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Concepts on  Real Time Systems & RTOS By Ch. Vishwa Mohan Software Consultant & Trainer
Who am I anyway?  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What is an Real Time System ?  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What is an Real Time System ?  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
A simple fluid control system Pipe Flow meter Valve Interface Computer Time Input flow reading Processing Output valve angle
A Widget-Packing Station Line controller Computer Switch Assembly line Box 0 = stop 1 = run Bell Switch
A Typical Embedded  System Algorithms for Digital Control Data Logging Data Retrieval and Display Operator Interface Interface Engineering System Remote Monitoring System Real-Time Clock Database Operator’s Console Display  Devices Real-Time Computer
Characteristics of Real Time Systems ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Concurrent Programming  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why we need Concurrent Programming ?  ,[object Object],Response time in seconds 10 -7 10 -6 10 -5 10 -4 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 10 2 10 1 10 -8 10 -9 10 0 human tape floppy CD memory processor
Parallelism Between CPU and I/O Devices CPU Initiate  I/O Operation Interrupt I/O Routine  I/O Finished I/O Device Process I/O Request Signal Completion Continue with Outstanding Requests
Airline Reservation System VDU VDU VDU VDU P P P P Process Database
Air Traffic Control
Terminology ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Reliability, Failure and Faults ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Real Time S/W design include of:  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Topics interest in RT System Includes:  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Metrics of Real Time Systems Include: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Problems for Real Time Software Developers:  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Hard, Soft & Firm Real Time Systems: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Hard, Soft & Firm Real Time Systems: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Hard, Soft & Firm Real Time Systems: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object]
RTOS ( Real Time Operating System ) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Different RTOS’s available :  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Real-time Programming Languages ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
RTOS Characteristics: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
RTOS Characteristics:  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Different Types of Multitasking Systems:   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Priority Inheritance ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Deadlocks and Race Conditions ,[object Object],[object Object]
Definition on Latencies & Delays:  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Interrupt Latencies: ,[object Object]
Interrupt & Context Switch Latency:
Steps Involved in Interrupt Processing: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Considerations Selecting RTOS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Considerations Selecting RTOS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Factors Selecting Commercial Operating Systems:
Thank you ! You can reach me at:

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Real Time Systems & RTOS

  • 1. Concepts on Real Time Systems & RTOS By Ch. Vishwa Mohan Software Consultant & Trainer
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. A simple fluid control system Pipe Flow meter Valve Interface Computer Time Input flow reading Processing Output valve angle
  • 6. A Widget-Packing Station Line controller Computer Switch Assembly line Box 0 = stop 1 = run Bell Switch
  • 7. A Typical Embedded System Algorithms for Digital Control Data Logging Data Retrieval and Display Operator Interface Interface Engineering System Remote Monitoring System Real-Time Clock Database Operator’s Console Display Devices Real-Time Computer
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. Parallelism Between CPU and I/O Devices CPU Initiate I/O Operation Interrupt I/O Routine I/O Finished I/O Device Process I/O Request Signal Completion Continue with Outstanding Requests
  • 12. Airline Reservation System VDU VDU VDU VDU P P P P Process Database
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. Interrupt & Context Switch Latency:
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38. Factors Selecting Commercial Operating Systems:
  • 39. Thank you ! You can reach me at:

Editor's Notes

  1. Definition comes from Ben Ari Implementation of parallelism is a topic in computer systems (hardware and software) that is essentially independent of concurrent programming. The topic has been around for a long time. |Can we traced back to Conway and Dijkstra in the early 60’s. Perhaps its defining moment was the publications of Dijkstra’s paper on Co-operating Sequential Processesin 1965 First concurrent programming language Simula 66? Not under 1983 until we see the first international standard concurrent programming language - Ada. This Department via Ian Pyle and Ian Wand were involved in that development Indeed is not Universally accepted that programming languages should be concurrent
  2. Generally speaking, RTOSs are a subset of embedded operating systems. While you can solve many application challenges with an embedded operating system, some challenges can only be solved with the determinism afforded by a hard RTOS.
  3. VxWorks uses Micro kernel with minmal set of utilities. (In the early days OS uses Monolithic kernel , It is a big kernel putting all together) VxWorks's default scheduler comes with two possible scheduling algorithms : A preemptive prioritybased scheduler (with 256 priority levels) and a round-robin scheduler . It is also possible to use a POSIX scheduler with both a first-in first-out (FIFO) and a round-robin algorithm. eCOS is an RTOS from Redhat. RT Linux consists of LynxOS from LynxWorks and BlueHat Linux.
  4. High-speed control applications, such as hardware-in-the-loop simulations and motion control systems, typically require ISR and IST times to be less than 10 µs.
  5. Context switch latency is the amount of time it takes to switch control to a high-priority process in response to an event that makes it run-able
  6. Can you assign those algorithms on a per-thread basis, or does the RTOS force you into assigning one algorithm to all threads in your system? In Rate-Monotonic scheduling sets static priorities to the periodic tasks which it's scheduling. If a task has a short period - that is, it will be executed often, the scheduler will give it a higher priority . Tasks with longer period gets a lower priority . The draw backs of this schedule algorithm is it can't always guarantee that it's possible to schedule a set of tasks, or more correctly, it can't always maximize the CPU utilization EDF (Earliest Deadline First) scheduling case tasks always have dynamic priorities. The tasks with earliest deadlines will have always high priority. POSIX 1.b Scheduler are SCHEDULE_FIFO (First in First out) and SCHEDULE_RR (Round Robin) Does the RTOS support a partitioning scheduler that provides tasks with a guaranteed percentage of CPU time, regardless of what other tasks, including higher-priority tasks, are doing? They also ensure that critical tasks can remain available and meet their deadlines, even when the system is subjected to denial of service attacks and other malicious exploits. Can you easily customize the GUI's look-and-feel? Can the GUI display and input multiple languages (Chinese, Korean, Japanese, English, Russian, etc.) simultaneously? Can 2D and 3D applications easily share the same screen? Does the RTOS support an up-to-date suite of preintegrated protocol stacks, such as IPv4, IPv6, IPsec, SCTP, and IP filtering with NAT? Does it also support an embedded Web browser? The browser should have a scalable footprint and be capable of rendering standard Web pages on very small screens. It should also support standards such as HTML 4.01, SSL 3.0, CSS 1 and 2, OMA , JavaScript, WAP, and WML. Does the RTOS lock you into a proprietary API, or does it provide full support for a standard API like POSIX, which makes it easier to port code to and from other OSs? Does the RTOS vendor provide well-documented source and customization kits to help tailor the RTOS to your specific requirements? Does the vendor also offer driver development kits,