of downward communication is to guide and direct the behavior of those individual as the lower organization 21
  • 22. • Communication that flows Downward from a manager to employees is known as downward communication. • It is used to inform , direct , coordinate and evaluate employees e.g 1. Managers assign goals to their employees 2. Provide job description 3. Inform about policies and procedures. 4. Evaluate employee performance.
  • 23. MERITS DEMERITS  Helps to get things done  Serves as the basis of supervision , motivation and leadership.  Keeps employees informed about plans and decisions.  Conveys assessment of work. • Long time in transmission • Message maybe partly lost in transmission. • Distorted information DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION
  • 24.
  • 25. UPWARD COMMUNICATION • Opposite of downward communications • The group below feels free to initiate and suggest new programs and projects which are welcomed by management • Main aim is to provide higher organizational levels with information about what is going on down below 25
  • 26. • Managers rely on their employees for information. It keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, their co-workers and the organization in general. Managers also rely on this for ideas how things can be improved. Examples : 1.Reports on performance, suggestions , grievances and complaints, appeals 2.Messages in suggestion boxes. 3.Employee attitude surveys.
  • 27.
  • 28. MERITS DEMERITS • Necessary feedback. • Well informed about the progress of work and difficulties faced in its performance. • Reveals what employees think of the organization • Provides constructive suggestions • Opportunities to express problems and grievances.  Employees hesitate to communicate upward.  Criticism maybe interpreted as a sign of their own weakness.  More prone to distortion.  Depends upon the attitude of the top management. UPWARD COMMUNICATION
  • 29. HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION • Communication across rather than along the formal chain of command • Individuals communicate with others who are on the same level • Its main motivation is “task-oriented” 29
  • 30.
  • 31. HORIZONTAL/LATERAL COMMUNICATION MERITS DEMERITS  Facilitates cooperation and communication between various departments.  Helpful for resolving inter- related problems of two or more departments.  Enables exchange of information without referring all matters to higher authorities. • Persons at same level maybe reluctant to initiate communication. • Inter group rivalry is a source of potential conflicts.
  • 32. CIRCULAR COMMUNICATION • Starts at any point or level • Moves on to another point or level • Moves back and forth in either formal or informal progression or retrogression 32
  • 33. CROSS-CHANNEL/DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION • The direction of information flow takes this type of communication in inter-unit exchanges, or in co-orientation activities • Communication flows across the chain of command 33
  • 34. DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION MERITS DEMERITS • Helps to speed up flow of communication by cutting across departmental barriers. • Highly required when Line managers delegate functional authority to line or staff units. • Violates the principle of Scalar Chain • Creates confusion and conflict as it is contrary to the principle of Unity of Command.
  • 35. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 10–35 COMPUTER-AIDED COMMUNICATION • E-mail Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution. Disadvantages: information overload, lack of emotional content, cold and impersonal. • Instant messaging Advantage: “real time” e-mail transmitted straight to the receiver’s desktop. Disadvantage: can be intrusive and distracting.
  • 36. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 10–36 COMPUTER-AIDED COMMUNICATION • Intranet A private organization-wide information network. • Extranet An information network connecting employees with external suppliers, customers, and strategic partners. • Videoconferencing An extension of an intranet or extranet that permits face-to-face virtual meetings via video links.
  • 37. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE QUALITY OF COMMUNICATION 37  Goal Clarity  Sender  Receiver  Shared experience  Symbol  Medium  Pathways  Information overload  Feedback
  • 38. 38  Goal Clarity - Ultimate goal of communication is to share meanings and to arrive at the outcome for which communication is intended
  • 39. 39  Sender - the person or the sender (his qualities, characteristics, status, role) affects the communication flows
  • 40. 40  Receiver - the person or the recipient (his qualities, characteristics, status, role, emotional state) is a factor in the success or failure of communication
  • 41. 41  Shared experience - experience common to participants helps enhance communication process. The greater the area of shared experience, the greater the likelihood that communication would succeed
  • 42. 42  Symbol - communication is largely symbolic. It is achieved through the use of symbols – both verbal and non-verbal.
  • 43. 43  Medium - it used depends on the content, objectives, scope of message; the sender’s choice, resources, skills; the size of the group to which the message is to be sent and the time available to formulate the message
  • 44. 44  Pathways - the passages through which the message travels can either be clear or clogged up with physical or psychological disturbances
  • 45. 45  Information Overload - due to fast technological processes of accumulating and transmitting information thru the radio, television, satellite network, telecommunications, newspapers, etc. many of our “managers are drowning in a flood of numbers, data, information and indices, and their failure to cope effectively with such information overload will have serious and even disastrous consequences not only for their organizations but for our entire economy”
  • 46. 46  Feedback - Effective interpersonal communication is achieved only when the sender obtains the intended response(s) from the receiver
  • 47. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION 47 1. Physical Barriers 2. Social Barriers 3. Psychological Barriers

Editor's Notes

  1. - Face-to-face , Telephone, Group meetings, Formal presentations, Hotlines, Computer conferencing Teleconferences, Videoconferences - In an organization, where decisions and other communiqués are verbally passed up and down the authority hierarchy, considerable opportunities arise for messages to become distorted.
  2. For complex and lengthy communication More likely to be well thought out, logical and clear - Fax machines, Employee publications, Bulletin boards, Audio and video tapes, Memos, Traditional Mail, Voice mail, E-mail - written communications are more likely to be well thought out, logical, and clear.
  3. The use of TV, radio, newspaper, magazines and billboard fall under this category
  4. May stand alone / together with verbal message - Body language: A body position or movement can communicate something of the emotion behind a message, but when it is linked with spoken language, it gives fuller meaning to a sender’s message. - intonations: can change the meaning of a message. - Facial expressions: show arrogance, aggressiveness, fear, shyness, and other characteristics
  5. To engage in effective upward communication, try to - reduce distractions (meet in a conference room if you can, rather than your boss’s office or cubicle), communicate in headlines not paragraphs (your goal is to get your boss’s attention, not to engage in a meandering discussion), support your headlines with actionable items (what you believe should happen), and prepare an agenda to make sure you use your boss’s attention well.
  6. Feelings of employees about their job About the organization or about their immediate supervisors Prospects for promotion, complaints, suggestions, clarification of roles, functions, tasks
  7. It utilizes activity: Coordination of work assignment Sharing information and plans Joint problem solving, conciliation, negotiation, settlement of differences, developing of interpersonal relations