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reducing information
 Technology's ever-
 increasing carbon
     footprint
             Tom Raftery

    Blog: cix.ie / tomrafteryit.net
    Podcast: www.podleaders.com

    Email: tom@tomrafteryit.net
CIX

• Cork Internet eXchange - CIX
 • First professional data centre outside
   Dublin
 • Opening Oct ’07
 • Not a sales pitch (unless your based in
   Cork!!!)
CIX.ie
CIX.ie
CIX.ie
CIX.ie
CIX.ie
Lingo
• Watts = Voltage x Amps
• 1000 Watts for 1 hour = 1kWh
• 1U = 1 rack unit = 44.45 mm (1.75 in) high
• 1U servers -> 1A = 220W or .22kW
• Blade Servers/SAN = 500W per 1 U
• A large server might take 1kW
• 40U rack could use 20kW of power
CIX Vision



• Carbon neutral data centre
 • Why?
 • How?
Why? Climate change
Why?


• DC running costs
 • Staffing - reasonable controllable
 • Connectivity - decreasing
 • Energy - increasing
Increasing Energy
    requirements

• Rack of equipment typically used
 • 1.5 kW 7 years ago
 • 4.5 kW 4 years ago and
 • 15 kW in 2006!
 • SL Avatar consumes 1.75 kWh p.a.!
Watts per $1000 server
        spend


  • Price to fill a rack has gone down
  • Power consumption has gone up
  • => Increasing Watts per $1000 of
    server spend
Watts per $1000
Carbon Neutrality



• How?
 • Using Pure Plant Oil (PPO) as an
   energy source
Background

• Data Centres:
 • Consume a lot of electricity
 • At roughly a constant rate
 • Have generating capacity at 2x
   requirements
 • Connected to grid through high
   voltage substations
Background

• Electricity Supply:
 • Cannot be stored
 • Seasonal & diurnal demands
 • ESB offers Max Demand (MD)
   discounts
 • Wind generates 0-30% of demand
   but is highly unstable
The Strategy
• Create a Data Centre power grid
• Powered by diesel generators burning
  PPO
• Grid generates power for ESB by day
  and pulls surplus power from ESB by
  night
• Give control of grid to ESB
• ESB can now buy more wind power
Requirements

• Political will
• Buy in from ESB
• Buy in from other DCs
• Buy in from farmers!
• Time!
In the meantime



• CIX are innovating to maximise
 • Energy efficiency and
 • Minimise carbon footprint
Optimal DC environment
DC Energy Flow
Innovations
• Utilise free cooling
• Dynamically maximise chilled water
  temperature
• Eliminate water mixing
• Minimise humidification
• Eliminate air mixing
• Utilise low resistance, slow speed air
  paths
Free Cooling

• Mean temp in Cork is 10.5˚C
• Optimum inlet temp for servers is
  21˚C
• Exhaust air from servers is 30˚C to
  40˚C
• Use ambient temp to cool the warm
  air and return water
Maximise Chilled Water
         Temp


  • Chillers have a fixed set point
  • CIX developed dynamic chiller
    control system
   • Maximises temp of chilled water
   • Reduces energy required to chill it
Eliminate Water Mixing

 • Fixed chiller set-point
   • If CRAHs get overly cold water
   • => mix with warm water -
     extremely wasteful
 • Dynamic set point eliminates water
   mixing
Minimise Humidification

  • Low temperature water CRAHs =>
    condensation
   • reduces the relative humidity
   • Steam (energy and cooling
     implications) required to humidify
  • Dynamic chiller set point => less
    condensation
Typical DC
Eliminate Air mixing


• Mixing hot and cold air - v wasteful
• Most DCs - hot aisle/cold aisle
  separation
• CIX - cold aisle containment - most
  energy efficient rack layout
Low Resistance, Slow
     Speed Air
 • Large unobstructed under-floor
   cavities
 • Large overhead spaces for return air
   flows
 • Fans require less energy to move air
 • Also, using thyristor controlled
   direct drive fans to reduce belt
   resistance losses
Server Supplied Heating



 • Dimplex heat exchange unit
  • Servers heat the CIX offices
  • Servers heat water for CIX
Power


• 10kv low impedence looped
  connection to the national grid
• Using GE Super ECO UPS’s
  offering >98% efficiency
Power
                                                                 Normal mode
                                              Bypass
                                                                     Static bypass
                                              supply
•Normal mode
• The output voltage is newly generated,                  Rectifier            Inverter
    independently from the input voltage                 AC                                         Load
                                                                              DC
                                              Rectifie
    Heat losses are present in rectifier and
•                                                r                                   AC
                                                               DC
    inverter 
                                supply


                                                                Battery bank
•Super Eco Mode
• Load is supplied via the bypass                              Super Eco Mode
• UPS rectifier keeps the battery charged
                                              Bypass
• UPS inverter switched o                                          Static bypass
                                              supply
    (no heat losses)
                                                         Rectifier            Inverter    Transf.
                                                         AC                                         Load
                                                                              DC
                                              Rectifie
                                                 r                                   AC
                                                               DC
                                              supply


                                                                Battery bank
Typical DC
End Result

               Standard DC   CIX
                  33%         12%
    Chiller
                   3%         1%
 Humidifier
                   9%          4%
    CRAC
                  30%         80%
IT Equipment
                   5%        0.01%
     PDU
                  18%         2%
     UPS
                   1%         1%
   Lighting
                   1%          1%
 Switch Gear
Conclusion

• Carbon neutrality
 • many stakeholders
 • Political will
 • time to roll out
• Extreme energy efficiency
 • Being built-in!
References

•   Uptime Institute - www.upsite.com

•   APC - www.apc.com

•   GE - www.ge.com

•   CIX Energy Efficiency White Paper - www.cix.ie/air-
    conditioning-efficiency-at-the-cix-data-centre

•   Second Life Avatar Power consumption -
    www.roughtype.com/archives/2006/12/
    avatars_consume.php
Thanks

       Tom Raftery

 Blog: www.tomrafteryit.net
Podcast: www.podleaders.com

Email: tom@tomrafteryit.net

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Reducing Information Technologies ever-increasing carbon footprint

  • 1. reducing information Technology's ever- increasing carbon footprint Tom Raftery Blog: cix.ie / tomrafteryit.net Podcast: www.podleaders.com Email: tom@tomrafteryit.net
  • 2. CIX • Cork Internet eXchange - CIX • First professional data centre outside Dublin • Opening Oct ’07 • Not a sales pitch (unless your based in Cork!!!)
  • 8. Lingo • Watts = Voltage x Amps • 1000 Watts for 1 hour = 1kWh • 1U = 1 rack unit = 44.45 mm (1.75 in) high • 1U servers -> 1A = 220W or .22kW • Blade Servers/SAN = 500W per 1 U • A large server might take 1kW • 40U rack could use 20kW of power
  • 9. CIX Vision • Carbon neutral data centre • Why? • How?
  • 11. Why? • DC running costs • Staffing - reasonable controllable • Connectivity - decreasing • Energy - increasing
  • 12. Increasing Energy requirements • Rack of equipment typically used • 1.5 kW 7 years ago • 4.5 kW 4 years ago and • 15 kW in 2006! • SL Avatar consumes 1.75 kWh p.a.!
  • 13. Watts per $1000 server spend • Price to fill a rack has gone down • Power consumption has gone up • => Increasing Watts per $1000 of server spend
  • 15. Carbon Neutrality • How? • Using Pure Plant Oil (PPO) as an energy source
  • 16. Background • Data Centres: • Consume a lot of electricity • At roughly a constant rate • Have generating capacity at 2x requirements • Connected to grid through high voltage substations
  • 17. Background • Electricity Supply: • Cannot be stored • Seasonal & diurnal demands • ESB offers Max Demand (MD) discounts • Wind generates 0-30% of demand but is highly unstable
  • 18. The Strategy • Create a Data Centre power grid • Powered by diesel generators burning PPO • Grid generates power for ESB by day and pulls surplus power from ESB by night • Give control of grid to ESB • ESB can now buy more wind power
  • 19. Requirements • Political will • Buy in from ESB • Buy in from other DCs • Buy in from farmers! • Time!
  • 20. In the meantime • CIX are innovating to maximise • Energy efficiency and • Minimise carbon footprint
  • 23. Innovations • Utilise free cooling • Dynamically maximise chilled water temperature • Eliminate water mixing • Minimise humidification • Eliminate air mixing • Utilise low resistance, slow speed air paths
  • 24. Free Cooling • Mean temp in Cork is 10.5˚C • Optimum inlet temp for servers is 21˚C • Exhaust air from servers is 30˚C to 40˚C • Use ambient temp to cool the warm air and return water
  • 25. Maximise Chilled Water Temp • Chillers have a fixed set point • CIX developed dynamic chiller control system • Maximises temp of chilled water • Reduces energy required to chill it
  • 26. Eliminate Water Mixing • Fixed chiller set-point • If CRAHs get overly cold water • => mix with warm water - extremely wasteful • Dynamic set point eliminates water mixing
  • 27. Minimise Humidification • Low temperature water CRAHs => condensation • reduces the relative humidity • Steam (energy and cooling implications) required to humidify • Dynamic chiller set point => less condensation
  • 29. Eliminate Air mixing • Mixing hot and cold air - v wasteful • Most DCs - hot aisle/cold aisle separation • CIX - cold aisle containment - most energy efficient rack layout
  • 30. Low Resistance, Slow Speed Air • Large unobstructed under-floor cavities • Large overhead spaces for return air flows • Fans require less energy to move air • Also, using thyristor controlled direct drive fans to reduce belt resistance losses
  • 31. Server Supplied Heating • Dimplex heat exchange unit • Servers heat the CIX offices • Servers heat water for CIX
  • 32. Power • 10kv low impedence looped connection to the national grid • Using GE Super ECO UPS’s offering >98% efficiency
  • 33. Power Normal mode Bypass Static bypass supply •Normal mode • The output voltage is newly generated, Rectifier Inverter independently from the input voltage AC Load DC Rectifie Heat losses are present in rectifier and • r AC DC inverter supply Battery bank •Super Eco Mode • Load is supplied via the bypass Super Eco Mode • UPS rectifier keeps the battery charged Bypass • UPS inverter switched o Static bypass supply (no heat losses) Rectifier Inverter Transf. AC Load DC Rectifie r AC DC supply Battery bank
  • 35. End Result Standard DC CIX 33% 12% Chiller 3% 1% Humidifier 9% 4% CRAC 30% 80% IT Equipment 5% 0.01% PDU 18% 2% UPS 1% 1% Lighting 1% 1% Switch Gear
  • 36. Conclusion • Carbon neutrality • many stakeholders • Political will • time to roll out • Extreme energy efficiency • Being built-in!
  • 37. References • Uptime Institute - www.upsite.com • APC - www.apc.com • GE - www.ge.com • CIX Energy Efficiency White Paper - www.cix.ie/air- conditioning-efficiency-at-the-cix-data-centre • Second Life Avatar Power consumption - www.roughtype.com/archives/2006/12/ avatars_consume.php
  • 38. Thanks Tom Raftery Blog: www.tomrafteryit.net Podcast: www.podleaders.com Email: tom@tomrafteryit.net