SlideShare a Scribd company logo
RELIGION AND 
SOCIAL CHANGE
CONSERVATIVE FORCE 
Functionalists believe religion is key in 
maintaining social stability and integration 
(deterring people from pursuing social desires) 
PROS CONS 
Religion does have positive 
functions for society. 
• It ignores religion as a source 
of conflict and division 
• Marxists and Feminists argue it 
supports the existing social 
structure and acts as a social 
control so the less powerful 
can’t change their position.
Marxists see religion as a preventing social 
change by disguising exploitation and inequality, 
which creates false consciousness amongst 
workers. 
Feminists see religion as a patriarchal institution 
which keeps women in a subordinate position.
A FORCE FOR CHANGE 
Max Weber 
In his study, The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of 
Capitalism, 
Weber says that religious beliefs of Calvinism 
helped to bring about social change (in particular the 
emergence of modern capitalism). He says that 
modern capitalism is based on the systemic, rational 
and efficient pursuit of profit for it’s own sake, rather 
than for consumption. He calls this the ‘spirit of 
capitalism’, and this spirit has an elective affinity.
CALVINISM 
• Predestination 
God has predetermined which souls will be 
saved and which won’t, and this decision can’t be 
altered. 
• Divine Transcendence 
God is so far above and greater than anyone, 
that no one knows his will. Weber says this gives 
people ‘salvation anxiety’ and in turn this creates 
‘salvation panic’ as people don’t know whether 
they will be saved or not.
Asceticism 
abstinence, self-discipline and self-denial of 
luxuries and instead devoting your life to God 
(e.g. Monks). 
The Idea of a Vocation or Calling 
Before Calvinism, you had to devote to God 
through renouncing your life to join a convent or 
monastry. (‘other worldly asceticism’) Now, 
Weber identifies ‘worldly asceticism’, which is the 
idea of a calling/vocation which is constantly 
methodical but within an occupation – but this 
was simply a religious duty, not salvation
So, Calvinists led an ascetic lifestyle, which involved 
no luxuries and hard work; “Idleness is a sin”. 
However, this had two consequences: 
Their success meant they could cope with 
salvation panic, and they saw their wealth as a 
sign of God’s favour. But, this went against their 
belief of divine transcendence. 
They indulged in their business to expand profit 
as they couldn’t spend on luxuries. But, this is a 
belief of modern capitalism.
PLEASE NOTE!!! Weber is arguing that Calvinist 
beliefs is one of the causes of modern capitalism, 
not the only cause. Material and economic factors 
were also necessary. 
On the other hand, Weber notes that there have 
been other societies which have a higher economic 
development where modern capitalism hasn’t 
developed.
ANCIENT CHINA AND 
INDIA 
Modern capitalism failed to develop here, despite 
their material advances. Weber believes this is due to 
the lack of a religious belief system (e.g. Calvinism) 
Thus, in ancient India, Hinduism was an ascetic 
religion, but it had an ‘other worldly’ orientation. It 
directed it’s followers concerns to the spiritual world, 
not the material world. 
In ancient China, Confucianism was a ‘this worldly’ 
religion that directed it’s followers to the material 
world, but it was not ascetic. 
So, both religions lacked the drive to accumulate 
wealth which was necessary for modern capitalism.
CRITICISMS 
Kautsky: Weber over estimates the roles of ideas and 
underestimates economic factors. 
Tawney: argues technological change caused capitalism 
once established. The bourgeoisie then adapted Calvinist 
beliefs to legitimate their pursuit of economic gain. 
Capitalism didn’t always develop where Calvinists were. 
Marshall says this is due to a lack of investment capital and 
skilled labour. 
Calvinists were among the first capitalists; this is because 
they were excluded by law from political office so business 
was a good alternative. Weberians reply that other religious 
minorities were excluded from this but didn’t become
RELIGION AND SOCIAL 
PROTEST 
Steve Bruce 
The American Civil Rights Movement: 
This movement took place in the 1950s and 60s, 
and protested to end racial segregation. It started in 
1955 when Rosa Parks refused to sit at the back of 
a bus like she was expected to. They achieved their 
goal in 1964 when segregation was outlawed after 
nearly a decade of protest marches, boycotts and 
demonstrations by black people.
THE AMERICAN CIVIL 
RIGHTS MOVEMENT 
Bruce describes the black clergy (led by Dr. 
Martin Luther King) as the backbone of the 
movement. Bruce explains how they were able 
shame the whites into changing the law so it 
suited their shared Christian values of equality. 
Bruce says religion in this context is an 
‘ideological resource’ – it provided beliefs and 
practices protesters could draw on for motivation 
and support.
Bruce identifies several ways in which religious 
organisations are equipped to support protests and 
contribute to social change: 
Taking the Moral High Ground (not being 
hypocritical) 
Channelling Dissent 
Acting as ‘Honest Broker’ 
Mobilising Public Opinion
Bruce argues that this movement was able to 
achieve it’s goal because it shared the same 
views as wider society. It shamed those in power 
to put into practice the principle of equality 
embedded in the American Constitution.
THE NEW CHRISTIAN 
RIGHT 
This movement aims to take America ‘back to 
God’ with a strong belief in tradition (particularly 
within the family). It campaigns to teach 
‘creationism’ (the Bible’s account are true) and to 
ban sex education in school. This is because 
they wish to make abortion, divorce and 
homosexuality illegal. Members advertise their 
beliefs mainly through the media. 
A modern example of a New Christian Right 
movement is The Tea Party (leader – Sarah 
Palin)
However, it has been largely unsuccessful in 
achieving it’s goals. Bruce believes it is down to… 
• The ‘moral majority’ being only 15% of the 
population 
• It’s campaigners found it very difficult to 
cooperate with people from different religious 
groups 
• It lacks widespread support and has met with 
strong opposition from groups who stand for 
freedom of choice (Planned Parenthood etc)
Bruce describes this movement as a failure. He 
believes it is because of the basically liberal and 
democratic values of most American societies (e.g. 
a belief in the separation of church and state). 
Surveys have shown that most Americans are 
comfortable with legalising activities that they 
personally believe are immoral (e.g. abortion), 
which poses a problem for the New Christian Right. 
Bruce explains how their demands are impossible 
in a mature democracy. 
In order to succeed like the American Civil Rights 
movement, they need to connect with the 
mainstream beliefs of society!

More Related Content

What's hot

Religion and Its Role in Society
Religion and Its Role in SocietyReligion and Its Role in Society
Religion and Its Role in Society
iosrjce
 
Marxist theories of religion
Marxist theories of religionMarxist theories of religion
Marxist theories of religion
lil-slide-share
 
Religious Fundamentalism and Cultural Defence
Religious Fundamentalism and Cultural DefenceReligious Fundamentalism and Cultural Defence
Religious Fundamentalism and Cultural Defence
Beth Lee
 
Sociology AQA Beliefs in Society Revision Notes
Sociology AQA Beliefs in Society Revision NotesSociology AQA Beliefs in Society Revision Notes
Sociology AQA Beliefs in Society Revision Notes
Sarah Jones
 
A2 Sociology: Marxist Theories of Religion
A2 Sociology: Marxist Theories of ReligionA2 Sociology: Marxist Theories of Religion
A2 Sociology: Marxist Theories of Religion
April Lennox-Hill's Sociology Lessons
 
Theories of Religion
Theories of ReligionTheories of Religion
Theories of Religion
Beth Lee
 
Role of religion in society and humanitarian action
Role of religion in society and humanitarian actionRole of religion in society and humanitarian action
Role of religion in society and humanitarian action
Shakeb Nabi
 
Religion
ReligionReligion
Religion
Chen Wei Jiang
 
Beliefs in Society AQA Sociology Paper 2
Beliefs in Society AQA Sociology Paper 2Beliefs in Society AQA Sociology Paper 2
Beliefs in Society AQA Sociology Paper 2
Haley Ho
 
Religion theories
Religion theoriesReligion theories
Religion theories
U Nam Sakib
 
Fundamentalism
FundamentalismFundamentalism
Fundamentalism
RAM PROSHAD BARMAN
 
Postmodernity
PostmodernityPostmodernity
Postmodernity
Beth Lee
 
Religion in a Global Context (1)
Religion in a Global Context (1)Religion in a Global Context (1)
Religion in a Global Context (1)
Beth Lee
 
Functionalists theories of religion
Functionalists theories of religion Functionalists theories of religion
Functionalists theories of religion
NNunnSCLY
 
Sociological research methods
Sociological research methodsSociological research methods
Sociological research methods
bethanmartin
 
Women and religion
Women and religionWomen and religion
Women and religion
omimo
 
Sociology and Religion: Religion as a Social Institution
Sociology and Religion: Religion as a Social InstitutionSociology and Religion: Religion as a Social Institution
Sociology and Religion: Religion as a Social Institution
Rohan Byanjankar
 
Religion and Society
Religion and SocietyReligion and Society
Religion and Society
Monte Christo
 
A2 Sociology: Defining Relgion
A2 Sociology: Defining RelgionA2 Sociology: Defining Relgion
A2 Sociology: Defining Relgion
April Lennox-Hill's Sociology Lessons
 
Classical Sociological Theory
Classical Sociological TheoryClassical Sociological Theory
Classical Sociological Theory
St Mary's University, Twickenham, London
 

What's hot (20)

Religion and Its Role in Society
Religion and Its Role in SocietyReligion and Its Role in Society
Religion and Its Role in Society
 
Marxist theories of religion
Marxist theories of religionMarxist theories of religion
Marxist theories of religion
 
Religious Fundamentalism and Cultural Defence
Religious Fundamentalism and Cultural DefenceReligious Fundamentalism and Cultural Defence
Religious Fundamentalism and Cultural Defence
 
Sociology AQA Beliefs in Society Revision Notes
Sociology AQA Beliefs in Society Revision NotesSociology AQA Beliefs in Society Revision Notes
Sociology AQA Beliefs in Society Revision Notes
 
A2 Sociology: Marxist Theories of Religion
A2 Sociology: Marxist Theories of ReligionA2 Sociology: Marxist Theories of Religion
A2 Sociology: Marxist Theories of Religion
 
Theories of Religion
Theories of ReligionTheories of Religion
Theories of Religion
 
Role of religion in society and humanitarian action
Role of religion in society and humanitarian actionRole of religion in society and humanitarian action
Role of religion in society and humanitarian action
 
Religion
ReligionReligion
Religion
 
Beliefs in Society AQA Sociology Paper 2
Beliefs in Society AQA Sociology Paper 2Beliefs in Society AQA Sociology Paper 2
Beliefs in Society AQA Sociology Paper 2
 
Religion theories
Religion theoriesReligion theories
Religion theories
 
Fundamentalism
FundamentalismFundamentalism
Fundamentalism
 
Postmodernity
PostmodernityPostmodernity
Postmodernity
 
Religion in a Global Context (1)
Religion in a Global Context (1)Religion in a Global Context (1)
Religion in a Global Context (1)
 
Functionalists theories of religion
Functionalists theories of religion Functionalists theories of religion
Functionalists theories of religion
 
Sociological research methods
Sociological research methodsSociological research methods
Sociological research methods
 
Women and religion
Women and religionWomen and religion
Women and religion
 
Sociology and Religion: Religion as a Social Institution
Sociology and Religion: Religion as a Social InstitutionSociology and Religion: Religion as a Social Institution
Sociology and Religion: Religion as a Social Institution
 
Religion and Society
Religion and SocietyReligion and Society
Religion and Society
 
A2 Sociology: Defining Relgion
A2 Sociology: Defining RelgionA2 Sociology: Defining Relgion
A2 Sociology: Defining Relgion
 
Classical Sociological Theory
Classical Sociological TheoryClassical Sociological Theory
Classical Sociological Theory
 

Viewers also liked

Social change
Social changeSocial change
Social change
Shimil Abraham
 
Religion as a conservative force
Religion as a conservative forceReligion as a conservative force
Religion as a conservative force
NWsociology
 
Liberation Theology
Liberation TheologyLiberation Theology
Liberation Theology
Rohitha Sankar
 
NEO MARXISM and RELIGION
NEO MARXISM and RELIGIONNEO MARXISM and RELIGION
NEO MARXISM and RELIGION
mattyp99
 
Rel 101 new religious movements
Rel 101   new religious movementsRel 101   new religious movements
Rel 101 new religious movements
tkorcok
 
New religious movements
New religious movementsNew religious movements
New religious movements
Richard Crowie
 

Viewers also liked (6)

Social change
Social changeSocial change
Social change
 
Religion as a conservative force
Religion as a conservative forceReligion as a conservative force
Religion as a conservative force
 
Liberation Theology
Liberation TheologyLiberation Theology
Liberation Theology
 
NEO MARXISM and RELIGION
NEO MARXISM and RELIGIONNEO MARXISM and RELIGION
NEO MARXISM and RELIGION
 
Rel 101 new religious movements
Rel 101   new religious movementsRel 101   new religious movements
Rel 101 new religious movements
 
New religious movements
New religious movementsNew religious movements
New religious movements
 

Similar to Religion and social change 1

SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared ResourceSociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
sociologyexchange.co.uk
 
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared ResourceSociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
sociologyexchange.co.uk
 
Beliefs In Society Overview
Beliefs In Society OverviewBeliefs In Society Overview
Beliefs In Society Overview
Ash Dark
 
11. Religion and Society An Intro. and Sprituality and Social Work.pptx
11. Religion and Society An Intro. and Sprituality and Social Work.pptx11. Religion and Society An Intro. and Sprituality and Social Work.pptx
11. Religion and Society An Intro. and Sprituality and Social Work.pptx
Michael Bautista
 
Essay On Liberation
Essay On LiberationEssay On Liberation
Essay On Liberation
Custom Paper Writing Service
 
My pp
My ppMy pp
Social change essay
Social change essaySocial change essay
Social change essay
anicholls1234
 
RELIGIOUS RESPONSES 1C H A P T E R 1RELIGIOUS RESP.docx
RELIGIOUS RESPONSES  1C H A P T E R  1RELIGIOUS RESP.docxRELIGIOUS RESPONSES  1C H A P T E R  1RELIGIOUS RESP.docx
RELIGIOUS RESPONSES 1C H A P T E R 1RELIGIOUS RESP.docx
audeleypearl
 
15 ReligionFigure 15.1 Religions come in many forms, such .docx
15 ReligionFigure 15.1 Religions come in many forms, such .docx15 ReligionFigure 15.1 Religions come in many forms, such .docx
15 ReligionFigure 15.1 Religions come in many forms, such .docx
aulasnilda
 
Ben Crittenden Research Paper Final Draft
Ben Crittenden Research Paper Final DraftBen Crittenden Research Paper Final Draft
Ben Crittenden Research Paper Final Draft
Benjamin Crittenden
 
Positive and negative effects of religion
Positive and negative effects of religionPositive and negative effects of religion
Positive and negative effects of religion
PatrickJaysonRalla
 
Emergence militant-fundamentalism
Emergence militant-fundamentalismEmergence militant-fundamentalism
Emergence militant-fundamentalism
Erwin Sicher
 
Gender comm project
Gender comm projectGender comm project
Gender comm project
agordon692
 
Religion as a social institution (educ)
Religion as a social institution (educ)Religion as a social institution (educ)
Religion as a social institution (educ)
charlhen1017
 

Similar to Religion and social change 1 (14)

SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared ResourceSociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
 
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared ResourceSociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
 
Beliefs In Society Overview
Beliefs In Society OverviewBeliefs In Society Overview
Beliefs In Society Overview
 
11. Religion and Society An Intro. and Sprituality and Social Work.pptx
11. Religion and Society An Intro. and Sprituality and Social Work.pptx11. Religion and Society An Intro. and Sprituality and Social Work.pptx
11. Religion and Society An Intro. and Sprituality and Social Work.pptx
 
Essay On Liberation
Essay On LiberationEssay On Liberation
Essay On Liberation
 
My pp
My ppMy pp
My pp
 
Social change essay
Social change essaySocial change essay
Social change essay
 
RELIGIOUS RESPONSES 1C H A P T E R 1RELIGIOUS RESP.docx
RELIGIOUS RESPONSES  1C H A P T E R  1RELIGIOUS RESP.docxRELIGIOUS RESPONSES  1C H A P T E R  1RELIGIOUS RESP.docx
RELIGIOUS RESPONSES 1C H A P T E R 1RELIGIOUS RESP.docx
 
15 ReligionFigure 15.1 Religions come in many forms, such .docx
15 ReligionFigure 15.1 Religions come in many forms, such .docx15 ReligionFigure 15.1 Religions come in many forms, such .docx
15 ReligionFigure 15.1 Religions come in many forms, such .docx
 
Ben Crittenden Research Paper Final Draft
Ben Crittenden Research Paper Final DraftBen Crittenden Research Paper Final Draft
Ben Crittenden Research Paper Final Draft
 
Positive and negative effects of religion
Positive and negative effects of religionPositive and negative effects of religion
Positive and negative effects of religion
 
Emergence militant-fundamentalism
Emergence militant-fundamentalismEmergence militant-fundamentalism
Emergence militant-fundamentalism
 
Gender comm project
Gender comm projectGender comm project
Gender comm project
 
Religion as a social institution (educ)
Religion as a social institution (educ)Religion as a social institution (educ)
Religion as a social institution (educ)
 

More from Beth Lee

The Microscope
The MicroscopeThe Microscope
The Microscope
Beth Lee
 
Obstetric and Neonatal Emergencies
Obstetric and Neonatal EmergenciesObstetric and Neonatal Emergencies
Obstetric and Neonatal Emergencies
Beth Lee
 
The Nervous System
The Nervous SystemThe Nervous System
The Nervous System
Beth Lee
 
The Musculoskeletal System
The Musculoskeletal System The Musculoskeletal System
The Musculoskeletal System
Beth Lee
 
The Lymphatic System
The Lymphatic SystemThe Lymphatic System
The Lymphatic System
Beth Lee
 
Dairy Management
Dairy ManagementDairy Management
Dairy Management
Beth Lee
 
Cells
CellsCells
Cells
Beth Lee
 
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity Essay
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity EssayGlobalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity Essay
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity Essay
Beth Lee
 
Objectivity & Values in Sociology
Objectivity & Values in SociologyObjectivity & Values in Sociology
Objectivity & Values in Sociology
Beth Lee
 
Ideology & Science
Ideology & ScienceIdeology & Science
Ideology & Science
Beth Lee
 
Variation & Evolution
Variation & EvolutionVariation & Evolution
Variation & Evolution
Beth Lee
 
Gene Technologies
Gene TechnologiesGene Technologies
Gene Technologies
Beth Lee
 
Action Theories
Action TheoriesAction Theories
Action Theories
Beth Lee
 
Questionnaires
QuestionnairesQuestionnaires
Questionnaires
Beth Lee
 
Functionalism & Society
Functionalism & SocietyFunctionalism & Society
Functionalism & Society
Beth Lee
 
Crime, Prevention & Victims
Crime, Prevention & VictimsCrime, Prevention & Victims
Crime, Prevention & Victims
Beth Lee
 
Responding to the Environment
Responding to the EnvironmentResponding to the Environment
Responding to the Environment
Beth Lee
 
Lab & Field Experiments
Lab & Field ExperimentsLab & Field Experiments
Lab & Field Experiments
Beth Lee
 
Suicide
SuicideSuicide
Suicide
Beth Lee
 
English Context
English ContextEnglish Context
English Context
Beth Lee
 

More from Beth Lee (20)

The Microscope
The MicroscopeThe Microscope
The Microscope
 
Obstetric and Neonatal Emergencies
Obstetric and Neonatal EmergenciesObstetric and Neonatal Emergencies
Obstetric and Neonatal Emergencies
 
The Nervous System
The Nervous SystemThe Nervous System
The Nervous System
 
The Musculoskeletal System
The Musculoskeletal System The Musculoskeletal System
The Musculoskeletal System
 
The Lymphatic System
The Lymphatic SystemThe Lymphatic System
The Lymphatic System
 
Dairy Management
Dairy ManagementDairy Management
Dairy Management
 
Cells
CellsCells
Cells
 
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity Essay
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity EssayGlobalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity Essay
Globalisation, Modernity & Postmodernity Essay
 
Objectivity & Values in Sociology
Objectivity & Values in SociologyObjectivity & Values in Sociology
Objectivity & Values in Sociology
 
Ideology & Science
Ideology & ScienceIdeology & Science
Ideology & Science
 
Variation & Evolution
Variation & EvolutionVariation & Evolution
Variation & Evolution
 
Gene Technologies
Gene TechnologiesGene Technologies
Gene Technologies
 
Action Theories
Action TheoriesAction Theories
Action Theories
 
Questionnaires
QuestionnairesQuestionnaires
Questionnaires
 
Functionalism & Society
Functionalism & SocietyFunctionalism & Society
Functionalism & Society
 
Crime, Prevention & Victims
Crime, Prevention & VictimsCrime, Prevention & Victims
Crime, Prevention & Victims
 
Responding to the Environment
Responding to the EnvironmentResponding to the Environment
Responding to the Environment
 
Lab & Field Experiments
Lab & Field ExperimentsLab & Field Experiments
Lab & Field Experiments
 
Suicide
SuicideSuicide
Suicide
 
English Context
English ContextEnglish Context
English Context
 

Recently uploaded

PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
AyyanKhan40
 
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective UpskillingYour Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Excellence Foundation for South Sudan
 
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHatAzure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Scholarhat
 
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docxAssignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
ArianaBusciglio
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
Jean Carlos Nunes Paixão
 
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
NelTorrente
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
eBook.com.bd (প্রয়োজনীয় বাংলা বই)
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
Dr. Shivangi Singh Parihar
 
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide shareDRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
taiba qazi
 
Thesis Statement for students diagnonsed withADHD.ppt
Thesis Statement for students diagnonsed withADHD.pptThesis Statement for students diagnonsed withADHD.ppt
Thesis Statement for students diagnonsed withADHD.ppt
EverAndrsGuerraGuerr
 
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Dr. Vinod Kumar Kanvaria
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
Celine George
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
IreneSebastianRueco1
 
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptxWhat is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
christianmathematics
 
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments UnitDigital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
chanes7
 
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in EducationA Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
Peter Windle
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
 
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective UpskillingYour Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
 
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHatAzure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
 
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docxAssignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
 
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
 
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide shareDRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
 
Thesis Statement for students diagnonsed withADHD.ppt
Thesis Statement for students diagnonsed withADHD.pptThesis Statement for students diagnonsed withADHD.ppt
Thesis Statement for students diagnonsed withADHD.ppt
 
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
 
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
 
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
 
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
 
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptxWhat is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
 
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments UnitDigital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
 
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in EducationA Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
 

Religion and social change 1

  • 2. CONSERVATIVE FORCE Functionalists believe religion is key in maintaining social stability and integration (deterring people from pursuing social desires) PROS CONS Religion does have positive functions for society. • It ignores religion as a source of conflict and division • Marxists and Feminists argue it supports the existing social structure and acts as a social control so the less powerful can’t change their position.
  • 3. Marxists see religion as a preventing social change by disguising exploitation and inequality, which creates false consciousness amongst workers. Feminists see religion as a patriarchal institution which keeps women in a subordinate position.
  • 4. A FORCE FOR CHANGE Max Weber In his study, The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism, Weber says that religious beliefs of Calvinism helped to bring about social change (in particular the emergence of modern capitalism). He says that modern capitalism is based on the systemic, rational and efficient pursuit of profit for it’s own sake, rather than for consumption. He calls this the ‘spirit of capitalism’, and this spirit has an elective affinity.
  • 5. CALVINISM • Predestination God has predetermined which souls will be saved and which won’t, and this decision can’t be altered. • Divine Transcendence God is so far above and greater than anyone, that no one knows his will. Weber says this gives people ‘salvation anxiety’ and in turn this creates ‘salvation panic’ as people don’t know whether they will be saved or not.
  • 6. Asceticism abstinence, self-discipline and self-denial of luxuries and instead devoting your life to God (e.g. Monks). The Idea of a Vocation or Calling Before Calvinism, you had to devote to God through renouncing your life to join a convent or monastry. (‘other worldly asceticism’) Now, Weber identifies ‘worldly asceticism’, which is the idea of a calling/vocation which is constantly methodical but within an occupation – but this was simply a religious duty, not salvation
  • 7. So, Calvinists led an ascetic lifestyle, which involved no luxuries and hard work; “Idleness is a sin”. However, this had two consequences: Their success meant they could cope with salvation panic, and they saw their wealth as a sign of God’s favour. But, this went against their belief of divine transcendence. They indulged in their business to expand profit as they couldn’t spend on luxuries. But, this is a belief of modern capitalism.
  • 8. PLEASE NOTE!!! Weber is arguing that Calvinist beliefs is one of the causes of modern capitalism, not the only cause. Material and economic factors were also necessary. On the other hand, Weber notes that there have been other societies which have a higher economic development where modern capitalism hasn’t developed.
  • 9. ANCIENT CHINA AND INDIA Modern capitalism failed to develop here, despite their material advances. Weber believes this is due to the lack of a religious belief system (e.g. Calvinism) Thus, in ancient India, Hinduism was an ascetic religion, but it had an ‘other worldly’ orientation. It directed it’s followers concerns to the spiritual world, not the material world. In ancient China, Confucianism was a ‘this worldly’ religion that directed it’s followers to the material world, but it was not ascetic. So, both religions lacked the drive to accumulate wealth which was necessary for modern capitalism.
  • 10. CRITICISMS Kautsky: Weber over estimates the roles of ideas and underestimates economic factors. Tawney: argues technological change caused capitalism once established. The bourgeoisie then adapted Calvinist beliefs to legitimate their pursuit of economic gain. Capitalism didn’t always develop where Calvinists were. Marshall says this is due to a lack of investment capital and skilled labour. Calvinists were among the first capitalists; this is because they were excluded by law from political office so business was a good alternative. Weberians reply that other religious minorities were excluded from this but didn’t become
  • 11. RELIGION AND SOCIAL PROTEST Steve Bruce The American Civil Rights Movement: This movement took place in the 1950s and 60s, and protested to end racial segregation. It started in 1955 when Rosa Parks refused to sit at the back of a bus like she was expected to. They achieved their goal in 1964 when segregation was outlawed after nearly a decade of protest marches, boycotts and demonstrations by black people.
  • 12. THE AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Bruce describes the black clergy (led by Dr. Martin Luther King) as the backbone of the movement. Bruce explains how they were able shame the whites into changing the law so it suited their shared Christian values of equality. Bruce says religion in this context is an ‘ideological resource’ – it provided beliefs and practices protesters could draw on for motivation and support.
  • 13. Bruce identifies several ways in which religious organisations are equipped to support protests and contribute to social change: Taking the Moral High Ground (not being hypocritical) Channelling Dissent Acting as ‘Honest Broker’ Mobilising Public Opinion
  • 14. Bruce argues that this movement was able to achieve it’s goal because it shared the same views as wider society. It shamed those in power to put into practice the principle of equality embedded in the American Constitution.
  • 15. THE NEW CHRISTIAN RIGHT This movement aims to take America ‘back to God’ with a strong belief in tradition (particularly within the family). It campaigns to teach ‘creationism’ (the Bible’s account are true) and to ban sex education in school. This is because they wish to make abortion, divorce and homosexuality illegal. Members advertise their beliefs mainly through the media. A modern example of a New Christian Right movement is The Tea Party (leader – Sarah Palin)
  • 16. However, it has been largely unsuccessful in achieving it’s goals. Bruce believes it is down to… • The ‘moral majority’ being only 15% of the population • It’s campaigners found it very difficult to cooperate with people from different religious groups • It lacks widespread support and has met with strong opposition from groups who stand for freedom of choice (Planned Parenthood etc)
  • 17. Bruce describes this movement as a failure. He believes it is because of the basically liberal and democratic values of most American societies (e.g. a belief in the separation of church and state). Surveys have shown that most Americans are comfortable with legalising activities that they personally believe are immoral (e.g. abortion), which poses a problem for the New Christian Right. Bruce explains how their demands are impossible in a mature democracy. In order to succeed like the American Civil Rights movement, they need to connect with the mainstream beliefs of society!