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SEMINAR
ON
REGENERATIVE BRAKING
CONTENTS
 Introduction
 History
 Principle of Regenerative Braking Sys.
 Need of Regenerative Braking Sys.
 Working of Regenerative Braking Sys.
 Types and Elements of Regen. Sys.
 Advantages and Disadvantages of RBS
 Conclusion and References.
 A Regenerative Brake, is an energy recovery mechanism
which slows a vehicle or object down by converting
its kinetic energy into another form, which can be either
used immediately or stored until needed.
 A Traditional Braking System, brake pads produce
friction with the brake rotors to slow or stop the vehicle.
Additional friction is produced between the slowed wheels
and the surface of the road. This friction is what turns the
car's kinetic energy into heat.
 INTRODUCTION
HISTORY
 In 1908 C.J. Paulson Patented a smart car with
Regenerative Braking System.
 The “Energy Regeneration Brake” system was
developed in 1967 by American Motors Corporation
(AMC) in cooperation with Gulton Industries.
 The Energy Regeneration from braking idea was later
commercialized by the Japanese and both Ford &
Chevrolet licensed it from Toyota for use in their
domestic built hybrid Vehicles.
 During the late 2000s, an electronic control unit used
by BMW that engages the alternator during braking.
 Law of Conservation of Energy states that the
total energy of an isolated system cannot change it is said to
be conserved over time. Energy can be neither created nor
destroyed, but can change form, for instance chemical
energy can be converted to kinetic energy in the explosion
of a stick of dynamite.
 The most common form of regenerative brake involves
using an electric motor as an electric generator. the
generated electricity is fed back into the supply system,
whereas in battery electric and hybrid electric vehicles, the
energy is stored chemically in a battery
 PRINCIPLES OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING
 NEED OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING
 Regenerative braking have the potential to
improve the fuel economy of vehicles.
 The price increase of petroleum based fuel
also given rise to various research and
development efforts in energy conservation.
 It reduces the emission of the vehicles.
 It improved the fuel consumption by 33%.
 WORKING OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYS.
Regenerative braking system
Fig.-1 Regenerative Braking circuit
 COMPONENT OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING
SYSTEM IN EV’S
 REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM IN HYBRID
VEHICLES
• A vehicle which contains two such sources of propulsion is
known as hybrid system.
• A hybrid vehicle consist a series and a parallel circuit of motor
and the ICE.
Fig.-2 Circuit Dig. of Reg. Braking in Hybrid Car
 CIRCUIT DIG. OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING
SYSTEM IN HYBRID CAR
• Regenerative braking is used in vehicles that make use of
electric motors, primarily fully electric vehicles and hybrid
electric vehicles.
• It's run in one direction, it converts electrical energy into
mechanical energy.
• When the motor is run in the opposite direction, a properly
designed motor becomes an electric generator, converting
mechanical energy into electrical energy.
• This electrical energy can then be fed into a charging system
for the car's batteries.
WORKING OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING
SYSTEM IN HYBRID & EV’S
 ELEMENTS OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING
SYSTEM
 Energy Storage Unit (ESU) :
 The ESU performs two primary Functions:
 To Recover & Store Braking Energy.
 To absorb excess engine energy during light load
operation.
 The Selection Criteria for an effective energy Storage
includes.
 High specific energy storage density.
 High energy transfer rate.
 Small space requirement.
 The Energy recaptured by regenerative braking might be
stored in one of three devices , an Electrochemical battery, a
Flywheel, & a Hydraulic Accumulator.
 REGENERATIVE BRAKING WITH BATTERIES
• Regenerative braking is used in vehicles that make use of
electric motors, primarily fully electric vehicles and hybrid
electric vehicles.
• It's run in one direction, it converts electrical energy into
mechanical energy.
• When the motor is run in the opposite direction, a properly
designed motor becomes an electric generator, converting
mechanical energy into electrical energy.
• This electrical energy can then be fed into a charging system
for the car's batteries.
 REGENERATIVE BRAKING WITH FLYWHEELS
• In this system, the translational energy of the vehicle is
transferred into rotational energy in the flywheel, which
stores the energy until it is needed to accelerate the vehicle.
• The benefit of using flywheel technology is that more of the
forward inertial energy of the car can be engaged even
during relatively short intervals of braking and acceleration.
In the case of the batteries, they are not able to accept
charge at these rapid intervals, and thus more energy is lost
to friction.
 CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION
• The Energy storage unit requires a transmission that can
handle torque and speed demands in a steeples manner and
smoothly control the energy flow to and from the vehicle
wheels. For the flywheel the continuously variable
transmission and vehicle because flywheel rotational speed
increase when vehicle speed decrease and vice versa.
• A continuously variable transmission is one of the most
common forms of variator mechanism, which varies the
speed.
• The following types of CVT is used:
 Hydrostatic CVT.
 Electrical or Electromagnetic CVT.
 Mechanical CVT.
 CONTROL SYSTEM OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING
• An ON-OFF engine control system is used. That means that
the engine is ON until the energy storage unit has been
reached desired charge capacity and then is decoupled and
stopped until the energy storage unit charge fall below its
minimum requirement.
• Brake controllers are electronic device that can control
brakes remotely, deciding when braking begins ends, and
how quickly the brake need to be applied.
• During the braking operation the brake controller directs the
electricity produced by the motor into the batteries or
capacitors.
 DIFFERENT TYPES OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING
SYSTEM
 Electric Regenerative Braking System.
 In an Electric System which is driven only by means of electric
motor the system consists of an electric motor which acts both as
generator and motor.
 The Main Component of Electric Regenerative Braking System.
 Engine
 Motor/Generator
 Batteries
 Electronic Control System`
• During acceleration, the motor/generator unit acts as electric
motor drawing electrical energy from batteries to provide
extra driving force to move the vehicle.
• During braking electric supply from the battery is cut off by
the electronic system.
Showing Charging of Battery when Brake Applied
 Hydraulic Regenerative Braking System
• To improve the vehicle fuel economy an alternative
regenerative braking system is being developed by the Ford
Motor Company and the Eaton Corporation. It is called
Hydraulic Power Assist or HPA.
• In this system when the driver steps on the brake, the
vehicle’s Kinetic energy is used to power a Reversible
pump.
• This Reversible Pump sends hydraulic fluid from a low
pressure accumulator inside the vehicle into a high pressure
accumulator. This slow the vehicle and helps bring it to stop
• The fluid remains under pressure in the accumulator, until
the driver pushes the accelerator again.
• During braking, the vehicle’s Kinetic energy drives the pump
transferring hydraulic fluid from the low pressure reservoir to
the high pressure accumulator. The fluid compresses the nitrogen
gas in the accumulator and pressurize the system.
• During acceleration, fluid in high pressure accumulator is
metered out to drive the pump as a motor. The system propels
the vehicle by transmitting torque to the driveshaft.
 APPLICATION OF REGENERATIVE
BRAKING SYSTEM
 SUPER-CAPACITOR IN MAZDA A-6
 Super capacitor accept and release charge much
more quickly.
 It can be discharged and recharged many more
times and with far deterioration than a battery.
 The Mazda Unit can accept a full charge in just 8-
10 seconds
 The capacitor may take up to about 113s when
the load is at minimum about 18A.
 REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM IN
LOCOMOTIVES
• Jaipur Metro uses the
Regenerative Braking
System & saves 35% of
Electricity.
 CAR WITH REGENERATIVE BRAKING
SYSTEM
• Toyota Prius
• Honda Insight
• Ford Escape Hybrid
• Tesla Roadster
• Chevy Volt
Fig.5-Toyota Prius
Fig.6-Tesla Roadster
 ADVANTAGES OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING
SYSTEM
• Increase of overall energy efficiency of a vehicle.
• Improved Performance.
• Emission Reduction.
• Reduction in Engine Wear.
• Cuts down on pollution related to electricity generation.
• Increases the lifespan of friction braking systems.
• Smaller Accessories.
• Less use of traditional mechanical brakes leads to less
wear over time
• Added Weight-Extra components can increase weight.
• Complexity-depends on control necessary for operation of
regenerative braking system.
• Cost of components, engineering, manufacturing and
installation is high.
• Friction brakes are still necessary.
• Safety-Primary concern with any energy storage unit of high
energy density.
• Added maintenance requirements dependent on the
complexity of design.
 DISADVANTAGES OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING
SYSTEM
Conclusion
• Regenerative braking is an effective method of improving
vehicle efficiency and longevity
• Is already in use in many EVs
• The technology to do it exists and is often well worth it
• Mostly dependent on the wider adoption of EVs or further
development of hydraulic regeneration systems
[1] Sergio Vazquez, Srdjan Lukic, Eduardo Galvan, Leopoldo G. Franquelo, Juan M.
Carrasco and Jose I. Leon, “Recent Advances on Energy Storage Systems”, IEEE
Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Dec 2010
[2] Kuruppu Sandun, “Implementaion and Performance Evauation of Regenerative
Braking System Coupled Ultra capacitor for a Brushless DC Hub Motor Driven Electric
Tricycle”, College of Technology Master Theses, Paper 3 (2010)
[3] Cibulka,J, “Kinetic Energy Recovery System by Means of Flywheel Energy
Storage”, ISSN 1846-5900,3(2009)
[4] M.Rakesh, P.V.R.L. Narasimham, “Different Braking Techniques Employed to a
Brushless DC Motor Drive Used in Locomotives”, International Electrical Engineering
Journal (IEEJ) Vol.3 No.2, pp.784-790 ISSN 2078-2365 (2012)
[5] Qingsheng Shi, Chenghui Zhang, and Naxin Cui, D. Jin and S. Lin, “An Improved
Electrical Vehicle Regenerative Braking Strategy Research”, Advances in CSIE, Vol. 2,
AISC 169,pp.637-642, 2012
[6] Zhongpeng Yu, Liang Chu, Kun Ma, Lipeng Ren, “Coordinated Control of
Regenerative Braking System for a Hybrid Electric Bus”, 2nd International Conference
on Electronic & Mechanical Engineering and Information Technology, EMEIT-2012
REFERENCES
[7] Ying HUANG, Fuyuan YANG, Minggao OUYANG, Lin CHEN, Guojing GAO,
Yongsheng He, “An Efficient Energy Regeneration System for Diesel Engine”, World
Electric Vehicle Journal Vol. 4 –ISSN 2032-6653, Nov 5-9, 2010
[8] Junzhi Zhang, Xin Lu, Junliang Xue, and Bos Li, “Regenerative Braking System for
Series Hybrid Electric City Bus”, The World Electric Vehicle Journal, Vol. 2 , Issue 4
0363-0369, ISSN 2032-6653, 2008
[9] Wim J.C. Melis, Owais Chishty, “Fully Regenerative Braking and Improved
Acceleration for Electrical Vehicles”, International Journal of Sustainable Energy
Development (IJSED), Volume 2, Issue 1and 2, March/June, 2013
[10] Jarrad Cody, Özdemir Göl, Zorica Nedic, Andrew Nafalski, Aaron Mohtar,
“Regenerative Braking in Electric Vehicle”, University of South Australia, 2009
[11] M. M. Tehrani, M. R. Hairi -Yazdi, B. Haghpanah-Jahromi, V. Esfahanian, M.
Amiri and A. R. Jafari, “Design of Anti Lock Regenerative Braking System for a Series
Hybrid Electric Vehicle”, International Journal of Automotive Engineering, Vol. 1
Number 2, June 2011
[12] S.J. Clegg, “A Review of Regenerative Braking Systems”, Institute of Transport
Studies, University of Leeds, Working Paper 471, 1996
[13] ER. Amitesh Kumar, “Hydraulic Regenerative Braking System”, International
Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3 , Issue 4, ISSN 2229-5518,
April – 2012
[14] Juan W. Dixon & Micah E. Ortuzar, “Ultra capacitor + DC-DC Convertors in
Regenerative Braking System”, IEEE AESS System Magazine, August 2002
[15] Radhika Kapoor, C. Mallika Parveen, Member, IAENG, “Comparative Study on
Various KERS”, Proceeding of the World Congress of Engineering, Vol. 3, July 2013
[16] Christopher Dumm, Joseph Sadecky, “Continuously Variable Power Transmission
and Regenerative Braking Increasing Automotive Mechanical Efficiency”, University
of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, Session B4, April, 14 2012.
[17] Spencer Evans ,Matt Hilger , “Regenerative Braking: Stopping Doesn’t Have To
Slow You Down”, University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, Session
B5, April, 14 2012.
THANK YOU…

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Regenerative braking system

  • 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  History  Principle of Regenerative Braking Sys.  Need of Regenerative Braking Sys.  Working of Regenerative Braking Sys.  Types and Elements of Regen. Sys.  Advantages and Disadvantages of RBS  Conclusion and References.
  • 3.  A Regenerative Brake, is an energy recovery mechanism which slows a vehicle or object down by converting its kinetic energy into another form, which can be either used immediately or stored until needed.  A Traditional Braking System, brake pads produce friction with the brake rotors to slow or stop the vehicle. Additional friction is produced between the slowed wheels and the surface of the road. This friction is what turns the car's kinetic energy into heat.  INTRODUCTION
  • 4. HISTORY  In 1908 C.J. Paulson Patented a smart car with Regenerative Braking System.
  • 5.  The “Energy Regeneration Brake” system was developed in 1967 by American Motors Corporation (AMC) in cooperation with Gulton Industries.  The Energy Regeneration from braking idea was later commercialized by the Japanese and both Ford & Chevrolet licensed it from Toyota for use in their domestic built hybrid Vehicles.  During the late 2000s, an electronic control unit used by BMW that engages the alternator during braking.
  • 6.  Law of Conservation of Energy states that the total energy of an isolated system cannot change it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, but can change form, for instance chemical energy can be converted to kinetic energy in the explosion of a stick of dynamite.  The most common form of regenerative brake involves using an electric motor as an electric generator. the generated electricity is fed back into the supply system, whereas in battery electric and hybrid electric vehicles, the energy is stored chemically in a battery  PRINCIPLES OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING
  • 7.  NEED OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING  Regenerative braking have the potential to improve the fuel economy of vehicles.  The price increase of petroleum based fuel also given rise to various research and development efforts in energy conservation.  It reduces the emission of the vehicles.  It improved the fuel consumption by 33%.
  • 8.  WORKING OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYS.
  • 10. Fig.-1 Regenerative Braking circuit  COMPONENT OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM IN EV’S
  • 11.  REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM IN HYBRID VEHICLES • A vehicle which contains two such sources of propulsion is known as hybrid system. • A hybrid vehicle consist a series and a parallel circuit of motor and the ICE.
  • 12. Fig.-2 Circuit Dig. of Reg. Braking in Hybrid Car  CIRCUIT DIG. OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM IN HYBRID CAR
  • 13. • Regenerative braking is used in vehicles that make use of electric motors, primarily fully electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. • It's run in one direction, it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. • When the motor is run in the opposite direction, a properly designed motor becomes an electric generator, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. • This electrical energy can then be fed into a charging system for the car's batteries. WORKING OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM IN HYBRID & EV’S
  • 14.  ELEMENTS OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM  Energy Storage Unit (ESU) :  The ESU performs two primary Functions:  To Recover & Store Braking Energy.  To absorb excess engine energy during light load operation.  The Selection Criteria for an effective energy Storage includes.  High specific energy storage density.  High energy transfer rate.  Small space requirement.  The Energy recaptured by regenerative braking might be stored in one of three devices , an Electrochemical battery, a Flywheel, & a Hydraulic Accumulator.
  • 15.  REGENERATIVE BRAKING WITH BATTERIES • Regenerative braking is used in vehicles that make use of electric motors, primarily fully electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. • It's run in one direction, it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. • When the motor is run in the opposite direction, a properly designed motor becomes an electric generator, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. • This electrical energy can then be fed into a charging system for the car's batteries.
  • 16.  REGENERATIVE BRAKING WITH FLYWHEELS • In this system, the translational energy of the vehicle is transferred into rotational energy in the flywheel, which stores the energy until it is needed to accelerate the vehicle. • The benefit of using flywheel technology is that more of the forward inertial energy of the car can be engaged even during relatively short intervals of braking and acceleration. In the case of the batteries, they are not able to accept charge at these rapid intervals, and thus more energy is lost to friction.
  • 17.  CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION • The Energy storage unit requires a transmission that can handle torque and speed demands in a steeples manner and smoothly control the energy flow to and from the vehicle wheels. For the flywheel the continuously variable transmission and vehicle because flywheel rotational speed increase when vehicle speed decrease and vice versa. • A continuously variable transmission is one of the most common forms of variator mechanism, which varies the speed. • The following types of CVT is used:  Hydrostatic CVT.  Electrical or Electromagnetic CVT.  Mechanical CVT.
  • 18.  CONTROL SYSTEM OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING • An ON-OFF engine control system is used. That means that the engine is ON until the energy storage unit has been reached desired charge capacity and then is decoupled and stopped until the energy storage unit charge fall below its minimum requirement. • Brake controllers are electronic device that can control brakes remotely, deciding when braking begins ends, and how quickly the brake need to be applied. • During the braking operation the brake controller directs the electricity produced by the motor into the batteries or capacitors.
  • 19.  DIFFERENT TYPES OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM  Electric Regenerative Braking System.  In an Electric System which is driven only by means of electric motor the system consists of an electric motor which acts both as generator and motor.
  • 20.  The Main Component of Electric Regenerative Braking System.  Engine  Motor/Generator  Batteries  Electronic Control System`
  • 21. • During acceleration, the motor/generator unit acts as electric motor drawing electrical energy from batteries to provide extra driving force to move the vehicle. • During braking electric supply from the battery is cut off by the electronic system. Showing Charging of Battery when Brake Applied
  • 22.  Hydraulic Regenerative Braking System • To improve the vehicle fuel economy an alternative regenerative braking system is being developed by the Ford Motor Company and the Eaton Corporation. It is called Hydraulic Power Assist or HPA. • In this system when the driver steps on the brake, the vehicle’s Kinetic energy is used to power a Reversible pump. • This Reversible Pump sends hydraulic fluid from a low pressure accumulator inside the vehicle into a high pressure accumulator. This slow the vehicle and helps bring it to stop • The fluid remains under pressure in the accumulator, until the driver pushes the accelerator again.
  • 23. • During braking, the vehicle’s Kinetic energy drives the pump transferring hydraulic fluid from the low pressure reservoir to the high pressure accumulator. The fluid compresses the nitrogen gas in the accumulator and pressurize the system. • During acceleration, fluid in high pressure accumulator is metered out to drive the pump as a motor. The system propels the vehicle by transmitting torque to the driveshaft.
  • 24.  APPLICATION OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM  SUPER-CAPACITOR IN MAZDA A-6
  • 25.  Super capacitor accept and release charge much more quickly.  It can be discharged and recharged many more times and with far deterioration than a battery.  The Mazda Unit can accept a full charge in just 8- 10 seconds  The capacitor may take up to about 113s when the load is at minimum about 18A.
  • 26.  REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM IN LOCOMOTIVES • Jaipur Metro uses the Regenerative Braking System & saves 35% of Electricity.
  • 27.  CAR WITH REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM • Toyota Prius • Honda Insight • Ford Escape Hybrid • Tesla Roadster • Chevy Volt Fig.5-Toyota Prius Fig.6-Tesla Roadster
  • 28.  ADVANTAGES OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM • Increase of overall energy efficiency of a vehicle. • Improved Performance. • Emission Reduction. • Reduction in Engine Wear. • Cuts down on pollution related to electricity generation. • Increases the lifespan of friction braking systems. • Smaller Accessories. • Less use of traditional mechanical brakes leads to less wear over time
  • 29. • Added Weight-Extra components can increase weight. • Complexity-depends on control necessary for operation of regenerative braking system. • Cost of components, engineering, manufacturing and installation is high. • Friction brakes are still necessary. • Safety-Primary concern with any energy storage unit of high energy density. • Added maintenance requirements dependent on the complexity of design.  DISADVANTAGES OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM
  • 30. Conclusion • Regenerative braking is an effective method of improving vehicle efficiency and longevity • Is already in use in many EVs • The technology to do it exists and is often well worth it • Mostly dependent on the wider adoption of EVs or further development of hydraulic regeneration systems
  • 31. [1] Sergio Vazquez, Srdjan Lukic, Eduardo Galvan, Leopoldo G. Franquelo, Juan M. Carrasco and Jose I. Leon, “Recent Advances on Energy Storage Systems”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Dec 2010 [2] Kuruppu Sandun, “Implementaion and Performance Evauation of Regenerative Braking System Coupled Ultra capacitor for a Brushless DC Hub Motor Driven Electric Tricycle”, College of Technology Master Theses, Paper 3 (2010) [3] Cibulka,J, “Kinetic Energy Recovery System by Means of Flywheel Energy Storage”, ISSN 1846-5900,3(2009) [4] M.Rakesh, P.V.R.L. Narasimham, “Different Braking Techniques Employed to a Brushless DC Motor Drive Used in Locomotives”, International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ) Vol.3 No.2, pp.784-790 ISSN 2078-2365 (2012) [5] Qingsheng Shi, Chenghui Zhang, and Naxin Cui, D. Jin and S. Lin, “An Improved Electrical Vehicle Regenerative Braking Strategy Research”, Advances in CSIE, Vol. 2, AISC 169,pp.637-642, 2012 [6] Zhongpeng Yu, Liang Chu, Kun Ma, Lipeng Ren, “Coordinated Control of Regenerative Braking System for a Hybrid Electric Bus”, 2nd International Conference on Electronic & Mechanical Engineering and Information Technology, EMEIT-2012 REFERENCES
  • 32. [7] Ying HUANG, Fuyuan YANG, Minggao OUYANG, Lin CHEN, Guojing GAO, Yongsheng He, “An Efficient Energy Regeneration System for Diesel Engine”, World Electric Vehicle Journal Vol. 4 –ISSN 2032-6653, Nov 5-9, 2010 [8] Junzhi Zhang, Xin Lu, Junliang Xue, and Bos Li, “Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus”, The World Electric Vehicle Journal, Vol. 2 , Issue 4 0363-0369, ISSN 2032-6653, 2008 [9] Wim J.C. Melis, Owais Chishty, “Fully Regenerative Braking and Improved Acceleration for Electrical Vehicles”, International Journal of Sustainable Energy Development (IJSED), Volume 2, Issue 1and 2, March/June, 2013 [10] Jarrad Cody, Özdemir Göl, Zorica Nedic, Andrew Nafalski, Aaron Mohtar, “Regenerative Braking in Electric Vehicle”, University of South Australia, 2009 [11] M. M. Tehrani, M. R. Hairi -Yazdi, B. Haghpanah-Jahromi, V. Esfahanian, M. Amiri and A. R. Jafari, “Design of Anti Lock Regenerative Braking System for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle”, International Journal of Automotive Engineering, Vol. 1 Number 2, June 2011
  • 33. [12] S.J. Clegg, “A Review of Regenerative Braking Systems”, Institute of Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Working Paper 471, 1996 [13] ER. Amitesh Kumar, “Hydraulic Regenerative Braking System”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3 , Issue 4, ISSN 2229-5518, April – 2012 [14] Juan W. Dixon & Micah E. Ortuzar, “Ultra capacitor + DC-DC Convertors in Regenerative Braking System”, IEEE AESS System Magazine, August 2002 [15] Radhika Kapoor, C. Mallika Parveen, Member, IAENG, “Comparative Study on Various KERS”, Proceeding of the World Congress of Engineering, Vol. 3, July 2013 [16] Christopher Dumm, Joseph Sadecky, “Continuously Variable Power Transmission and Regenerative Braking Increasing Automotive Mechanical Efficiency”, University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, Session B4, April, 14 2012. [17] Spencer Evans ,Matt Hilger , “Regenerative Braking: Stopping Doesn’t Have To Slow You Down”, University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, Session B5, April, 14 2012.