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Religion
Presented BY
:
● Tooba Batool
● Sadia
● Abdul Moiz
● Assadullah Chnadio
● Rafaqat Ali
● Rehan
What is Religion?
• From the Latin religio (respect for what is
sacred) and religare (to bind, in the sense of
obligation), the term Religion describes
various systems of beliefs and practice
concerning what people determine to be
sacred or spiritual.
• Religion is a System of Religious
experience, Religious beliefs and Religious
rituals.
• Religion is a “unified system of beliefs and
practices related to sacred things, that is to
say, things set apart and forbidden – beliefs
and practices which unite people into one
single moral community.”
( Emile Durkheim – 1915)
• It exists in all society though it varies from
region to region, country to country etc.
Major 3 Theoretical Perspectives on Religion
Functionalism
Symbolic Interactionism
Conflict Theory
Functionalism
Functionalism sees religion as a social
institution that performs important functions
in society, such as promoting social
cohesion, providing a sense of identity and
belonging, and promoting morality and
ethics.
Conflict Theory
Conflict theory views religion as a tool used by
those in power to maintain their dominance
over others. It suggests that religion can be
used to justify inequality and oppression, and
that religious institutions often reinforce
existing power structures.
Symbolic Interactionism
Symbolic interactionism focuses on the role of
symbols and meanings in shaping human
behavior. From this perspective, religion is
seen as a system of symbols that individuals
use to create and interpret meaning in their
lives.
Types of Religious Organizations
:
• Cults: religious groups that are small, secretive,
and highly controlling of members and have a
charismatic leader
• Sect: a group of people with somewhat different
religious beliefs from those of a larger group to
which they belong
• Denomination: a large, mainstream religion that is
not sponsored by the state
One way scholars have categorized religions
is by classifying what or who they hold to be
divineReligious
Classificatio
n
What/Who is Divine Example
Polytheism Multiple gods
Ancient Greek and
Romans
Monotheism Single God Judaism, Islam
Atheism No deities Atheism
Animism
Nonhuman being (animals,
plants, natural world)
Indigenous nature
worship (Shinto)
Totemism
Human-natural being
connection
Ojibwa (Native
American)
The World’s Religions
Taoism
Taoism is a philosophical
and religious tradition of
Chinese origin.
Buddhism
Buddhism is a faith that
was founded by
Siddhartha Gautama.
Judaism
Monotheistic religion
developed among the
ancient Hebrews.
Christianity
The faith tradition that
focuses on the figure of
Jesus Christ.
Islam
A religion marked by
belief in Allah as the sole
deity, in Muhammad as
his prophet
Hinduism
A religion that originated
in the Indian
subcontinent.
Christianity
Christianity is the largest religion in the world,
with over 2 billion followers globally, began
2000 Years ago in Palestine. Christianity is a
monotheistic religion based on the life,
teachings, death, and resurrection of Jesus
Christ, who is believed by Christians to be the
Son of God and the savior of humanity.
Christians believe in the Trinity, that God is one
God in three persons: the Father, the Son, and
the Holy Spirit.
Islam
Islam is the second-largest religion in the
world, with over 1.9 billion followers
globally. Islam is a monotheistic religion
based on the teachings of the Prophet
Muhammad, who is believed by Muslims to
be the last and final Messenger of God.
Islam emphasizes the belief in one God,
who is merciful, compassionate, and just.
Hinduism
Hinduism is the third-largest religion in the
world, with over 1.2 billion followers,
primarily in India and Nepal. Hinduism is
based on the belief in multiple deities,
including the gods Brahma, Vishnu, and
Shiva, who represent creation,
preservation, and destruction respectively.
Judaism
Judaism is a monotheistic religion that
originated in the Middle East over 3,000
years ago. It is based on the belief in one
God who created the universe and
continues to guide and protect his
people. Today, it is one of the oldest and
most influential religions in the world,
with millions of adherents across the
globe.
Islam Judaism
• Islam's primary holy scripture is the
Quran
• Muslims consider Muhammad to be
the final and greatest prophet
• Muslims pray five times a day facing
Mecca
• Judaism's primary holy scripture is
the Torah
• Jews consider Moses to be the
greatest prophet
• Jews pray three times a day facing
Jerusalem
Here are some key differences between
Islam and Judaism
Taoism
It is based on the teachings of the Tao Te
Ching, a text attributed to the
legendary figure Lao Tzu. Taoism teaches that
the universe is a harmonious and balanced
system, and that human beings can achieve
inner peace and wisdom by aligning
themselves with the natural flow
of the universe.
Buddhism
The central teachings of Buddhism are
focused on the Four Noble Truths, which
state that suffering is an inherent part of life,
that the cause of suffering is craving and
attachment, that there is a way to end
suffering, and that the path to the end of
suffering is the Eightfold Path. Buddhism
has spread throughout the world and is now
practiced by millions of people, influencing
art, culture, and philosophy.
Religions in the World
Hindhuism
The Majority of the
hindhus live in South
Asia.
Christianity.
The majority of the Christians live in
the Americas (North America,
Central America,
and South America)
Islam
The majority of muslims live
in Middle East and Asia.

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Religon Sociology 1122.pptx

  • 2. Presented BY : ● Tooba Batool ● Sadia ● Abdul Moiz ● Assadullah Chnadio ● Rafaqat Ali ● Rehan
  • 3. What is Religion? • From the Latin religio (respect for what is sacred) and religare (to bind, in the sense of obligation), the term Religion describes various systems of beliefs and practice concerning what people determine to be sacred or spiritual. • Religion is a System of Religious experience, Religious beliefs and Religious rituals.
  • 4. • Religion is a “unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden – beliefs and practices which unite people into one single moral community.” ( Emile Durkheim – 1915) • It exists in all society though it varies from region to region, country to country etc.
  • 5. Major 3 Theoretical Perspectives on Religion Functionalism Symbolic Interactionism Conflict Theory
  • 6. Functionalism Functionalism sees religion as a social institution that performs important functions in society, such as promoting social cohesion, providing a sense of identity and belonging, and promoting morality and ethics.
  • 7. Conflict Theory Conflict theory views religion as a tool used by those in power to maintain their dominance over others. It suggests that religion can be used to justify inequality and oppression, and that religious institutions often reinforce existing power structures.
  • 8. Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionism focuses on the role of symbols and meanings in shaping human behavior. From this perspective, religion is seen as a system of symbols that individuals use to create and interpret meaning in their lives.
  • 9. Types of Religious Organizations : • Cults: religious groups that are small, secretive, and highly controlling of members and have a charismatic leader • Sect: a group of people with somewhat different religious beliefs from those of a larger group to which they belong • Denomination: a large, mainstream religion that is not sponsored by the state
  • 10. One way scholars have categorized religions is by classifying what or who they hold to be divineReligious Classificatio n What/Who is Divine Example Polytheism Multiple gods Ancient Greek and Romans Monotheism Single God Judaism, Islam Atheism No deities Atheism Animism Nonhuman being (animals, plants, natural world) Indigenous nature worship (Shinto) Totemism Human-natural being connection Ojibwa (Native American)
  • 11. The World’s Religions Taoism Taoism is a philosophical and religious tradition of Chinese origin. Buddhism Buddhism is a faith that was founded by Siddhartha Gautama. Judaism Monotheistic religion developed among the ancient Hebrews. Christianity The faith tradition that focuses on the figure of Jesus Christ. Islam A religion marked by belief in Allah as the sole deity, in Muhammad as his prophet Hinduism A religion that originated in the Indian subcontinent.
  • 12. Christianity Christianity is the largest religion in the world, with over 2 billion followers globally, began 2000 Years ago in Palestine. Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life, teachings, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, who is believed by Christians to be the Son of God and the savior of humanity. Christians believe in the Trinity, that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
  • 13. Islam Islam is the second-largest religion in the world, with over 1.9 billion followers globally. Islam is a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, who is believed by Muslims to be the last and final Messenger of God. Islam emphasizes the belief in one God, who is merciful, compassionate, and just.
  • 14. Hinduism Hinduism is the third-largest religion in the world, with over 1.2 billion followers, primarily in India and Nepal. Hinduism is based on the belief in multiple deities, including the gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, who represent creation, preservation, and destruction respectively.
  • 15. Judaism Judaism is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Middle East over 3,000 years ago. It is based on the belief in one God who created the universe and continues to guide and protect his people. Today, it is one of the oldest and most influential religions in the world, with millions of adherents across the globe.
  • 16. Islam Judaism • Islam's primary holy scripture is the Quran • Muslims consider Muhammad to be the final and greatest prophet • Muslims pray five times a day facing Mecca • Judaism's primary holy scripture is the Torah • Jews consider Moses to be the greatest prophet • Jews pray three times a day facing Jerusalem Here are some key differences between Islam and Judaism
  • 17. Taoism It is based on the teachings of the Tao Te Ching, a text attributed to the legendary figure Lao Tzu. Taoism teaches that the universe is a harmonious and balanced system, and that human beings can achieve inner peace and wisdom by aligning themselves with the natural flow of the universe.
  • 18. Buddhism The central teachings of Buddhism are focused on the Four Noble Truths, which state that suffering is an inherent part of life, that the cause of suffering is craving and attachment, that there is a way to end suffering, and that the path to the end of suffering is the Eightfold Path. Buddhism has spread throughout the world and is now practiced by millions of people, influencing art, culture, and philosophy.
  • 19. Religions in the World Hindhuism The Majority of the hindhus live in South Asia. Christianity. The majority of the Christians live in the Americas (North America, Central America, and South America) Islam The majority of muslims live in Middle East and Asia.