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A STUDY OF MANUFACTURING OF STEAM TURBINES
AT
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRIALS LIMITED, HYDERABAD
SUMMER TRAINING
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirement for Award of the Degree
Of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
By
I VISWANATH RAJU
11707458
Under the Guidance of
MR. RAJESHWARA CHARY
DEPUTY MANAGER
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY
PHAGWARA, PUNJAB (INDIA) -144402
2019
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Lovely Professional University
CERTIFICATE
I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the industrial summer training
entitled “A STUDY OF MANUFACTURING OF STEAM TURBINES” in partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology and
submitted in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Punjab
is an authentic record of my own work carried out during period of summer training under
the supervision of Mr. RAJESHWARA CHARY, Deputy Manager, Department of
“Manufacturing” “BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED”,
The matter presented in this summer training has not been submitted by me anywhere
for the award of any other degree or to any other Institute.
Date: I. VISWANATH RAJU
This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to best of
my knowledge.
Date: MR. RAJESHWARA CHARY
Deputy Manager
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AKNOWLEDGEMENT
The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of the task would be incomplete
without mentioning the people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible, whose constant
guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with success.
I am highly thankful to B.H.E.L engineers and technical staff on providing us vital and valuable
information about the different facets of an industrial management system.
I also extend my sincere gratitude to Mr. Srinivas Rao (AGM, BHEL) with whose kind
permission this project could shape into success.
I express my gratitude to Human Resource and Development department for giving us a chance
to feel the industrial environment and its working in B.H.E.L and we are thankful to Mr.
Rajeshwara Chary M (Deputy manager) for giving his precious time and help us in
understanding various theoretical and practical aspect of our project on Steam turbines
manufacturing under whose kind supervision we accomplished our project.
I. VISWANATH RAJU
REG.NO:11707458
B. Tech (Mechanical), 2rd year
LPU, JALANDHAR
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DECLARATION
I, I. Viswanath Raju, hereby declare that the Summer Training Report, entitled “A Study
of Manufacturing of Steam Turbines”, submitted to the LPU in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology is a record of original
training undergone by me during the period June-July 2019 under the supervision and
guidance of Mr. Rajeshwara Chary Deputy Manager, Technical Department, BHEL, and
it has not formed the basis for the award of any Degree/Fellowship or other similar title to
any candidate of any University.
Place: Signature of the Student
Date:
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TABLE OF CONTENT
CERTIFICATE OF THE COLLEGE……………………………………………………………. i
CERTIFICATE OF THE COMPANY…………………………………………………………… ii
AKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………………...iii
DECLARATION………………………………………………………………………………….... iv
TABLE OF CONTENT….……………………………………………………………………….... v
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………………………vii
1. INTRODUCTION TO BHEL HYDERABAD……………………………………………..1
1.1 AN OVERVIEW………………………………………………………………….......2
1.2 VARIOUS FACTORIES OF BHEL AND THEIR MAIN PRODUCTS…………….3
1.3 BHEL HYDERABAD SHOPS AND ITS PRODUCTS…………………………......3
2. THERMAL POWER PLANT SYSTEM..……………………………………………...6
2.1 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF THERMAL POWER PLANT…………………………7
2.2 WORKING PROCESS………………………………………………………………..7
2.3 COAL HANDLING PLANT………………………………………………………….7
2.4 AIR HANDLING PLANT…………………………………………………………….8
2.5 BOILER SECTION……………………………………………………………………8
2.6 TURBINE SECTION………………………………………………………………….9
2.7 CONDENSER SECTION……………………………………………………………..9
2.8 EFFICIENCY OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT………………………………….10
3. RANKINE CYCLE……………………………………………………………………..11
3.1 T-S DIAGRAM OF RANKINE CYCLE………………………………………….…11
3.2 THE FOUR PROCESSES IN THE RANKINE CYCL………………………….…..12
3.3 RANKINE CYCLE WITH REHEAT………………………………………….…….12
3.4 REGENERATIVE RANKINE CYCLE……………………………………………...13
3.5 PARAMETERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF RANKINE CYCLE…….14
4. STEAM TURBINES……………………………………………………………………15
4.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION…………………………………………………………16
4.2 PARTS OF STEAM TURBINES…………………………………………………....17
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5. TYPES OF TURBINES………………………………………………………………….21
5.1 IMPULSE TURBINE……………………………………………………………....…21
5.2 REACTION TURBINE…………………………………………………………....….21
5.3 BLADE AND STAGE DESIGN………………………………………………….…..23
5.4 STEAM SUPPLY AND EXHAUST CONDITIONS………………………….……..24
6. COMPOUNDING OF STEAM TURBINES……………………………………….…..26
6.1 VELOCITY COMPOUNDING…………………………………………………….…26
6.2 PRESSURE COMPOUNDING…………………………………………………….…27
6.3 PRESSURE-VELOCITY COMPOUNDING………………………………………....28
7. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF STEAM TURBINE BLADES……………....…29
8. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………….......35
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LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 1: Classification of turbines according to BHEL…………………………………….4
Fig:2 Schematic diagram of thermal power plant………………………………….……5
Fig:2.1 T-S plot for thermal power plant……………………………………………….…5
Fig:3 T-S diagram of rankine cycle………………...………………………………..…11
Fig:3.1 T-S diagram of rankine cycle with reheat…………..………………….…...……12
Fig:3.2 T-S diagram of regenerative rankine cycle…………………………...………….13
Fig:4 Steam turbine rotor……………………………………………………...…..……15
Fig:4.1 T-S diagram for steam…………………………………………………...……….16
Fig:4.2 Steam turbine blade stages…………………………………………...……..……18
Fig:5 Blade stages of impulse turbine………………………………………..………...22
Fig:5.1 Blade structure of impulse turbine……………………………………..……..….22
Fig:5.2 Blade stages of reaction turbine………………………………………..………...23
Fig:5.3 Blade structure of reaction turbine………………………………………..…...…23
Fig:5.4 Impulse v/s reaction turbine blade stages………………………………...………24
Fig:5.5 Low pressure turbine blade structure……………………………………...….….25
Fig:5.6 High pressure turbine……………………………………………………...….….26
Fig:5.7 Low pressure turbine……………………………………………………..….…..26
Fig:6 Blading structure for velocity compounded steam turbine……………….…...…27
Fig:6.1 Blading structure for pressure compounded steam turbine……………….......…28
Fig:6.2 Blading structure for pressure-velocity compounded steam turbine……..…..….29
Fig:7 Surface milling…………………………………………………………………...32
Fig:7.1 Horizontal surface grinding……………………………………….…….….…....33
Fig:7.2 Rhomboid Milling…………………………………………………………...…..33
Fig:7.3 Root Milling…………………………………………………………………..…34
Fig:7.4 Back profile Milling…………………………………………………..……..…..34
Fig:7.5 Channel milling………………………………………………………..……...…34
Fig:7.6 Taper Milling…………………………………………………………….……....35
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CHAPTER1:
Introduction to BHEL Hyderabad
As a member of the prestigious 'BHEL family', BHEL-Hyderabad has earned a
reputation as one of its most important manufacturing units, contributing its
lion's share in BHEL Corporation's overall business operations.
The Hyderabad unit was set up in 1963 and started its operations with
manufacture of Turbo-generator sets and auxiliaries for 60 and 110 MW
thermal utility sets.
Over the years it has increased its capacity range and diversified its operations
to many other areas. To day, a wide range of products are manufactured in this
unit, catering to the needs of variety of industries like Fertilisers & Chemicals,
Petrochemicals & Refineries , Paper, sugar, steel , etc.
BHEL-Hyderabad unit has collaborations with world renowned MNCs like
M/S General Electric, USA, M/S Siemens, Germany, M/S Nuovo Pignone, etc.
Major products of BHEL Hyderabad includes the following.
1. Gas turbines
2. Steam turbines
3. Compressors
4. Turbo generators
5. Heat Exchangers
6. Pumps
7. Pulverisers
8. Switch Gears
9. Gear Boxes
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1.1 AN OVERVIEW:
BHEL is the power plant equipment manufacturer and one of the largest engineering and
manufacturing companies in India in terms of turnover. We were established in 1964, ushering
in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India - a dream that has been more
than realized with a well-recognized track record of performance. The company has been
earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77.
BHEL engaged in the design, engineering, manufacture, construction, testing, commissioning
and servicing of a wide range of products and services for the core sectors of the economy,
viz. Power, Transmission, Industry, Transportation (Railway), Renewable Energy, Oil & Gas
and Defence. We have 15 manufacturing divisions, two repair units, four regional offices,
eight service centres and 15 regional centres and currently operate at more than 150 project
sites across India and abroad.
The high level of quality & reliability of our products is due to adherence to international
standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from leading companies in
the world including General Electric Company, Alstom SA, Siemens AG and Mitsubishi
Heavy Industries Ltd., together with technologies developed in our own R&D centres.
Most of the manufacturing units and other entities have been accredited to Quality
Management Systems (ISO 9001:2008), Environmental Management Systems (ISO
14001:2004) and Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001:2007).
BHEL have a share of 59% in India's total installed generating capacity contributing 69%
(approx.) to the total power generated from utility sets (excluding non-conventional capacity)
as of March 31, 2012.
BHEL have been exporting our power and industry segment products and services for over 40
years. BHEL's global references are spread across 75 countries. The cumulative overseas
installed capacity of BHEL manufactured power plants exceeds 9,000 MW across 21 countries
including Malaysia, Oman, Iraq, the UAE, Bhutan, Egypt and New Zealand. Our physical
exports range from turnkey projects to after sales services.
BHEL work with a vision of becoming a global engineering enterprise providing solutions for
a better tomorrow.
BHEL’s greatest strength is their highly skilled and committed workforce of 49,390
employees. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself/herself and grow
in his/her career. Continuous training and retraining, career planning, a positive work culture
and participative style of management - all these have engendered development of a
committed and motivated workforce setting new benchmarks in terms of productivity, quality
and responsiveness.
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1.2 VARIOUS FACTORIES OF BHEL AND THEIR MAIN PRODUCTS:
FACTORIES:
BHOPAL - Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant
BANGLORE - Control Equipment Division, Electro-Porcelain Division
HARDWAR - Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant, Central Foundry Forge
GOINDWAL - Industrial Valves Plant
JAGDISHPUR - High Tension Ceramic Insulation Plant
JHANSI -Transformer Plant
HYDERABAD - Heavy Power Equipment Plant
TIRUCHIRAPALLI - High Pressure Boiler Plant
RANIPET - Boiler Auxiliaries Project
1.3 BHEL hyderabad shops and its products:
SHOP PRODUCT /PROCESS AREAS
01 Steam Turbines, Gas Turbines & Centrifugal Compressors
02 Turbo Generators and Exciters etc
03 Switch Gears
04 Ferrous Foundry
05 Non-Ferrous Foundry
06 Heat Exchangers
07 Tool Room
08 Heat Treatment
09 Pattern Shop
10 Spares Manufacturing
11 Oil Field Equipment’s (Oil Rigs)
51 Coal Pulverizers
70 Centrifugal Pumps
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201 Shop TURBINES:
Bay-1: Super Heavy Machine Shop
Bay-2: Heavy machine shop
Bay-3: Blade Shop
Bay-4: M&S / Rotor Shop
Bay-5: Welding / GT Wheel Shop
Bay-6: Medium Machine Shop
Bay-7: GT Machine shop
Fig 1: Classification of turbines according to BHEL
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ACCORDING TO BHEL HYDERABAD
They manufacture:
1. UTILITY TURBINES
2. INDUSTRIAL TURBINES
3. DRIVE TURBINES
• In UTILITY TURBINES, max. capacity is 150MW and is mainly for power generation
• In INDUSTRIAL TURBINES, capacity varies according to customer requirements i.e
from 5MW to 70MW
• In DRIVE TURBINES, it doesn’t generate power but only used for driving mechanical
components like pumps, compressors etc.
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CHAPTER 2: Thermal Power Plant System
Fig:2 Schematic diagram of thermal power plant
Fig:2.1 T-S plot for thermal power plant
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2.1 Working principle of thermal power plant:
A thermal power station works on the principle that heat is released by burning fuel which
produces steam from water. The steam so produced runs the turbine coupled to generator
which produces electrical energy.
2.2 Working process:
A simple steam plant works on Rankine cycle. In the first step, water is feed into a boiler at a
very high pressure by BFP (boiler feed pump). This high pressurized water is heated into
a boiler which converts it into high pressurized super heated steam. This high energized
steam passes through steam turbine(a mechanical device which converts flow energy of fluid
into mechanical energy) and rotate it. Owing to extract full energy of steam, three stage turbines
is used which is known as LPT (Low pressure turbine), IPT (intermediate pressure turbine) and
HPT (High pressure turbine). The turbine shaft is connected to the generator rotor shaft which
makes rotate the generator shaft and produce electricity. In this process the steam loses its
energy. This low pressurized saturated steam further passes through condenser where it
converts into water. This water further passes through BFP and boiler and completes the cycle.
This cycle continuously run to produce electricity.
2.3 Coal Handling Plant:
Coal Storage:
The place at which coal stored is known as coal storage. The coal initially received by mines
is stored in proper place.
Bunker:
Coal from coal storage sends to bunkers. It is a container which is upper side of mill and used
to continuously provide coal for mill machine. The minimum capacity of bunker is around 10
times of mill capacity.
Feeder:
Coal from the bunkers send to the feeder which provide coal to mill machine. The main reason
to use feeder between bunkers and mill machine is that if we directly send coal to mill, it can
damage the internal part of machine due to tones of pressure applied by the coal.
Mill Machine:
Coal does not directly used into boiler. The place where the coal is converted into pulverized
form is known as mill machine. This pulverized coal sends to classifier from it.
Classifier:
Classifiers are used to separate pulverized and non-pulverized forms of coal. It sends
pulverized coal to furnace and non-pulverized coal to mill machine.
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2.4 Air Handling Plant:
PA Fan:
PA fan is primary air fan. This is used to transport pulverized coal to furnace. It also used to
remove moisture content from pulverized coal.
ID Fan:
ID fan means induced draft fan. This fan is used to suck the exhausted flue gases from the
boiler and send it to atmosphere through chimney.
FD Fan:
FD means forced draft fan. It is used to provide air or we can say oxygen for proper burning of
coal into the furnace. It provides hot air into the furnace.
Air Preheater:
It is a heat exchanger which transfer heat from exhausted flue gases to incoming PA and FD
air.
ESP (Electrostatic Precipitator):
This device is situated between Id fan and boiler exhaust and used to detect and block ash
particles from flue gases and control the pollution being created by it.
Chimney:
Chimney is used to create natural draft for exhausted flue gases. One chimney is used for two
units.
2.5 Boiler Section:
Economizer:
Economizer is the first component of boiler section. As the name implies, economizer is used
to increase the efficiency of steam power plant. It is used to heat water upto saturation
temperature. It extracts heat from exhausted flue gases and used it to heat water. It sends water
to the boiler drum.
Boiler:
Economizer sends water to the Boiler. Boiler is the main part of any thermal power plant. It is
used to convert water into steam. In any steam power plant water tube boiler is used. It
contains furnace inside the boiler shell. The Coal burns into this section. Drum is major part of
steam power plant boiler. It is situated top of the boiler and used to separate water from steam.
Steam from boiler section sends to super heaters.
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Super heater:
The efficiency of thermal power plant is directly connected to the temperature of the steam.
The boiler creates low temperature steam which is not so economical for any power plant. So
a super heater is used to heat the steam again. The temperature of the steam is limited at 550
degree centigrade because the turbine material can’t sustain temperature above 600 degree
centigrade. The steam from the super heater sends to high pressure turbine.
Re heater:
When the steam expands into high pressure turbine, both its temperature and pressure get down.
If this low temperature steam directly sends to IP turbine, it creates less power. To increase the
power of the plant there is an arrangement to send exhausted steam from HP turbine to Re-
heater where it heated and get the initial temperature which is about 550 degree centigrade.
2.6 Turbine Section:
High Pressure Turbine:
The steam from the super heater sends to HP turbine. All the three turbines are connected to
same shaft which is further connected to the generator shaft. The HP turbine works around 150
Kg/cm2 pressure and 550 degree centigrade temperature. It is smallest among all turbines.
Intermediate Pressure Turbine:
As the name implies it works at intermediate pressure which is around 70 Kg/cm2. The steam
from the Re-heater sends to the IP turbine at around 550 degree centigrade where it expands
and generates power.
Low Pressure Turbine:
This is the main power generator. It generates around 40 percent of whole power. The steam
from IP turbine directly sends to LP turbine where it expand and rotate the turbine. It is biggest
part of turbine section.
Extractor:
To increase the efficiency, some amount of steam is extracted from both HP section exhaust
and LP section exhaust. This extracted steam is used to heat water before send to economizer.
2.7 Condenser Section:
Condenser:
In a thermal power plant, to complete the cyclic operation, we need to send water again to the
economizer at high pressure. Steam exhausted from LP turbine is not in condensed form and it
is not economical to compress the steam at a very high pressure around 150 Kg/cm2. So a
device is needed which can condense the steam into water. This device is called Condenser.
Condenser is also a heat exchanger in which the cold water runs into tubes and steam flow from
shell. The cold water extracts heat from steam and convert it into water. Condenser works at
vacuum pressure which is around -1 Kg/cm2. It is due to create pressure difference between
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LP turbine exhausted steam and condenser which is required for proper flow of steam in it. The
condensed water sends to a container which is named as Hotwell.
2.8 EFFICIENCY OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT
The overall efficiency of a steam power station is quite low i.e about 29% mainly due to
two reasons:
(a) A huge amount of heat is lost in the condenser.
(b) Heat losses occur at various stages of the plant. The heat lost in the condenser cannot be
avoided. It is because heat energy cannot be converted into mechanical energy without
temperature difference. The greater the temperature difference, the greater is the heat energy
converted into mechanical energy.
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CHAPTER 3: Rankine cycle
The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat into work. The heat is
supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses Water as the working fluid. this
cycle generates about 80% of all electric power used throughout the world, including
virtually all solar thermal, biomass, coal and nuclear power plants. it is named after
William John macquorn Rankine, a Scottish polymath physical layout of the four main
devices used in the Rankine cycle. The efficiency of Rankine cycle is usually limited by
the working fluid. Without the pressure going super critical the temperature range the
cycle can operate over is quite small, turbine entry are around 30°c. this gives a theoretical
Carnot efficiency of around 63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern
coal -fired power station. this low turbine entry temperature is why the Rankine cycle is
often used as a bottoming cycle in combined cycle gas turbine power stations. The working
fluid in Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and I'd re-used constantly.The water vapor
and entrained droplets often seen billowing from power stations is generated by the
cooling’s and systems and represents and the waste heat that could not be converted to
useful work.
3.1 T-S diagram of RANKINE cycle:
Fig:3 T-S diagram of rankine cycle
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3.2 The four processes in the Rankine cycle:
• Process 1–2:
• The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As the fluid is a liquid at this stage,
the pump requires little input energy.
• Process 2–3:
• The high-pressure liquid enters a boiler, where it is heated at constant pressure by an
external heat source to become a dry saturated vapour.
• Process 3–4:
• The dry saturated vapour expands through a turbine, generating power. This decreases the
temperature and pressure of the vapour, and some condensation may occur.
• Process 4–1:
• The wet vapour then enters a condenser, where it is condensed at a constant pressure to
become a saturated liquid.
3.3 Rankine cycle with reheat:
Fig:3.1 T-S diagram of rankine cycle with reheat
The purpose of a reheating cycle is to remove the moisture carried by the steam at the final
stages of the expansion process. In this variation, two turbines work in series. The first
accepts vapor from the boiler at high pressure. After the vapor has passed through the first
turbine, it re-enters the boiler and is reheated before passing through a second, lower-pressure,
turbine. The reheat temperatures are very close or equal to the inlet temperatures, whereas the
optimal reheat pressure needed is only one fourth of the original boiler pressure. Among other
advantages, this prevents the vapor from condensing during its expansion and thereby reducing
the damage in the turbine blades, and improves the efficiency of the cycle, because more of
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the heat flow into the cycle occurs at higher temperature. The reheat cycle was first introduced
in the 1920s, but was not operational for long due to technical difficulties. In the 1940s, it was
reintroduced with the increasing manufacture of high-pressure boilers, and eventually double
reheating was introduced in the 1950s. The idea behind double reheating is to increase the
average temperature. It was observed that more than two stages of reheating are unnecessary,
since the next stage increases the cycle efficiency only half as much as the preceding stage.
Today, double reheating is commonly used in power plants that operate under supercritical
pressure.
3.4 Regenerative Rankine cycle:
Fig:3.2 T-S diagram of regenerative rankine cycle
The regenerative Rankine cycle is so named because after emerging from the condenser
(possibly as a subcooled liquid) the working fluid is heated by steam tapped from the hot
portion of the cycle. On the diagram shown, the fluid at 2 is mixed with the fluid at 4 (both at
the same pressure) to end up with the saturated liquid at 7. This is called "direct-contact
heating". The Regenerative Rankine cycle (with minor variants) is commonly used in real
power stations.
Another variation sends bleed steam from between turbine stages to feedwater heaters to
preheat the water on its way from the condenser to the boiler. These heaters do not mix the
input steam and condensate, function as an ordinary tubular heat exchanger, and are named
"closed feedwater heaters".
Regeneration increases the cycle heat input temperature by eliminating the addition of heat
from the boiler/fuel source at the relatively low feedwater temperatures that would exist
without regenerative feedwater heating. This improves the efficiency of the cycle, as more of
the heat flow into the cycle occurs at higher temperature.
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3.5 Parameters to increase the efficiency of Rankine cycle:
1. Increase in boiler temperature can be able to increase in the cycle efficiency
but its only up to some extent, the maximum boiler temperature is up-to
600°c.
2. Increase in boiler pressure also increases the efficiency.
3. Decrease in condenser pressure.
4. Heating the feed water before entering into the boiler also called as
regeneration method.
5. Reheating the stream.
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CHAPTER 4: Steam Turbine
Fig:4 Steam turbine rotor
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to
do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir
Charles Parsons in 1884.
The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement
in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam,
which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible expansion process. Because
the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical
generator.
T-s plot for STEAM:
The steam turbine operates on basic principles of thermodynamics using the part 3-4 of
the Rankine cycle shown in the adjoining diagram. Superheated steam (or dry saturated steam,
depending on application) leaves the boiler at high temperature and high pressure. At entry to
the turbine, the steam gains kinetic energy by passing through a nozzle (a fixed nozzle in an
impulse type turbine or the fixed blades in a reaction type turbine). When the steam leaves the
nozzle it is moving at high velocity towards the blades of the turbine rotor. A force is created
on the blades due to the pressure of the vapor on the blades causing them to move. A generator
or other such device can be placed on the shaft, and the energy that was in the steam can now
be stored and used. The steam leaves the turbine as a saturated vapor (or liquid-vapor mix
depending on application) at a lower temperature and pressure than it entered with and is sent
to the condenser to be cooled.
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Fig:4.1 T-S diagram for steam
4.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION:
The turbine is condensing, tandem compound, three cylinder, horizontal disc and diaphragm
type with nozzle governing and regenerative feed water heating. The double flow L.P. turbine
incorporates a multi exhaust in each flow. the complete assembly is mounted on a pedestals
and sole plates, which are designed to ensure that the components are free to expand whilst
correct alignment is maintained under all conditions. Live steam from the boiler enters in two
emergency stop valves (ESV) of high pressure turbines. From ESV steam flows to the four
control valves (CV) mounted on the casing of high pressure turbine (HPT) at the middle bearing
side. Control valve in turn feed the steam to nozzle boxes located inside the HPT.The high
pressure turbine comprises of 12 stages, the first stage being governing stage. The steam flow
in HPT being in reverse direction, the blades in HPT are designed for anticlockwise rotation,
when viewed in the direction of steam flow. a after passing through H.P. turbine steam flows
to boiler for reheating and reheated steam comes to the intermediate pressure turbine (IPT)
through two Interceptor valves (IV) and flow control valves (CV) mounted on the IPT itself.
the intermediate pressure turbine has 11 stages. H.P. and I.P. rotors are connected by rigid
coupling and have a common bearing. after flowing through IPT, steam enters the middle part
of low pressure turbine,(LPT) through two cross over pipes. In LP turbine, steam flows in
opposite path having four stage in each part. After leaving the L.P. turbine, the exhaust steam
condenses in the surface condensers welded directly to the exhaust part of the L.P. turbine.
Rotor of intermediate and low pressure turbine are connected by a semi flexible coupling.
The direction of the rotation of the rotors is clockwise when viewed from the front bearing end
towards the generator. The three rotors are supported on five bearings. The common bearing
of H.P. and I.P. rotors is a combined journal and radial thrust bearing. The anchor point of the
turbine is located at the middle foundation frame of the front exhaust part of low pressure
Page | 17
cylinder. The turbine expands towards the front bearing by nearly 30 mm and towards generator
by 3 mm in steady state operation at full load with rated parameters. Turbine is equipped with
turning gear which rotates the rotor of the turbine at a speed of nearly 3.4 r.p.m . for providing
uniform heating during starting and uniform cooling during shut down. In order to heat the feed
water in the regenerative cycle of the turbine, condensate from the hot well of condenser is
pumped by the condensate pumps, and supplied to the through ejectors, gland steam coolers,
L.P. heaters and gland cooler. From , the feed water is supplied to boiler by boiler feed pumps
through H.P. heaters. Steam from the various points of the turbine is utilized to heat the
condensate. Steam entering from a small opening attains a very high velocity. (The velocity
attained during expansion depends on the initial and final content of the steam. The difference
in initial and final heat content represent the heat energy to be converted to kinetic energy.)
4.2 Parts of steam turbine:
Turbine Casings:
The casing shape and construction details depend on whether it is a High Pressure (HP) or Low
Pressure (LP) casings. For low and moderate inlet steam pressure up to 120 bar, a single shell
casing is used. With a rise in inlet pressure the casing thickness as to be increasing. Handling
such heavy casing is very difficult also the turbine as to slowly brought up to the operation
temperature. Otherwise undue internal stress or distortions to the thick casing may arise. To
over this for high pressure and temperature application double casing is used. In the double
casing inner casing is for High pressure and the outer casing is for hold the low pressure. Most
of the turbine have casings with horizontal split type. Due to horizontal split it easy for
assembling and dismantling for maintenance of turbine. Also, maintain proper axial and radial
clearance between the rotor and stationary parts.
Usually, the turbine casings are heavy in order to withstand the high pressures and
temperatures. It is general practice the thickness of walls and flanges decrease from the inlet to
exhaust end due to the decrease in steam pressure from inlet to exhaust.
Turbine rotors:
The steam turbine rotors must be designed with the most care as it is mostly the highly stressed
component in the turbine. The design of a turbine rotor depends on the operating principle of
the turbine. the impulse turbine, in which the pressure drops across the stationary blades. The
stationary blades are mounted in the diaphragm and the moving blades fixed or forged on the
rotor. Steam leakage is in between the stationary blades and the rotor. The leakage rate is
controlled by labyrinth seals. This construction requires a disc rotor.
The reaction turbine has pressure drops across the moving as well as across the stationary
blades. The disc rotor would create a large axial thrust across each disc. Hence disc rotors are
not used in the reaction turbine. For this application, a drum rotor is used to eliminate the axial
thrust caused by the discs, but not the axial thrust caused by the differential pressure across the
Page | 18
moving blades. Due to this, the configuration of reaction turbine is more complicated.
Fig:4.2 Steam turbine blade stages
Disc Type Rotors: This type of rotor is largely used in steam turbines. The disc type rotors
are made by forging process. Normally the forged rotor weight is around 50% higher than the
final machined rotors. Refer above figure for disc type rotor.
Drum Type Rotors: Initially, the reaction turbines rotors are made by solid forged drum-
type rotor. The rotors are heavy and rigid construction. Due to this, the inertia of the rotor is
very high when compare with the disc-type rotor of the same capacity. To overcome this
nowadays the hollow drum-type rotors are used instead of solid rigid rotors. Usually, this type
of rotor is made of two pieces construction. In some special cases, the rotor is made up of multi-
piece construction. the drums are machined both outside and inside to get perfect rotor balance.
Turbine Blades: The efficiency of the turbine depends on more than anything else on the
design of the turbine blades. The impulse blades must be designed to convert the kinetic energy
of the steam into mechanical energy. The same goes for the reaction blades, which furthermore
must convert pressure energy to kinetic energy. Stationary Blades (Diaphragms) and
Nozzles: nozzles are used to guide the steam to hit the moving blades and to convert the
pressure energy into the kinetic energy. In the case of small impulse turbine, the nozzles are
located in the lower half of the casing. But in the case of the larger turbine, the nozzles are
located on the upper half of the casing. Stationary Blades (Diaphragms): All stages following
the control stage have the nozzles located in diaphragms. The diaphragms are in halves and
fitted into grooves in the casing. Anti-rotating pin or locking pieces in the upper part of the
casing prevent the diaphragm to rotate.
Blade Fastening: Steam Turbine Basic Parts after turbine blades are machined through the
milling process. Then the blades are inserted in the rotor groove. Depend upon the application
the blade root section varies.
Twisted Blades: This type of blades is used in the last stage of a large multistage steam
turbine. These are the largest blade in turbine and contribute around 10% of the turbine total
output. Due to larger in size, these types of blades are subjected to high centrifugal and bending
forces. To overcome these forces twisted construction is used.
Page | 19
Turbine Bearings: One of the steam turbine basic part is bearing. They are two types of
bearings used based on the type of load act on them 1)Radial Bearing ,2)Thrust Bearing
Radial Bearings: For small turbines mostly equipped with anti-friction type bearings.
Widely used anti-friction bearings are the self-aligning spherical ball or roller bearing with
flooded type lubrication is used.
Thrust Bearings: The main two purposes of the thrust bearing are:
1)To keep the rotor in an exact position in the casing.
2)To absorb axial thrust on the rotor due to steam flow.
Shrouds: Shrouds are used to reinforce the turbine blades free ends to reduce vibration and
leakage. This is done by reverting a flat end over the blades refer figure. In some cases
especially at the early stages, the shroud may be integral with the blade. When the blades are
very long as in the case of the last stage of LP turbine. The rotor blades are further reinforced
by using lacing wires (caulking wire) which circumferentially connects all the blades at a
desired radius and shrouding is eliminated.
Turbine Barring device: When a turbine is left cold and at standstill, the weight of the
rotor will tend to bend the rotor slightly. If left at the standstill while the turbine is still hot, the
lower half of the rotor will cool off faster than the upper half and the rotor will bend upwards
“hog”. In both cases, the turbine would be difficult if not impossible to start up. To overcome
the problem the manufacturer supplies the larger turbines with a turning or barring gear
consisting of an electric motor which through several sets of reducing gears turns the turbine
shaft at low speed.
Turbine Couplings: The purpose of couplings is to transmit power from the prime mover
to the driven piece of machinery. Flexible type couplings are used in turbines. The coupling
hubs are taper bore and key way to fit the tapered end of theshaft.
Governor: The governor is one of the steam turbine basic parts. Its main function is to control
the operation of a steam turbine. Generally, the governor is classified as two type 1) speed
governor 2) Pressure sensing or load governor
Speed Sensing Governor: Speed governors are used in power generation application to
maintain a constant speed with respect to the load change in governor. Droop is one of the
important characteristics of this governor selection.
Pressure sensitive governor: These are applied to back pressure and extraction turbines
in connection with the speed sensitive governor. They are three types of governor used in steam
turbine
1) Mechanical Governor 2) Hydro-mechanical 3) Governor Electronic
Governor
Page | 20
Lubrication System: Oil flood lubrication is used for small turbines and pressurized
lubrication is used for larger turbines. The pressurized lubrication system consists of lube oil
tank, oil pump, filter, cooler, pressure regulating valve, etc., The pressurized lubrication system
of turbine shall be as per API 614.
Page | 21
CHAPTER 5: Types of turbines
5.1 Impulse Turbine:
The steam at high pressure enters through a stationary nozzle of a steam turbine, as a result the
pressure of the steam is decrease and an increase in steam velocity. As a result of increased
steam velocity steam pass through the nozzle in the form of a high-speed jet. This high-velocity
steam hit the properly shaped turbine blade, as a result, the steam flow direction is changed.
The effect of this change in direction of the steam flow will produce an impulse force. This
force cause the blade move, thereby the rotor will start to rotate.
Impulse Turbine Working:
In the impulse turbine pressure drops and the velocity increases as the steam passes through
the nozzles. When the steam passes through the moving blades the velocity drops but the
pressure remains the same.
The fact that the pressure does not drop across the moving blades is the distinguishing feature
of the impulse turbine. The pressure at the inlet of the moving blades is same as the pressure
at the outlet of moving blades.
Fig:5 Blade stages of impulse turbine Fig:5.1 Blade structure of impulse
turbine
5.2Reaction Turbine Principle:
In the case of reaction turbine, the moving blades of a turbine are shaped in such a way that the
steam expands and drops in pressure as it passes through them. As a result of pressure decrease
in the moving blade, a reaction force will be produced. This force will make the blades to rotate.
Page | 22
Reaction Turbine Working:
A reaction turbine has rows of fixed blades alternating with rows of moving blades. The steam
expands first in the stationary or fixed blades where it gains some velocity as it drops in
pressure. Then enters the moving blades where its direction of flow is changed thus producing
an impulse force on the moving blades. In addition, however, the steam upon passing through
the moving blades, again expands and further drops in pressure giving a reaction force to the
blades.
This sequence is repeated as the steam passes through additional rows of fixed and moving
blades.
Note that the steam pressure drops across both the fixed and the moving blades while the
absolute velocity rises in the fixed blades and drops in the moving blades.
The distinguishing feature of the reaction turbine is the fact that the pressure does drop across
the moving blades. In other words, there is a pressure difference between the inlet to the moving
blades and the outlet from the moving blades.
Fig:5.2 Blade stages of reaction turbine Fig:5.3 Blade structure of reaction turbine
Page | 23
5.3Blade and stage design:
Fig:5.4 Impulse v/s reaction turbine blade stages
Turbine blades are of two basic types, blades and nozzles. Blades move entirely due to the
impact of steam on them and their profiles do not converge. This results in a steam velocity
drop and essentially no pressure drop as steam moves through the blades. A turbine composed
of blades alternating with fixed nozzles is called an impulse turbine, Curtis turbine, Rateau
turbine, or Brown-Curtis turbine. Nozzles appear similar to blades, but their profiles converge
near the exit. This results in a steam pressure drop and velocity increase as steam moves
through the nozzles. Nozzles move due to both the impact of steam on them and the reaction
due to the high-velocity steam at the exit. A turbine composed of moving nozzles alternating
with fixed nozzles is called a reaction turbine or Parsons turbine.
Except for low-power applications, turbine blades are arranged in multiple stages in series,
called compounding, which greatly improves efficiency at low speeds. A reaction stage is a
row of fixed nozzles followed by a row of moving nozzles. Multiple reaction stages divide the
pressure drop between the steam inlet and exhaust into numerous small drops, resulting in
a pressure-compounded turbine. Impulse stages may be either pressure-compounded,
velocity-compounded, or pressure-velocity compounded. A pressure-compounded impulse
stage is a row of fixed nozzles followed by a row of moving blades, with multiple stages for
compounding. This is also known as a Rateau turbine, after its inventor. A velocity-
compounded impulse stage (invented by Curtis and also called a "Curtis wheel") is a row of
fixed nozzles followed by two or more rows of moving blades alternating with rows of fixed
blades. This divides the velocity drop across the stage into several smaller drops. A series of
velocity-compounded impulse stages is called a pressure-velocity compounded turbine.
Page | 24
5.4 Steam supply and exhaust conditions
Fig:5.5 Low pressure turbine blade structure
These types include condensing, non-condensing, reheat, extraction and induction.
Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants. These turbines
receive steam from a boiler and exhaust it to a condenser. The exhausted steam is at a pressure
well below atmospheric, and is in a partially condensed state, typically of a quality near 90%.
Non-condensing or back pressure turbines are most widely used for process steam applications,
in which the steam will be used for additional purposes after being exhausted from the turbine.
The exhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve to suit the needs of the process steam
pressure. These are commonly found at refineries, district heating units, pulp and paper plants,
and desalination facilities where large amounts of low pressure process steam are needed.
Reheat turbines are also used almost exclusively in electrical power plants. In a reheat turbine,
steam flow exits from a high-pressure section of the turbine and is returned to the boiler where
additional superheat is added. The steam then goes back into an intermediate pressure section
of the turbine and continues its expansion. Using reheat in a cycle increases the work output
from the turbine and also the expansion reaches conclusion before the steam condenses, thereby
minimizing the erosion of the blades in last rows. In most of the cases, maximum number of
reheats employed in a cycle is 2 as the cost of super-heating the steam negates the increase in
the work output from turbine.
Extracting type turbines are common in all applications. In an extracting type turbine, steam is
released from various stages of the turbine, and used for industrial process needs or sent to
boiler feedwater heaters to improve overall cycle efficiency. Extraction flows may be
controlled with a valve, or left uncontrolled. Extracted steam results in a loss of power in the
downstream stages of the turbine.
Page | 25
High Pressure Turbine
Fig:5.6 High pressure turbine
Low Pressure Turbine
Fig:5.7 Low pressure turbine
Page | 26
CHAPTER 6: Compounding of steam turbines:
In an Impulse steam turbine compounding can be achieved in the following three ways : -
1. Velocity compounding
2. Pressure compounding
3. Pressure-Velocity Compounding
6.1 Velocity compounding
Fig:6 Blading structure for velocity compounded steam turbine
The velocity compounded Impulse turbine was first proposed by C G Curtis to solve the
problem of single stage Impulse turbine for use of high pressure and temperature steam.
The rings of moving blades are separated by rings of fixed blades. The moving blades are keyed
to the turbine shaft and the fixed blades are fixed to the casing. The high pressure steam coming
from the boiler is expanded in the nozzle first. The Nozzle converts the pressure energy of the
steam into kinetic energy. The total enthalpy drop and hence the pressure drop occurs in the
nozzle. Hence, the pressure thereafter remains constant.
This high velocity steam is directed on to the first set (ring) of moving blades. As the steam
flows over the blades, due the shape of the blades, it imparts some of its momentum to the
blades and loses some velocity. Only a part of the high kinetic energy is absorbed by these
blades. The remainder is exhausted on to the next ring of fixed blade. The function of the fixed
blades is to redirect the steam leaving from the first ring of moving blades to the second ring
of moving blades. There is no change in the velocity of the steam as it passes through the fixed
Page | 27
blades. The steam then enters the next ring of moving blades; this process is repeated until
practically all the energy of the steam has been absorbed.
6.2 Pressure compounding
Fig:6.1 Blading structure for pressure compounded steam turbine
The pressure compounded Impulse turbine is also called as Rateau turbine, after its inventor.
This is used to solve the problem of high blade velocity in the single-stage impulse turbine.
It consists of alternate rings of nozzles and turbine blades. The nozzles are fitted to the casing
and the blades are keyed to the turbine shaft.
In this type of compounding the steam is expanded in a number of stages, instead of just one
(nozzle) in the velocity compounding. It is done by the fixed blades which act as nozzles. The
steam expands equally in all rows of fixed blade. The steam coming from the boiler is fed to
the first set of fixed blades i.e. the nozzle ring. The steam is partially expanded in the nozzle
ring. Hence, there is a partial decrease in pressure of the incoming steam. This leads to an
increase in the velocity of the steam. Therefore the pressure decreases and velocity increases
partially in the nozzle.
This is then passed over the set of moving blades. As the steam flows over the moving blades
nearly all its velocity is absorbed. However, the pressure remains constant during this process.
After this it is passed into the nozzle ring and is again partially expanded. Then it is fed into
the next set of moving blades, and this process is repeated until the condenser pressure is
reached.
Page | 28
6.3 Pressure-Velocity compounding
Fig:6.2 Blading structure for pressure-velocity compounded steam turbine
It is a combination of the above two types of compounding. The total pressure drop of the steam
is divided into a number of stages. Each stage consists of rings of fixed and moving blades.
Each set of rings of moving blades is separated by a single ring of fixed blades. In each stage
there is one ring of fixed blades and 3-4 rings of moving blades. Each stage acts as a velocity
compounded impulse turbine.
The fixed blades act as nozzles. The steam coming from the boiler is passed to the first ring of
fixed blades, where it gets partially expanded. The pressure partially decreases and the velocity
rises correspondingly. The velocity is absorbed by the following rings of moving blades until
it reaches the next ring of fixed blades and the whole process is repeated once again.
Page | 29
CHAPTER 7:
MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF STEAM TURBINE
BLADES:
Steps involved in manufacturing of blades for stream turbine:
The overall process of making a blade from its raw material to final desired blade design will
be processed in SHOP 201(BAY 3).
There are 15 STEPS to produce each blade to its final shape and required properties.
➢ RAW MATERIAL CUTTING
➢ SIZE MILLING
➢ SIZE GRINDING
➢ RHOMBOID MILLING
➢ RHOMBOID GRINDING
➢ SIZE LENGTH CUTTING, ROOT & RADIUS, FACE
CHAMFERING
➢ BACK PROFILE MILLING
➢ BACK WIDENING
➢ CHANNEL MILLING
➢ CHANNEL WIDENING
➢ TAPPER MILLING
➢ POLISHING
➢ CRACK TEST ANALYSIS
➢ DEMAGNATIZATION
➢ QUALITY CONTROL
Final dispatch and ready for assembly.
Page | 30
1) Cutting
This is the initial process that is processed over the raw material to cut the bar into the
required size. Band saw machine is used for this process. A continue hacksaw blade
made of H.S.S is rotated and pressed over the bar at the desired locations to cut the bar to
the required size.
2) Surface Milling
In this process, the working profile of the blade is made using surface milling machine i.e.
the front face curved part of the blade is machined using the milling tool called as mandrill
tool. A small notch called Allen key will be attached to mandrill tool and it will be rotated
to make the curve of the working profile. This will be done at the middle of the block
leaving space for both root and shroud.
Fig:7 Surface milling
3) Surface Grinding
The surface grinding machine helps in making the dimensions of the root and
shroud parts. This machine has two different types of bases which are main base and
sine-table. The main base is base of the whole machine and sine-table is the base of the
operation where the work piece is held. The sine table is electromagnetic where the
blade bars are kept side by side such that there will be no gap between them. After
these blades are placed, the sine table is magnetized. The sine table will be placed at
the required angle so that the working profile will not get disturbed. Then the machine
will be started for grinding the root and shroud. After this, the root and shroud will be
re-sized according to the blade working profile.
Page | 31
Fig:7.1 Horizontal surface grinding
4) Rhomboid Milling
Rhomboidal milling is the operation in which material is given a rhombus shape on
milling machine. This rhomboidal shape is given to form a profile of the blade. An
angular fixture is used to give a rhomboidal shape. Rhomboidal fixture has an angular
swivel arrangement which can be rotated at a certain angle in both the direction against
vertical plane. After setting at a given angle bar is clamped in the fixture and milling.
Fig:7.2 Rhomboid Milling
5) Root Milling
In the machining of the rotor a form cutter is used which has the same form which
is to be produced on the blade. For this purpose, a special type of machine used i.e
four spindle or two spindle root milling machines is used. Root milling machine
consists of two or four spindles and table which moves in longitudinal direction.
Upper spindles are attached to the upper head and lower spindle attached to the
lower head. A special type of fixture is used which is mounted on the table of the
machine. The root width is maintained by keeping distance equal to the width of
the blade between cutters. The extra metal is removed by the cutter. Depth of cut is
given in vertical direction by the cutters by initially touching the bar and then depth
of cut is given. Depth of cut is given twice or multiple times in case of blade with
higher thickness in order to maintain tolerances.
Depth of cut= (blade width – root width)/2
Page | 32
Fig:7.3 Root Milling
6) Back Profile Milling
This is done using the milling machine. This helps in making the curved back part
of the working profile. Milling tool is used.
Fig:7.4 Back profile Milling
7) Channel Milling
This is done to make channels on the working part of the blades. This operation is also
performed on the milling machine.
Fig:7.5 Channel milling
8) Taper Milling
It is a milling operation which is done on a milling machine. This operation helps in
forming a circle of radius equal to the rotor. Taper is given on the blades and when these
blades are connected to each other they form a circle of diameter equal to the diameter of
rotor, for tapering sine bars are used. Taper is given in Y axis. The value of taper which
Page | 33
is given in the drawing is selected by the sine bar reading and the fixture is adjusted by
placing the sine bar which gives the taper needed.
Fig:7.6 Taper Milling
9) Fitting and Polishing
Fitting is the pre-final stage of the assembling of blades to the turbine. Here in this process
all the blades are inserted in the groves of rotor and small brass tips are below the blade
root and chipping is done to make the blade tightly fixed to the rotor. To the last blade
of every row chipping is not possible so small holes are drilled on the either side of the
blade on rotor and these holes are tightened with bolts.
Polishing is usually a multistage process. The first stage starts with a rough abrasive and
each subsequent stage uses a finer abrasive until the desired finish is achieved. The rough
pass removes surface defects like pits, nicks, lines and scratches. The finer abrasives leave
very thin lines that are not visible to the naked eye. Lubricants like wax and kerosene are
used as lubricating and cooling medium during these operations. Polishing operations
for items such as chisels, hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches, etc. are given a fine finish
but not plated. In order to achieve this finish four operations are required viz roughing,
dry fining, greasing, and coloring. For an extra fine polish, the greasing operation may be
broken up into two operations viz rough greasing and fine greasing.
10) Crack Test
Liquid penetrant testing is done with either visible dye or fluorescent dye.
In fluorescent penetrant inspection, a highly fluorescent liquid is applied on the surface
of the inspection area. A developer is then applied to draw the penetrant to the surface and
then a black light is used to inspect the weld. The high contrast between the fluorescent
material and the object allows the inspector to detect traces of penetrant that indicate
surface defects.
Page | 34
In the case of a visible penetrant inspection the process is the same however, instead of
fluorescent
dye a highly visible colored dye is used with a white developer which makes any contrast
visible in the regular light.
To perform a liquid penetrant test, these steps are followed in BHEL factory
• Firstly, the area of the weld is cleaned where the inspection id to be done. Then
the area is allowed to dry completely.
• After this dye penetrant by is applied by spraying, brushing, or dipping the weld
into it.
• Thirdly allow the dye to be still till it is fully absorbed into the surface. This
can take one to three hours depending on the level of detail on the weld.
• Then any excess penetrant is removed by using a solvent or a water wash.
• Lastly a developer is applied on to the surface which is to be detected and
then depending on the test the surface is inspected.
After finishing these steps, we will be able to detect any penetrant bleeding out from the
discontinuities. Hence after the above processes the manufacturing and testing of the blades are
completed and the products will be ready for the dispatch.
Page | 35
CONCLUSION:
During the period of my internship I was able to understand how a thermal power plant works
and what are the parts of a thermal power plant. Amongst these parts a detailed knowledge on
turbines and its manufacturing was given to me under the guidance of Mr. Rajeshwara Chary
sir.
In the machining sector I was able to learn all the machining operations done to manufacture
the parts of turbine such as rotor, blades etc. on machines like CNC lathe, vertical and horizontal
lathe, vertical and horizontal milling machine, TIG welding etc.
In the assembly and testing section I learnt how all the components are assembled and how
the assembly is tested and inspected for misfunctions due to leakage, cracks or weld defects
and machining error and after this the product is corrected and finally sent for the dispatch.
I was able to gain knowledge from the other blocks of BHEL such as heat exchangers,
pumps, foundry, heat treatment and electrical machines (Stator and generator) during my
internship period.

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Report on Steamt Turbines, BHEL HYDERABAD.

  • 1. A STUDY OF MANUFACTURING OF STEAM TURBINES AT BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRIALS LIMITED, HYDERABAD SUMMER TRAINING Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for Award of the Degree Of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In MECHANICAL ENGINEERING By I VISWANATH RAJU 11707458 Under the Guidance of MR. RAJESHWARA CHARY DEPUTY MANAGER DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY PHAGWARA, PUNJAB (INDIA) -144402 2019
  • 2. Page | i Lovely Professional University CERTIFICATE I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the industrial summer training entitled “A STUDY OF MANUFACTURING OF STEAM TURBINES” in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology and submitted in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Punjab is an authentic record of my own work carried out during period of summer training under the supervision of Mr. RAJESHWARA CHARY, Deputy Manager, Department of “Manufacturing” “BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED”, The matter presented in this summer training has not been submitted by me anywhere for the award of any other degree or to any other Institute. Date: I. VISWANATH RAJU This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to best of my knowledge. Date: MR. RAJESHWARA CHARY Deputy Manager
  • 4. Page | iii AKNOWLEDGEMENT The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of the task would be incomplete without mentioning the people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with success. I am highly thankful to B.H.E.L engineers and technical staff on providing us vital and valuable information about the different facets of an industrial management system. I also extend my sincere gratitude to Mr. Srinivas Rao (AGM, BHEL) with whose kind permission this project could shape into success. I express my gratitude to Human Resource and Development department for giving us a chance to feel the industrial environment and its working in B.H.E.L and we are thankful to Mr. Rajeshwara Chary M (Deputy manager) for giving his precious time and help us in understanding various theoretical and practical aspect of our project on Steam turbines manufacturing under whose kind supervision we accomplished our project. I. VISWANATH RAJU REG.NO:11707458 B. Tech (Mechanical), 2rd year LPU, JALANDHAR
  • 5. Page | iv DECLARATION I, I. Viswanath Raju, hereby declare that the Summer Training Report, entitled “A Study of Manufacturing of Steam Turbines”, submitted to the LPU in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology is a record of original training undergone by me during the period June-July 2019 under the supervision and guidance of Mr. Rajeshwara Chary Deputy Manager, Technical Department, BHEL, and it has not formed the basis for the award of any Degree/Fellowship or other similar title to any candidate of any University. Place: Signature of the Student Date:
  • 6. Page | v TABLE OF CONTENT CERTIFICATE OF THE COLLEGE……………………………………………………………. i CERTIFICATE OF THE COMPANY…………………………………………………………… ii AKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………………...iii DECLARATION………………………………………………………………………………….... iv TABLE OF CONTENT….……………………………………………………………………….... v LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………………………vii 1. INTRODUCTION TO BHEL HYDERABAD……………………………………………..1 1.1 AN OVERVIEW………………………………………………………………….......2 1.2 VARIOUS FACTORIES OF BHEL AND THEIR MAIN PRODUCTS…………….3 1.3 BHEL HYDERABAD SHOPS AND ITS PRODUCTS…………………………......3 2. THERMAL POWER PLANT SYSTEM..……………………………………………...6 2.1 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF THERMAL POWER PLANT…………………………7 2.2 WORKING PROCESS………………………………………………………………..7 2.3 COAL HANDLING PLANT………………………………………………………….7 2.4 AIR HANDLING PLANT…………………………………………………………….8 2.5 BOILER SECTION……………………………………………………………………8 2.6 TURBINE SECTION………………………………………………………………….9 2.7 CONDENSER SECTION……………………………………………………………..9 2.8 EFFICIENCY OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT………………………………….10 3. RANKINE CYCLE……………………………………………………………………..11 3.1 T-S DIAGRAM OF RANKINE CYCLE………………………………………….…11 3.2 THE FOUR PROCESSES IN THE RANKINE CYCL………………………….…..12 3.3 RANKINE CYCLE WITH REHEAT………………………………………….…….12 3.4 REGENERATIVE RANKINE CYCLE……………………………………………...13 3.5 PARAMETERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF RANKINE CYCLE…….14 4. STEAM TURBINES……………………………………………………………………15 4.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION…………………………………………………………16 4.2 PARTS OF STEAM TURBINES…………………………………………………....17
  • 7. Page | vi 5. TYPES OF TURBINES………………………………………………………………….21 5.1 IMPULSE TURBINE……………………………………………………………....…21 5.2 REACTION TURBINE…………………………………………………………....….21 5.3 BLADE AND STAGE DESIGN………………………………………………….…..23 5.4 STEAM SUPPLY AND EXHAUST CONDITIONS………………………….……..24 6. COMPOUNDING OF STEAM TURBINES……………………………………….…..26 6.1 VELOCITY COMPOUNDING…………………………………………………….…26 6.2 PRESSURE COMPOUNDING…………………………………………………….…27 6.3 PRESSURE-VELOCITY COMPOUNDING………………………………………....28 7. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF STEAM TURBINE BLADES……………....…29 8. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………….......35
  • 8. Page | vii LIST OF FIGURES Fig 1: Classification of turbines according to BHEL…………………………………….4 Fig:2 Schematic diagram of thermal power plant………………………………….……5 Fig:2.1 T-S plot for thermal power plant……………………………………………….…5 Fig:3 T-S diagram of rankine cycle………………...………………………………..…11 Fig:3.1 T-S diagram of rankine cycle with reheat…………..………………….…...……12 Fig:3.2 T-S diagram of regenerative rankine cycle…………………………...………….13 Fig:4 Steam turbine rotor……………………………………………………...…..……15 Fig:4.1 T-S diagram for steam…………………………………………………...……….16 Fig:4.2 Steam turbine blade stages…………………………………………...……..……18 Fig:5 Blade stages of impulse turbine………………………………………..………...22 Fig:5.1 Blade structure of impulse turbine……………………………………..……..….22 Fig:5.2 Blade stages of reaction turbine………………………………………..………...23 Fig:5.3 Blade structure of reaction turbine………………………………………..…...…23 Fig:5.4 Impulse v/s reaction turbine blade stages………………………………...………24 Fig:5.5 Low pressure turbine blade structure……………………………………...….….25 Fig:5.6 High pressure turbine……………………………………………………...….….26 Fig:5.7 Low pressure turbine……………………………………………………..….…..26 Fig:6 Blading structure for velocity compounded steam turbine……………….…...…27 Fig:6.1 Blading structure for pressure compounded steam turbine……………….......…28 Fig:6.2 Blading structure for pressure-velocity compounded steam turbine……..…..….29 Fig:7 Surface milling…………………………………………………………………...32 Fig:7.1 Horizontal surface grinding……………………………………….…….….…....33 Fig:7.2 Rhomboid Milling…………………………………………………………...…..33 Fig:7.3 Root Milling…………………………………………………………………..…34 Fig:7.4 Back profile Milling…………………………………………………..……..…..34 Fig:7.5 Channel milling………………………………………………………..……...…34 Fig:7.6 Taper Milling…………………………………………………………….……....35
  • 9. Page | 1 CHAPTER1: Introduction to BHEL Hyderabad As a member of the prestigious 'BHEL family', BHEL-Hyderabad has earned a reputation as one of its most important manufacturing units, contributing its lion's share in BHEL Corporation's overall business operations. The Hyderabad unit was set up in 1963 and started its operations with manufacture of Turbo-generator sets and auxiliaries for 60 and 110 MW thermal utility sets. Over the years it has increased its capacity range and diversified its operations to many other areas. To day, a wide range of products are manufactured in this unit, catering to the needs of variety of industries like Fertilisers & Chemicals, Petrochemicals & Refineries , Paper, sugar, steel , etc. BHEL-Hyderabad unit has collaborations with world renowned MNCs like M/S General Electric, USA, M/S Siemens, Germany, M/S Nuovo Pignone, etc. Major products of BHEL Hyderabad includes the following. 1. Gas turbines 2. Steam turbines 3. Compressors 4. Turbo generators 5. Heat Exchangers 6. Pumps 7. Pulverisers 8. Switch Gears 9. Gear Boxes
  • 10. Page | 2 1.1 AN OVERVIEW: BHEL is the power plant equipment manufacturer and one of the largest engineering and manufacturing companies in India in terms of turnover. We were established in 1964, ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India - a dream that has been more than realized with a well-recognized track record of performance. The company has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77. BHEL engaged in the design, engineering, manufacture, construction, testing, commissioning and servicing of a wide range of products and services for the core sectors of the economy, viz. Power, Transmission, Industry, Transportation (Railway), Renewable Energy, Oil & Gas and Defence. We have 15 manufacturing divisions, two repair units, four regional offices, eight service centres and 15 regional centres and currently operate at more than 150 project sites across India and abroad. The high level of quality & reliability of our products is due to adherence to international standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from leading companies in the world including General Electric Company, Alstom SA, Siemens AG and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., together with technologies developed in our own R&D centres. Most of the manufacturing units and other entities have been accredited to Quality Management Systems (ISO 9001:2008), Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001:2004) and Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001:2007). BHEL have a share of 59% in India's total installed generating capacity contributing 69% (approx.) to the total power generated from utility sets (excluding non-conventional capacity) as of March 31, 2012. BHEL have been exporting our power and industry segment products and services for over 40 years. BHEL's global references are spread across 75 countries. The cumulative overseas installed capacity of BHEL manufactured power plants exceeds 9,000 MW across 21 countries including Malaysia, Oman, Iraq, the UAE, Bhutan, Egypt and New Zealand. Our physical exports range from turnkey projects to after sales services. BHEL work with a vision of becoming a global engineering enterprise providing solutions for a better tomorrow. BHEL’s greatest strength is their highly skilled and committed workforce of 49,390 employees. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself/herself and grow in his/her career. Continuous training and retraining, career planning, a positive work culture and participative style of management - all these have engendered development of a committed and motivated workforce setting new benchmarks in terms of productivity, quality and responsiveness.
  • 11. Page | 3 1.2 VARIOUS FACTORIES OF BHEL AND THEIR MAIN PRODUCTS: FACTORIES: BHOPAL - Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant BANGLORE - Control Equipment Division, Electro-Porcelain Division HARDWAR - Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant, Central Foundry Forge GOINDWAL - Industrial Valves Plant JAGDISHPUR - High Tension Ceramic Insulation Plant JHANSI -Transformer Plant HYDERABAD - Heavy Power Equipment Plant TIRUCHIRAPALLI - High Pressure Boiler Plant RANIPET - Boiler Auxiliaries Project 1.3 BHEL hyderabad shops and its products: SHOP PRODUCT /PROCESS AREAS 01 Steam Turbines, Gas Turbines & Centrifugal Compressors 02 Turbo Generators and Exciters etc 03 Switch Gears 04 Ferrous Foundry 05 Non-Ferrous Foundry 06 Heat Exchangers 07 Tool Room 08 Heat Treatment 09 Pattern Shop 10 Spares Manufacturing 11 Oil Field Equipment’s (Oil Rigs) 51 Coal Pulverizers 70 Centrifugal Pumps
  • 12. Page | 4 201 Shop TURBINES: Bay-1: Super Heavy Machine Shop Bay-2: Heavy machine shop Bay-3: Blade Shop Bay-4: M&S / Rotor Shop Bay-5: Welding / GT Wheel Shop Bay-6: Medium Machine Shop Bay-7: GT Machine shop Fig 1: Classification of turbines according to BHEL
  • 13. Page | 5 ACCORDING TO BHEL HYDERABAD They manufacture: 1. UTILITY TURBINES 2. INDUSTRIAL TURBINES 3. DRIVE TURBINES • In UTILITY TURBINES, max. capacity is 150MW and is mainly for power generation • In INDUSTRIAL TURBINES, capacity varies according to customer requirements i.e from 5MW to 70MW • In DRIVE TURBINES, it doesn’t generate power but only used for driving mechanical components like pumps, compressors etc.
  • 14. Page | 6 CHAPTER 2: Thermal Power Plant System Fig:2 Schematic diagram of thermal power plant Fig:2.1 T-S plot for thermal power plant
  • 15. Page | 7 2.1 Working principle of thermal power plant: A thermal power station works on the principle that heat is released by burning fuel which produces steam from water. The steam so produced runs the turbine coupled to generator which produces electrical energy. 2.2 Working process: A simple steam plant works on Rankine cycle. In the first step, water is feed into a boiler at a very high pressure by BFP (boiler feed pump). This high pressurized water is heated into a boiler which converts it into high pressurized super heated steam. This high energized steam passes through steam turbine(a mechanical device which converts flow energy of fluid into mechanical energy) and rotate it. Owing to extract full energy of steam, three stage turbines is used which is known as LPT (Low pressure turbine), IPT (intermediate pressure turbine) and HPT (High pressure turbine). The turbine shaft is connected to the generator rotor shaft which makes rotate the generator shaft and produce electricity. In this process the steam loses its energy. This low pressurized saturated steam further passes through condenser where it converts into water. This water further passes through BFP and boiler and completes the cycle. This cycle continuously run to produce electricity. 2.3 Coal Handling Plant: Coal Storage: The place at which coal stored is known as coal storage. The coal initially received by mines is stored in proper place. Bunker: Coal from coal storage sends to bunkers. It is a container which is upper side of mill and used to continuously provide coal for mill machine. The minimum capacity of bunker is around 10 times of mill capacity. Feeder: Coal from the bunkers send to the feeder which provide coal to mill machine. The main reason to use feeder between bunkers and mill machine is that if we directly send coal to mill, it can damage the internal part of machine due to tones of pressure applied by the coal. Mill Machine: Coal does not directly used into boiler. The place where the coal is converted into pulverized form is known as mill machine. This pulverized coal sends to classifier from it. Classifier: Classifiers are used to separate pulverized and non-pulverized forms of coal. It sends pulverized coal to furnace and non-pulverized coal to mill machine.
  • 16. Page | 8 2.4 Air Handling Plant: PA Fan: PA fan is primary air fan. This is used to transport pulverized coal to furnace. It also used to remove moisture content from pulverized coal. ID Fan: ID fan means induced draft fan. This fan is used to suck the exhausted flue gases from the boiler and send it to atmosphere through chimney. FD Fan: FD means forced draft fan. It is used to provide air or we can say oxygen for proper burning of coal into the furnace. It provides hot air into the furnace. Air Preheater: It is a heat exchanger which transfer heat from exhausted flue gases to incoming PA and FD air. ESP (Electrostatic Precipitator): This device is situated between Id fan and boiler exhaust and used to detect and block ash particles from flue gases and control the pollution being created by it. Chimney: Chimney is used to create natural draft for exhausted flue gases. One chimney is used for two units. 2.5 Boiler Section: Economizer: Economizer is the first component of boiler section. As the name implies, economizer is used to increase the efficiency of steam power plant. It is used to heat water upto saturation temperature. It extracts heat from exhausted flue gases and used it to heat water. It sends water to the boiler drum. Boiler: Economizer sends water to the Boiler. Boiler is the main part of any thermal power plant. It is used to convert water into steam. In any steam power plant water tube boiler is used. It contains furnace inside the boiler shell. The Coal burns into this section. Drum is major part of steam power plant boiler. It is situated top of the boiler and used to separate water from steam. Steam from boiler section sends to super heaters.
  • 17. Page | 9 Super heater: The efficiency of thermal power plant is directly connected to the temperature of the steam. The boiler creates low temperature steam which is not so economical for any power plant. So a super heater is used to heat the steam again. The temperature of the steam is limited at 550 degree centigrade because the turbine material can’t sustain temperature above 600 degree centigrade. The steam from the super heater sends to high pressure turbine. Re heater: When the steam expands into high pressure turbine, both its temperature and pressure get down. If this low temperature steam directly sends to IP turbine, it creates less power. To increase the power of the plant there is an arrangement to send exhausted steam from HP turbine to Re- heater where it heated and get the initial temperature which is about 550 degree centigrade. 2.6 Turbine Section: High Pressure Turbine: The steam from the super heater sends to HP turbine. All the three turbines are connected to same shaft which is further connected to the generator shaft. The HP turbine works around 150 Kg/cm2 pressure and 550 degree centigrade temperature. It is smallest among all turbines. Intermediate Pressure Turbine: As the name implies it works at intermediate pressure which is around 70 Kg/cm2. The steam from the Re-heater sends to the IP turbine at around 550 degree centigrade where it expands and generates power. Low Pressure Turbine: This is the main power generator. It generates around 40 percent of whole power. The steam from IP turbine directly sends to LP turbine where it expand and rotate the turbine. It is biggest part of turbine section. Extractor: To increase the efficiency, some amount of steam is extracted from both HP section exhaust and LP section exhaust. This extracted steam is used to heat water before send to economizer. 2.7 Condenser Section: Condenser: In a thermal power plant, to complete the cyclic operation, we need to send water again to the economizer at high pressure. Steam exhausted from LP turbine is not in condensed form and it is not economical to compress the steam at a very high pressure around 150 Kg/cm2. So a device is needed which can condense the steam into water. This device is called Condenser. Condenser is also a heat exchanger in which the cold water runs into tubes and steam flow from shell. The cold water extracts heat from steam and convert it into water. Condenser works at vacuum pressure which is around -1 Kg/cm2. It is due to create pressure difference between
  • 18. Page | 10 LP turbine exhausted steam and condenser which is required for proper flow of steam in it. The condensed water sends to a container which is named as Hotwell. 2.8 EFFICIENCY OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT The overall efficiency of a steam power station is quite low i.e about 29% mainly due to two reasons: (a) A huge amount of heat is lost in the condenser. (b) Heat losses occur at various stages of the plant. The heat lost in the condenser cannot be avoided. It is because heat energy cannot be converted into mechanical energy without temperature difference. The greater the temperature difference, the greater is the heat energy converted into mechanical energy.
  • 19. Page | 11 CHAPTER 3: Rankine cycle The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat into work. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses Water as the working fluid. this cycle generates about 80% of all electric power used throughout the world, including virtually all solar thermal, biomass, coal and nuclear power plants. it is named after William John macquorn Rankine, a Scottish polymath physical layout of the four main devices used in the Rankine cycle. The efficiency of Rankine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid. Without the pressure going super critical the temperature range the cycle can operate over is quite small, turbine entry are around 30°c. this gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of around 63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern coal -fired power station. this low turbine entry temperature is why the Rankine cycle is often used as a bottoming cycle in combined cycle gas turbine power stations. The working fluid in Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and I'd re-used constantly.The water vapor and entrained droplets often seen billowing from power stations is generated by the cooling’s and systems and represents and the waste heat that could not be converted to useful work. 3.1 T-S diagram of RANKINE cycle: Fig:3 T-S diagram of rankine cycle
  • 20. Page | 12 3.2 The four processes in the Rankine cycle: • Process 1–2: • The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As the fluid is a liquid at this stage, the pump requires little input energy. • Process 2–3: • The high-pressure liquid enters a boiler, where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapour. • Process 3–4: • The dry saturated vapour expands through a turbine, generating power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapour, and some condensation may occur. • Process 4–1: • The wet vapour then enters a condenser, where it is condensed at a constant pressure to become a saturated liquid. 3.3 Rankine cycle with reheat: Fig:3.1 T-S diagram of rankine cycle with reheat The purpose of a reheating cycle is to remove the moisture carried by the steam at the final stages of the expansion process. In this variation, two turbines work in series. The first accepts vapor from the boiler at high pressure. After the vapor has passed through the first turbine, it re-enters the boiler and is reheated before passing through a second, lower-pressure, turbine. The reheat temperatures are very close or equal to the inlet temperatures, whereas the optimal reheat pressure needed is only one fourth of the original boiler pressure. Among other advantages, this prevents the vapor from condensing during its expansion and thereby reducing the damage in the turbine blades, and improves the efficiency of the cycle, because more of
  • 21. Page | 13 the heat flow into the cycle occurs at higher temperature. The reheat cycle was first introduced in the 1920s, but was not operational for long due to technical difficulties. In the 1940s, it was reintroduced with the increasing manufacture of high-pressure boilers, and eventually double reheating was introduced in the 1950s. The idea behind double reheating is to increase the average temperature. It was observed that more than two stages of reheating are unnecessary, since the next stage increases the cycle efficiency only half as much as the preceding stage. Today, double reheating is commonly used in power plants that operate under supercritical pressure. 3.4 Regenerative Rankine cycle: Fig:3.2 T-S diagram of regenerative rankine cycle The regenerative Rankine cycle is so named because after emerging from the condenser (possibly as a subcooled liquid) the working fluid is heated by steam tapped from the hot portion of the cycle. On the diagram shown, the fluid at 2 is mixed with the fluid at 4 (both at the same pressure) to end up with the saturated liquid at 7. This is called "direct-contact heating". The Regenerative Rankine cycle (with minor variants) is commonly used in real power stations. Another variation sends bleed steam from between turbine stages to feedwater heaters to preheat the water on its way from the condenser to the boiler. These heaters do not mix the input steam and condensate, function as an ordinary tubular heat exchanger, and are named "closed feedwater heaters". Regeneration increases the cycle heat input temperature by eliminating the addition of heat from the boiler/fuel source at the relatively low feedwater temperatures that would exist without regenerative feedwater heating. This improves the efficiency of the cycle, as more of the heat flow into the cycle occurs at higher temperature.
  • 22. Page | 14 3.5 Parameters to increase the efficiency of Rankine cycle: 1. Increase in boiler temperature can be able to increase in the cycle efficiency but its only up to some extent, the maximum boiler temperature is up-to 600°c. 2. Increase in boiler pressure also increases the efficiency. 3. Decrease in condenser pressure. 4. Heating the feed water before entering into the boiler also called as regeneration method. 5. Reheating the stream.
  • 23. Page | 15 CHAPTER 4: Steam Turbine Fig:4 Steam turbine rotor A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884. The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam, which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible expansion process. Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator. T-s plot for STEAM: The steam turbine operates on basic principles of thermodynamics using the part 3-4 of the Rankine cycle shown in the adjoining diagram. Superheated steam (or dry saturated steam, depending on application) leaves the boiler at high temperature and high pressure. At entry to the turbine, the steam gains kinetic energy by passing through a nozzle (a fixed nozzle in an impulse type turbine or the fixed blades in a reaction type turbine). When the steam leaves the nozzle it is moving at high velocity towards the blades of the turbine rotor. A force is created on the blades due to the pressure of the vapor on the blades causing them to move. A generator or other such device can be placed on the shaft, and the energy that was in the steam can now be stored and used. The steam leaves the turbine as a saturated vapor (or liquid-vapor mix depending on application) at a lower temperature and pressure than it entered with and is sent to the condenser to be cooled.
  • 24. Page | 16 Fig:4.1 T-S diagram for steam 4.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The turbine is condensing, tandem compound, three cylinder, horizontal disc and diaphragm type with nozzle governing and regenerative feed water heating. The double flow L.P. turbine incorporates a multi exhaust in each flow. the complete assembly is mounted on a pedestals and sole plates, which are designed to ensure that the components are free to expand whilst correct alignment is maintained under all conditions. Live steam from the boiler enters in two emergency stop valves (ESV) of high pressure turbines. From ESV steam flows to the four control valves (CV) mounted on the casing of high pressure turbine (HPT) at the middle bearing side. Control valve in turn feed the steam to nozzle boxes located inside the HPT.The high pressure turbine comprises of 12 stages, the first stage being governing stage. The steam flow in HPT being in reverse direction, the blades in HPT are designed for anticlockwise rotation, when viewed in the direction of steam flow. a after passing through H.P. turbine steam flows to boiler for reheating and reheated steam comes to the intermediate pressure turbine (IPT) through two Interceptor valves (IV) and flow control valves (CV) mounted on the IPT itself. the intermediate pressure turbine has 11 stages. H.P. and I.P. rotors are connected by rigid coupling and have a common bearing. after flowing through IPT, steam enters the middle part of low pressure turbine,(LPT) through two cross over pipes. In LP turbine, steam flows in opposite path having four stage in each part. After leaving the L.P. turbine, the exhaust steam condenses in the surface condensers welded directly to the exhaust part of the L.P. turbine. Rotor of intermediate and low pressure turbine are connected by a semi flexible coupling. The direction of the rotation of the rotors is clockwise when viewed from the front bearing end towards the generator. The three rotors are supported on five bearings. The common bearing of H.P. and I.P. rotors is a combined journal and radial thrust bearing. The anchor point of the turbine is located at the middle foundation frame of the front exhaust part of low pressure
  • 25. Page | 17 cylinder. The turbine expands towards the front bearing by nearly 30 mm and towards generator by 3 mm in steady state operation at full load with rated parameters. Turbine is equipped with turning gear which rotates the rotor of the turbine at a speed of nearly 3.4 r.p.m . for providing uniform heating during starting and uniform cooling during shut down. In order to heat the feed water in the regenerative cycle of the turbine, condensate from the hot well of condenser is pumped by the condensate pumps, and supplied to the through ejectors, gland steam coolers, L.P. heaters and gland cooler. From , the feed water is supplied to boiler by boiler feed pumps through H.P. heaters. Steam from the various points of the turbine is utilized to heat the condensate. Steam entering from a small opening attains a very high velocity. (The velocity attained during expansion depends on the initial and final content of the steam. The difference in initial and final heat content represent the heat energy to be converted to kinetic energy.) 4.2 Parts of steam turbine: Turbine Casings: The casing shape and construction details depend on whether it is a High Pressure (HP) or Low Pressure (LP) casings. For low and moderate inlet steam pressure up to 120 bar, a single shell casing is used. With a rise in inlet pressure the casing thickness as to be increasing. Handling such heavy casing is very difficult also the turbine as to slowly brought up to the operation temperature. Otherwise undue internal stress or distortions to the thick casing may arise. To over this for high pressure and temperature application double casing is used. In the double casing inner casing is for High pressure and the outer casing is for hold the low pressure. Most of the turbine have casings with horizontal split type. Due to horizontal split it easy for assembling and dismantling for maintenance of turbine. Also, maintain proper axial and radial clearance between the rotor and stationary parts. Usually, the turbine casings are heavy in order to withstand the high pressures and temperatures. It is general practice the thickness of walls and flanges decrease from the inlet to exhaust end due to the decrease in steam pressure from inlet to exhaust. Turbine rotors: The steam turbine rotors must be designed with the most care as it is mostly the highly stressed component in the turbine. The design of a turbine rotor depends on the operating principle of the turbine. the impulse turbine, in which the pressure drops across the stationary blades. The stationary blades are mounted in the diaphragm and the moving blades fixed or forged on the rotor. Steam leakage is in between the stationary blades and the rotor. The leakage rate is controlled by labyrinth seals. This construction requires a disc rotor. The reaction turbine has pressure drops across the moving as well as across the stationary blades. The disc rotor would create a large axial thrust across each disc. Hence disc rotors are not used in the reaction turbine. For this application, a drum rotor is used to eliminate the axial thrust caused by the discs, but not the axial thrust caused by the differential pressure across the
  • 26. Page | 18 moving blades. Due to this, the configuration of reaction turbine is more complicated. Fig:4.2 Steam turbine blade stages Disc Type Rotors: This type of rotor is largely used in steam turbines. The disc type rotors are made by forging process. Normally the forged rotor weight is around 50% higher than the final machined rotors. Refer above figure for disc type rotor. Drum Type Rotors: Initially, the reaction turbines rotors are made by solid forged drum- type rotor. The rotors are heavy and rigid construction. Due to this, the inertia of the rotor is very high when compare with the disc-type rotor of the same capacity. To overcome this nowadays the hollow drum-type rotors are used instead of solid rigid rotors. Usually, this type of rotor is made of two pieces construction. In some special cases, the rotor is made up of multi- piece construction. the drums are machined both outside and inside to get perfect rotor balance. Turbine Blades: The efficiency of the turbine depends on more than anything else on the design of the turbine blades. The impulse blades must be designed to convert the kinetic energy of the steam into mechanical energy. The same goes for the reaction blades, which furthermore must convert pressure energy to kinetic energy. Stationary Blades (Diaphragms) and Nozzles: nozzles are used to guide the steam to hit the moving blades and to convert the pressure energy into the kinetic energy. In the case of small impulse turbine, the nozzles are located in the lower half of the casing. But in the case of the larger turbine, the nozzles are located on the upper half of the casing. Stationary Blades (Diaphragms): All stages following the control stage have the nozzles located in diaphragms. The diaphragms are in halves and fitted into grooves in the casing. Anti-rotating pin or locking pieces in the upper part of the casing prevent the diaphragm to rotate. Blade Fastening: Steam Turbine Basic Parts after turbine blades are machined through the milling process. Then the blades are inserted in the rotor groove. Depend upon the application the blade root section varies. Twisted Blades: This type of blades is used in the last stage of a large multistage steam turbine. These are the largest blade in turbine and contribute around 10% of the turbine total output. Due to larger in size, these types of blades are subjected to high centrifugal and bending forces. To overcome these forces twisted construction is used.
  • 27. Page | 19 Turbine Bearings: One of the steam turbine basic part is bearing. They are two types of bearings used based on the type of load act on them 1)Radial Bearing ,2)Thrust Bearing Radial Bearings: For small turbines mostly equipped with anti-friction type bearings. Widely used anti-friction bearings are the self-aligning spherical ball or roller bearing with flooded type lubrication is used. Thrust Bearings: The main two purposes of the thrust bearing are: 1)To keep the rotor in an exact position in the casing. 2)To absorb axial thrust on the rotor due to steam flow. Shrouds: Shrouds are used to reinforce the turbine blades free ends to reduce vibration and leakage. This is done by reverting a flat end over the blades refer figure. In some cases especially at the early stages, the shroud may be integral with the blade. When the blades are very long as in the case of the last stage of LP turbine. The rotor blades are further reinforced by using lacing wires (caulking wire) which circumferentially connects all the blades at a desired radius and shrouding is eliminated. Turbine Barring device: When a turbine is left cold and at standstill, the weight of the rotor will tend to bend the rotor slightly. If left at the standstill while the turbine is still hot, the lower half of the rotor will cool off faster than the upper half and the rotor will bend upwards “hog”. In both cases, the turbine would be difficult if not impossible to start up. To overcome the problem the manufacturer supplies the larger turbines with a turning or barring gear consisting of an electric motor which through several sets of reducing gears turns the turbine shaft at low speed. Turbine Couplings: The purpose of couplings is to transmit power from the prime mover to the driven piece of machinery. Flexible type couplings are used in turbines. The coupling hubs are taper bore and key way to fit the tapered end of theshaft. Governor: The governor is one of the steam turbine basic parts. Its main function is to control the operation of a steam turbine. Generally, the governor is classified as two type 1) speed governor 2) Pressure sensing or load governor Speed Sensing Governor: Speed governors are used in power generation application to maintain a constant speed with respect to the load change in governor. Droop is one of the important characteristics of this governor selection. Pressure sensitive governor: These are applied to back pressure and extraction turbines in connection with the speed sensitive governor. They are three types of governor used in steam turbine 1) Mechanical Governor 2) Hydro-mechanical 3) Governor Electronic Governor
  • 28. Page | 20 Lubrication System: Oil flood lubrication is used for small turbines and pressurized lubrication is used for larger turbines. The pressurized lubrication system consists of lube oil tank, oil pump, filter, cooler, pressure regulating valve, etc., The pressurized lubrication system of turbine shall be as per API 614.
  • 29. Page | 21 CHAPTER 5: Types of turbines 5.1 Impulse Turbine: The steam at high pressure enters through a stationary nozzle of a steam turbine, as a result the pressure of the steam is decrease and an increase in steam velocity. As a result of increased steam velocity steam pass through the nozzle in the form of a high-speed jet. This high-velocity steam hit the properly shaped turbine blade, as a result, the steam flow direction is changed. The effect of this change in direction of the steam flow will produce an impulse force. This force cause the blade move, thereby the rotor will start to rotate. Impulse Turbine Working: In the impulse turbine pressure drops and the velocity increases as the steam passes through the nozzles. When the steam passes through the moving blades the velocity drops but the pressure remains the same. The fact that the pressure does not drop across the moving blades is the distinguishing feature of the impulse turbine. The pressure at the inlet of the moving blades is same as the pressure at the outlet of moving blades. Fig:5 Blade stages of impulse turbine Fig:5.1 Blade structure of impulse turbine 5.2Reaction Turbine Principle: In the case of reaction turbine, the moving blades of a turbine are shaped in such a way that the steam expands and drops in pressure as it passes through them. As a result of pressure decrease in the moving blade, a reaction force will be produced. This force will make the blades to rotate.
  • 30. Page | 22 Reaction Turbine Working: A reaction turbine has rows of fixed blades alternating with rows of moving blades. The steam expands first in the stationary or fixed blades where it gains some velocity as it drops in pressure. Then enters the moving blades where its direction of flow is changed thus producing an impulse force on the moving blades. In addition, however, the steam upon passing through the moving blades, again expands and further drops in pressure giving a reaction force to the blades. This sequence is repeated as the steam passes through additional rows of fixed and moving blades. Note that the steam pressure drops across both the fixed and the moving blades while the absolute velocity rises in the fixed blades and drops in the moving blades. The distinguishing feature of the reaction turbine is the fact that the pressure does drop across the moving blades. In other words, there is a pressure difference between the inlet to the moving blades and the outlet from the moving blades. Fig:5.2 Blade stages of reaction turbine Fig:5.3 Blade structure of reaction turbine
  • 31. Page | 23 5.3Blade and stage design: Fig:5.4 Impulse v/s reaction turbine blade stages Turbine blades are of two basic types, blades and nozzles. Blades move entirely due to the impact of steam on them and their profiles do not converge. This results in a steam velocity drop and essentially no pressure drop as steam moves through the blades. A turbine composed of blades alternating with fixed nozzles is called an impulse turbine, Curtis turbine, Rateau turbine, or Brown-Curtis turbine. Nozzles appear similar to blades, but their profiles converge near the exit. This results in a steam pressure drop and velocity increase as steam moves through the nozzles. Nozzles move due to both the impact of steam on them and the reaction due to the high-velocity steam at the exit. A turbine composed of moving nozzles alternating with fixed nozzles is called a reaction turbine or Parsons turbine. Except for low-power applications, turbine blades are arranged in multiple stages in series, called compounding, which greatly improves efficiency at low speeds. A reaction stage is a row of fixed nozzles followed by a row of moving nozzles. Multiple reaction stages divide the pressure drop between the steam inlet and exhaust into numerous small drops, resulting in a pressure-compounded turbine. Impulse stages may be either pressure-compounded, velocity-compounded, or pressure-velocity compounded. A pressure-compounded impulse stage is a row of fixed nozzles followed by a row of moving blades, with multiple stages for compounding. This is also known as a Rateau turbine, after its inventor. A velocity- compounded impulse stage (invented by Curtis and also called a "Curtis wheel") is a row of fixed nozzles followed by two or more rows of moving blades alternating with rows of fixed blades. This divides the velocity drop across the stage into several smaller drops. A series of velocity-compounded impulse stages is called a pressure-velocity compounded turbine.
  • 32. Page | 24 5.4 Steam supply and exhaust conditions Fig:5.5 Low pressure turbine blade structure These types include condensing, non-condensing, reheat, extraction and induction. Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants. These turbines receive steam from a boiler and exhaust it to a condenser. The exhausted steam is at a pressure well below atmospheric, and is in a partially condensed state, typically of a quality near 90%. Non-condensing or back pressure turbines are most widely used for process steam applications, in which the steam will be used for additional purposes after being exhausted from the turbine. The exhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve to suit the needs of the process steam pressure. These are commonly found at refineries, district heating units, pulp and paper plants, and desalination facilities where large amounts of low pressure process steam are needed. Reheat turbines are also used almost exclusively in electrical power plants. In a reheat turbine, steam flow exits from a high-pressure section of the turbine and is returned to the boiler where additional superheat is added. The steam then goes back into an intermediate pressure section of the turbine and continues its expansion. Using reheat in a cycle increases the work output from the turbine and also the expansion reaches conclusion before the steam condenses, thereby minimizing the erosion of the blades in last rows. In most of the cases, maximum number of reheats employed in a cycle is 2 as the cost of super-heating the steam negates the increase in the work output from turbine. Extracting type turbines are common in all applications. In an extracting type turbine, steam is released from various stages of the turbine, and used for industrial process needs or sent to boiler feedwater heaters to improve overall cycle efficiency. Extraction flows may be controlled with a valve, or left uncontrolled. Extracted steam results in a loss of power in the downstream stages of the turbine.
  • 33. Page | 25 High Pressure Turbine Fig:5.6 High pressure turbine Low Pressure Turbine Fig:5.7 Low pressure turbine
  • 34. Page | 26 CHAPTER 6: Compounding of steam turbines: In an Impulse steam turbine compounding can be achieved in the following three ways : - 1. Velocity compounding 2. Pressure compounding 3. Pressure-Velocity Compounding 6.1 Velocity compounding Fig:6 Blading structure for velocity compounded steam turbine The velocity compounded Impulse turbine was first proposed by C G Curtis to solve the problem of single stage Impulse turbine for use of high pressure and temperature steam. The rings of moving blades are separated by rings of fixed blades. The moving blades are keyed to the turbine shaft and the fixed blades are fixed to the casing. The high pressure steam coming from the boiler is expanded in the nozzle first. The Nozzle converts the pressure energy of the steam into kinetic energy. The total enthalpy drop and hence the pressure drop occurs in the nozzle. Hence, the pressure thereafter remains constant. This high velocity steam is directed on to the first set (ring) of moving blades. As the steam flows over the blades, due the shape of the blades, it imparts some of its momentum to the blades and loses some velocity. Only a part of the high kinetic energy is absorbed by these blades. The remainder is exhausted on to the next ring of fixed blade. The function of the fixed blades is to redirect the steam leaving from the first ring of moving blades to the second ring of moving blades. There is no change in the velocity of the steam as it passes through the fixed
  • 35. Page | 27 blades. The steam then enters the next ring of moving blades; this process is repeated until practically all the energy of the steam has been absorbed. 6.2 Pressure compounding Fig:6.1 Blading structure for pressure compounded steam turbine The pressure compounded Impulse turbine is also called as Rateau turbine, after its inventor. This is used to solve the problem of high blade velocity in the single-stage impulse turbine. It consists of alternate rings of nozzles and turbine blades. The nozzles are fitted to the casing and the blades are keyed to the turbine shaft. In this type of compounding the steam is expanded in a number of stages, instead of just one (nozzle) in the velocity compounding. It is done by the fixed blades which act as nozzles. The steam expands equally in all rows of fixed blade. The steam coming from the boiler is fed to the first set of fixed blades i.e. the nozzle ring. The steam is partially expanded in the nozzle ring. Hence, there is a partial decrease in pressure of the incoming steam. This leads to an increase in the velocity of the steam. Therefore the pressure decreases and velocity increases partially in the nozzle. This is then passed over the set of moving blades. As the steam flows over the moving blades nearly all its velocity is absorbed. However, the pressure remains constant during this process. After this it is passed into the nozzle ring and is again partially expanded. Then it is fed into the next set of moving blades, and this process is repeated until the condenser pressure is reached.
  • 36. Page | 28 6.3 Pressure-Velocity compounding Fig:6.2 Blading structure for pressure-velocity compounded steam turbine It is a combination of the above two types of compounding. The total pressure drop of the steam is divided into a number of stages. Each stage consists of rings of fixed and moving blades. Each set of rings of moving blades is separated by a single ring of fixed blades. In each stage there is one ring of fixed blades and 3-4 rings of moving blades. Each stage acts as a velocity compounded impulse turbine. The fixed blades act as nozzles. The steam coming from the boiler is passed to the first ring of fixed blades, where it gets partially expanded. The pressure partially decreases and the velocity rises correspondingly. The velocity is absorbed by the following rings of moving blades until it reaches the next ring of fixed blades and the whole process is repeated once again.
  • 37. Page | 29 CHAPTER 7: MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF STEAM TURBINE BLADES: Steps involved in manufacturing of blades for stream turbine: The overall process of making a blade from its raw material to final desired blade design will be processed in SHOP 201(BAY 3). There are 15 STEPS to produce each blade to its final shape and required properties. ➢ RAW MATERIAL CUTTING ➢ SIZE MILLING ➢ SIZE GRINDING ➢ RHOMBOID MILLING ➢ RHOMBOID GRINDING ➢ SIZE LENGTH CUTTING, ROOT & RADIUS, FACE CHAMFERING ➢ BACK PROFILE MILLING ➢ BACK WIDENING ➢ CHANNEL MILLING ➢ CHANNEL WIDENING ➢ TAPPER MILLING ➢ POLISHING ➢ CRACK TEST ANALYSIS ➢ DEMAGNATIZATION ➢ QUALITY CONTROL Final dispatch and ready for assembly.
  • 38. Page | 30 1) Cutting This is the initial process that is processed over the raw material to cut the bar into the required size. Band saw machine is used for this process. A continue hacksaw blade made of H.S.S is rotated and pressed over the bar at the desired locations to cut the bar to the required size. 2) Surface Milling In this process, the working profile of the blade is made using surface milling machine i.e. the front face curved part of the blade is machined using the milling tool called as mandrill tool. A small notch called Allen key will be attached to mandrill tool and it will be rotated to make the curve of the working profile. This will be done at the middle of the block leaving space for both root and shroud. Fig:7 Surface milling 3) Surface Grinding The surface grinding machine helps in making the dimensions of the root and shroud parts. This machine has two different types of bases which are main base and sine-table. The main base is base of the whole machine and sine-table is the base of the operation where the work piece is held. The sine table is electromagnetic where the blade bars are kept side by side such that there will be no gap between them. After these blades are placed, the sine table is magnetized. The sine table will be placed at the required angle so that the working profile will not get disturbed. Then the machine will be started for grinding the root and shroud. After this, the root and shroud will be re-sized according to the blade working profile.
  • 39. Page | 31 Fig:7.1 Horizontal surface grinding 4) Rhomboid Milling Rhomboidal milling is the operation in which material is given a rhombus shape on milling machine. This rhomboidal shape is given to form a profile of the blade. An angular fixture is used to give a rhomboidal shape. Rhomboidal fixture has an angular swivel arrangement which can be rotated at a certain angle in both the direction against vertical plane. After setting at a given angle bar is clamped in the fixture and milling. Fig:7.2 Rhomboid Milling 5) Root Milling In the machining of the rotor a form cutter is used which has the same form which is to be produced on the blade. For this purpose, a special type of machine used i.e four spindle or two spindle root milling machines is used. Root milling machine consists of two or four spindles and table which moves in longitudinal direction. Upper spindles are attached to the upper head and lower spindle attached to the lower head. A special type of fixture is used which is mounted on the table of the machine. The root width is maintained by keeping distance equal to the width of the blade between cutters. The extra metal is removed by the cutter. Depth of cut is given in vertical direction by the cutters by initially touching the bar and then depth of cut is given. Depth of cut is given twice or multiple times in case of blade with higher thickness in order to maintain tolerances. Depth of cut= (blade width – root width)/2
  • 40. Page | 32 Fig:7.3 Root Milling 6) Back Profile Milling This is done using the milling machine. This helps in making the curved back part of the working profile. Milling tool is used. Fig:7.4 Back profile Milling 7) Channel Milling This is done to make channels on the working part of the blades. This operation is also performed on the milling machine. Fig:7.5 Channel milling 8) Taper Milling It is a milling operation which is done on a milling machine. This operation helps in forming a circle of radius equal to the rotor. Taper is given on the blades and when these blades are connected to each other they form a circle of diameter equal to the diameter of rotor, for tapering sine bars are used. Taper is given in Y axis. The value of taper which
  • 41. Page | 33 is given in the drawing is selected by the sine bar reading and the fixture is adjusted by placing the sine bar which gives the taper needed. Fig:7.6 Taper Milling 9) Fitting and Polishing Fitting is the pre-final stage of the assembling of blades to the turbine. Here in this process all the blades are inserted in the groves of rotor and small brass tips are below the blade root and chipping is done to make the blade tightly fixed to the rotor. To the last blade of every row chipping is not possible so small holes are drilled on the either side of the blade on rotor and these holes are tightened with bolts. Polishing is usually a multistage process. The first stage starts with a rough abrasive and each subsequent stage uses a finer abrasive until the desired finish is achieved. The rough pass removes surface defects like pits, nicks, lines and scratches. The finer abrasives leave very thin lines that are not visible to the naked eye. Lubricants like wax and kerosene are used as lubricating and cooling medium during these operations. Polishing operations for items such as chisels, hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches, etc. are given a fine finish but not plated. In order to achieve this finish four operations are required viz roughing, dry fining, greasing, and coloring. For an extra fine polish, the greasing operation may be broken up into two operations viz rough greasing and fine greasing. 10) Crack Test Liquid penetrant testing is done with either visible dye or fluorescent dye. In fluorescent penetrant inspection, a highly fluorescent liquid is applied on the surface of the inspection area. A developer is then applied to draw the penetrant to the surface and then a black light is used to inspect the weld. The high contrast between the fluorescent material and the object allows the inspector to detect traces of penetrant that indicate surface defects.
  • 42. Page | 34 In the case of a visible penetrant inspection the process is the same however, instead of fluorescent dye a highly visible colored dye is used with a white developer which makes any contrast visible in the regular light. To perform a liquid penetrant test, these steps are followed in BHEL factory • Firstly, the area of the weld is cleaned where the inspection id to be done. Then the area is allowed to dry completely. • After this dye penetrant by is applied by spraying, brushing, or dipping the weld into it. • Thirdly allow the dye to be still till it is fully absorbed into the surface. This can take one to three hours depending on the level of detail on the weld. • Then any excess penetrant is removed by using a solvent or a water wash. • Lastly a developer is applied on to the surface which is to be detected and then depending on the test the surface is inspected. After finishing these steps, we will be able to detect any penetrant bleeding out from the discontinuities. Hence after the above processes the manufacturing and testing of the blades are completed and the products will be ready for the dispatch.
  • 43. Page | 35 CONCLUSION: During the period of my internship I was able to understand how a thermal power plant works and what are the parts of a thermal power plant. Amongst these parts a detailed knowledge on turbines and its manufacturing was given to me under the guidance of Mr. Rajeshwara Chary sir. In the machining sector I was able to learn all the machining operations done to manufacture the parts of turbine such as rotor, blades etc. on machines like CNC lathe, vertical and horizontal lathe, vertical and horizontal milling machine, TIG welding etc. In the assembly and testing section I learnt how all the components are assembled and how the assembly is tested and inspected for misfunctions due to leakage, cracks or weld defects and machining error and after this the product is corrected and finally sent for the dispatch. I was able to gain knowledge from the other blocks of BHEL such as heat exchangers, pumps, foundry, heat treatment and electrical machines (Stator and generator) during my internship period.