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Raskar, Camera Culture, MIT Media Lab




                                  Imaging Ventures
                                        Camera Culture
             Ramesh Raskar
             Associate Professor
             MIT Media Lab
                       Ramesh Raskar

             http://raskar.info
             http://FB.com/rraskar
Business Plan Executive Summaries
                             Hadzima’s Pyramid


                                                                                         Phrase
                         Core Concept
                                                                                         Paragraph
                        Elevator Speech
                                                                                         Few Pages
                      Executive Summary
                   Powerpoint Presentation                                               5-15 Slides


                       Full Business Plan                                                20-50 Pages

                  Detailed Support Foundation                                            Binders



MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~
http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/                                        Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Tech “Push” vs Market “Pull”

  • Refining a business idea is iterating between
    “what you can do (the How)” and “what’s
    most worth doing (the Why)”
  • Converging top-down and bottom-up thinking


             Why                                 Problem
             How                                 Solution
                                                         Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-
How to Invent?


After X, what is neXt

           Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab Lab
                    Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media
X          X+Y

                        d
X   neXt               X

    X++       X
           Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab Lab
                    Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media
Imaging Ventures
   MAS.533
         Exploring Cameras, Displays & Visual
                Computing Innovations

                                                                                   Spring 20xx
                                                                                   Tue 4-6p
                                                                               Media Lab e14-525

                                                                        Professor Ramesh Raskar
                                                                                    &
                                                                              Joost Bonsen

                                                                    http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu
                    Joost Bonsen
 MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
The Full MIT Innovation Ecology
                                                    Commercial                  University
                        Basic+Applied                                                                      Emerging                   Established
                          Research                   Promise &                   Spin-Off                   Growth                     Company
                                                      Viability




 Academic /
 Research
  Offices


                                                                                                           QuickTime™ and a
                                                                                                            decompressor
 Support /                                                                                          are needed to see this picture.
  Alum
 Offices:




  Student /
  Informal
Organizations



              MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
Action Labs @ MIT
Both For-Credit Curricular & Non-Credit Extracurricular Offerings

                         The MIT InnovatIon PIpelIne
                                       Commercial                  University
           Basic+Applied                                                                     Emerging                Established
             Research                   Promise &                   Spin-Off                  Growth                  Company
                                         Viability



                      Tech Testbeds                                                                     MarketLabs


                                      New Enterprises                                                            Tiger Teams

  D-Lab Energy,
                   D-Lab Development
   ICT, Health,
                Ventures, Dissemination                                               Africa Health Delivery Lab
 Cycles, Design…                                                                      India Lab
            Imaging VenturesMedia                                                     China Lab
       Neuro Ventures      Ventures                                                                      S-Lab
                  VentureSIGs                                                                          Leadership Lab

 MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
Goals of Class
1. Quality Connections with Fellow Classmates, Course
   Advisors, & Guest Speakers
2. Survey-Level Awareness of Imaging Technology
   Business Challenges & Opportunities
3. Lessons-Learned from Live-Cases
4. A Specific Venture Proposal written up as a Business
   Plan Executive Summary
5. Increased Skills for Analyzing, Communicating, and
   Synthesizing Information towards Imaging Venture
   Creation
6. Global Perspective on Imaging Innovations

       MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
MIT Alum Venture Legacy




       ~ US$ Hundreds of Billions in Market Valuation
Joost Bonsen © 2010 ~ jpbonsen@alum.mit.edu ~ Please email if you use or re-distribute this PPT
           MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
The MIT $100K Entrepreneurship
    & IDEAS Competitions
 • Elevator Pitch Competition -- October
    – 1 minute, $1000 (October)
 • Executive Summary Competition -- November
    – 2 pages, $1000
    – Announced next week Thurs 2/11 7:30pm 10-250

 • Business Plan Competition -- Spring
    – 2 page executive summary + business plan DUE 3/4!
    – $100k Grand Prize + Track Prizes
                                        http://www.mit100k.org/

 • IDEAS Competition
    – Mid-Month Rolling Submission; Grant Funds
                                        http://web.mit.edu/ideas
    MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
MIT $100K Alumni Companies




  MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
MIT Media Lab
    Camera Culture
  Creating new ways to capture and share visual information
                                                                                                                                     Ramesh Raskar
                                                                                                                               http://cameraculture.info
                                                                                                                           Facebook.com/cameraculture

 Computational Photography          Femtosecond Imaging                                        3D Displays
                                      1. Looking around corners                              1. Tensor Display
  1.Light-Field Camera
                                         Using short laser pulses and fast detector, we         A family of compressive light
  A new camera design
                                         aim to build a device that can look around             field displays comprising all
  exploiting the fundamental
                                         corners with no imaging device in the line of          architectures employing a stack
  dictionary of light-fields for a
                                         sight using time resolved transient imaging.           of time-multiplexed, light-
  single-capture capture of
                                                                                                attenuating layers illuminated by
  light-fields     with       full-
                                                                                                uniform or directional
  resolution          refocusing
                                                                                                backlighting
  effects.

                                                                                             2. Layered 3D
  2. Color Primaries
                                                                                                Tomographic techniques for
  A new camera design with
                                                                                                image synthesis on displays
  switchable color filter arrays
                                                                                                composed of compact volumes
  for optimal color fidelity and
                                                                                                of light-attenuating material.
  picture quality on scene
                                      2. Reflectance Recovery                                   Such volumetric attenuators
  geometry, color and
                                         We demonstrate a new technique that allows             recreate a 4D light field or high-
  illumination.
                                         a camera to rapidly acquire reflectance                contrast 2D image when
                                         properties of objects 'in the wild' from a single      illuminated by a uniform
                                         viewpoint, over relatively long distances and          backlight.
  3. Flutter-Shutter                     without encircling equipment.
  A camera that codes the
                                                                                             3. Glasses-free 3D HDTV
  exposure time with a binary
                                      3. Trillion Frames per Second Imaging                     Light field displays with
  pseudo-sequence to de-
                                         A camera fast enough to capture light pulses           increased brightness and
  convolve    and     remove
                                         moving through objects. We can use such a              refresh rate by stacking a pair of
  motion blur in textured
                                         camera to understand reflectance, absorption           modified LCD panels, exploiting
  backgrounds and partial
                                         and scattering properties of materials.                rank and constraint of 3D
  occluders.
                                                                                                displays

                                                                                             4. BIDI Screen
  4. Compressive
                                                                                                A thin, depth-sensing LCD for
  Capture                                                                                       3D interaction using light fields
  We analyze the gamut of                                                                       which supports both 2D multi-
  visual signals from low-                                                                      touch and unencumbered 3D
  dimensional images to light-                                                                  gestures.
  fields and propose non-
  adaptive projections for
  efficient sparsity exploiting
                                                                                             5. Living Windows 6D
  reconstruction.                                                                               Display
May 2012                                                                                        A completely passive display
Can you look
around the corner ?
Multi-path
                          Analysis
2nd Bounce




             1st Bounce



             3rd Bounce
Compressive Displays




                       mask K




                         …
                       mask 3


                       mask 2


                       mask 1


                       light box
                                   Layered 3D
Health & Wellness                                   Human Computer Interaction                          Visual Social Computing
1.    Retinal Imaging                                1.   Bokode                                        1.    Photocloud
      With simplified optics and cleaver                  Low-cost, passive optical design                    A near real-time system for
      illumination we visualize images of                 so that bar codes can be shrunk                     interactively exploring a
      the retina in a standalone device                   to fewer than 3mm and read by                       collectively captured moment
      easily operated by the end user.                    ordinary cameras several meters                     without explicit 3D
2.    NETRA/CATRA                                         away.                                               reconstruction.
      Low-cost cell-phone attachments
      that measures eye-glass                        2.   Specklesense                                  2.    Vision Blocks
      prescription and cataract information               Set of motion-sensing                               On-demand, in-browser,
      from the eye.                                       configurations based on laser                       customizable, computer-vision
                                                          speckle sensing . The underlying                    application-building platform for
3.    Cellphone Microscopy
                                                          principles allow interactions to                    the masses. Without any prior
      A platform for computational
                                                          be fast, precise, extremely                         programming experience, users
      microscopy and remote healthcare
                                                          compact, and low cost.                              can create and share computer
4.    High-speed Tomography                                                                                   vision applications.
      A compact, fast CAT scan machine               3.   Sound Around
      using no mechanical moving parts or                 Soundaround is a multi-viewer
      synchronization.                                    interactive audio system,
                                                                                                        3. Lenschat
                                                                                                              LensChat allows users to share
                                                          designed to be integrated into
                                                                                                              mutual photos with friends or
5.    Shield Fields                                       multi-view displays presenting
                                                                                                              borrow the perspective and
      3D reconstruction of objects from a                 localized audio/video channels
                                                                                                              abilities of many cameras.
      single shot photo using spatial                     with no need for glasses or
      heterodyning.                                       headphones.

6.    Second Skin
      Using 3D motion tracking with real-
      time vibrotactile feedback aids the
      correct of movement and position
      errors to improve motor learning.

                                                                                                                                                  Visit us online at
                                                                                                                       Cameraculture.info
                                                                                                                               fb.com/cameraculture
     Light Propagation Theory and Fourier Optics
1. Augmented Light Fields                            2. Hologram v Parallax Barrier                    3. Ray–Based Diffraction Model
      Expands light field representations                 Defines connections between                        Simplified capture of diffraction
      to describe phase and diffraction                   parallax barrier displays and                      model for computer graphics
      effects by using the Wigner                         holographic displays by analyzing                  applications.
      Distribution Function                               their operations and limitations in
                                                          phase space


     Post-Doctorial Researchers: Doug Lanman, Gordon Wetzstein, Alex Olwal, Christopher Barsi
     Research Assistants: Matthew Hirsch, Otkrist Gupta, Nikhil Naik, Jason Boggess, Everett Lawson, Aydın Arpa, Kshitij Marwah
     Visiting Researchers & Students: Di Wu, Daryl Lim
Computational
Smart Cameras
                         Camera

       Pixels                Photons
      Images         Light Fields (4D/6D/8D)

    Illumination      Computational Light
        Lenses             Transport


  Image Processing        Algebraic Rank
                       Scene Priors/sparsity
                     Transforms (signal proc)
Co-designing Optical and Digital Processing


                                           Computational
                   Optics
                                           Light Transport
Photon Hacking


                   Displays
                  Sensors       Computational
                 Illumination    Photography



                                   Signal Processing
                                       Computer Vision
                                              Machine Learning

                                   Bit Hacking
How to Invent?


After X, what is neXt

           Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab Lab
                    Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media
X          X+Y

                        d
X   neXt               X

    X++       X
           Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab Lab
                    Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media
Simple Exercise ..

• Image Compression
  – Save Bandwidth and storage




         What is neXt
                                 Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Simple Exercise ..

• Image Compression
  – Save Bandwidth and storage




.. Video Compression ..
  – Extend the idea to time dimension


                                    Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Strategy #1:          Xd

Extend it to next (or some other) dimension




                                Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
X=
•   Idea you just heard
•   Concept
•   Patent
•   New Product
•   Product feature
•   Design
•   Art
•   Algorithm

                               Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Strategy #1:          Xd
• Extend it to next dimension (or some other) dimension

   – Flickr to Youtube
   – Wikipedia to .. ?


• Generalize the concept
  (common in patent applications)

• Text, Audio (Speech), Image, Video .. Whats next ?
   – CD ..
• Images to infrared, sound, ultrasound to EM spectrum
• Macro scale to microscale
  • Airbag for car to airbag for .. ?
                                           Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Data  Text  Audio  Images  Video  ..




                                       32
Strategy #2:               X+Y
• Fusion of the dissimilar
  – More dissimilar, more spectacular the output


• Example
  – Scientific imaging + Photography
     • Eye-care
     • Coded aperture
     • Tomography




                                           Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Slit Lamp for
  Cataracts
Retinal
 Scan




          Slit Lamp Exam   Retinal Scan




                                          35
Phoropter




            Reading Charts
NETRA
Near Eye Tool for Refractive Assessment




Vitor Pamplona, Ankit Mohan, Manuel Oliveira, Ramesh Raskar SIGGRAPH 2010
0.6B without
                  2B             glasses
              refractive
                errors



    4.5B
cell phones




                      7 Billion
                      people

                                                   NETRA at
                                             LVP Eye Institute
Diagnostics                       Dispensing Glasses




Bulky Equipment , Trained Professionals     Increasingly cheap and easy
Refraction Map using Wavefront Sensor




Wavefront aberrometer




                        Shack-Hartmann WS
NETRA = Inverse of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor
             User interactively creates the Spot Diagram

Spot Diagram CellPhone
   on LCD        LCD                                 2. Displace spots
                                                       till single dot
                                                         perceived




1. Displace 25           EyePiece
  spots with
   smart UI



                                                               41
300+ DPI LCDs
NETRA Worldwide




     Confidential   43
Kenya




Thermometer for Eye
                44
India
Brazil
Strategy #3: X
Do exactly the opposite




                  Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Fosbury Flop
                                                                  Replacement of landing
                                                                 surfaces with foam rubber

                                                                                 Fosbury Method
                                                                         1968 Olympics: 2.24m



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-S0305-
0030,_Rolf_Beilschmidt.jpg


 Straddle Method for High Jump


                                                                 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dick_Fosbury
                                                                                    Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
• Toll Free calls
• Reverse Auction




                    Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Strategy #3:                      X
                 Do exactly the opposite
• Processing, Memory, Bandwidth
   – In Computing world, in any era, one of this is a bottleneck
   – But overtime, they change
   – E.g. bandwidth is now considered virtually limitless


• Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
   – Michael Hammer, James Champy, 1990s
• In imaging:
   – SLR: Faster mirror flip or no mirror flip
       • Companies spent years improving mirror flip speed
       • Why not just remove it?
• More computation
• Less light
                                                        Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
X          X+Y

                        d
X   neXt               X

    X++       X
           Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Strategy #4:                X
• Given a Hammer ..
  – Find all the nails
  – Sometimes even screws and bolts




                                  Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Strategy #4:                X
• Given a Hammer ..
  – Find all the nails
  – Sometimes even screws and bolts
• Given a cool solution/technique/Opportunity
  – Find other problems
  – (Where to find them?)
• Examples
  – Compressive sensing
  – Mobile phone opportunity

                                  Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Strategy #5:             X
• Given a nail,
  – Find all hammers
  – Sometimes even screwdrivers/pliers may work
• Given a problem,
  – Find other solutions
  – (Where to find them?)
• Examples
  – App store (Apple) ..
  – How to create Open platform for all devices
  – How to create a ‘hardware’ app store
                                     Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Strategy #6: X++
• Pick your adjective ..
• Making it faster, better, cheaper


       neXt = adjective + X



                                      Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
X++ : Add your favorite adjective
•   Context aware,
•   Adaptive
•   (temporally) Coherent,
•   Hierarchical,
•   Progressive
•   Efficient
•   Parallelized
•   Distributed
•   Example: Image or video compression schemes

• Personalized/Customized
• Democratized
                                          Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
X++ : Add your favorite adjective


• Example: Image or video compression schemes
• But X++ is a sign
   – The field is maturing in terms of research
   – But booming in business impact


• Kaizen
   – Small incremental changes
   – Japanese Management styles (6sigma, Kanban)




                                                  Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Where to find the ‘X’
• Awards (best papers, product, researchers)

• Talks abstract
   – no need to attend, subscribe to mailing lists
• Network and talk to people
• Avoid small-talk .. Ask ‘what is the latest X’

• Patents
• Table of Contents
• Index pages
                                              Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Pitfalls
• These six ways are only a start
• They are a good mental exercise and will
  allow you to train as a researcher
• Great for projects
• But
  – Maynot produce radically new ideas
  – Sometimes a danger of being labeled incremental
  – Could be into ‘public domain ideas’


                                    Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
What are Bad ideas to pursue
• X then Y (then Z)
  – X+Y is great with true fusion, fusion of dissimilar is best
  – But avoid a ‘pipeline’ systems, where the output of one is
    THEN channeled into the input of the next stage, and non
    of the components are novel (idea is easy to scoop)




  http://www.flickr.com/photos/rsilfver/178134761/   Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
What are Bad ideas to pursue
• X then Y (then Z)
  – X+Y is great with true fusion, fusion of dissimilar is best
  – But avoid a ‘pipeline’ systems, where the output of one is
    THEN channeled into the input of the next stage, and non
    of the components are novel (idea is easy to scoop)
• Follow the hype (too much competition)
• Do because it can be done
  – (Why do we climb a mountain? because it is there! )
  – But only the first one gets a credit.
  – May make you strong, and give you a sense of
    achievement but not a research project.

                                            Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Is the idea worth pursuing?

– My personal triangle of criteria
   • Fun, Impact, Money
   • 2 out of 3

– Intersection of interests, skills, demand



– Maybe another talk ..

                                     Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Is project worthwhile? Heilmeier's Questions
                   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_H._Heilmeier#Heilmeier.27s_Catechism



• What
    – What are you trying to do? Articulate your objectives using absolutely no jargon.
• Related work
    – How is it done today, and what are the limits of current practice?
• Contribution
    – What's new in your approach and why do you think it will be successful?
• Motivation
    – Who cares?
    – If you're successful, what difference will it make?
• Challenges
    – What are the risks and the payoffs?
    – How much will it cost?
    – How long will it take?
• Evaluation
    – What are the midterm and final "exams" to check for success?
• Why now? (why not before, what’s new that makes possible)
• Why us? (wrong answers: I am smart, I can work harder than others)
Great Research: Strive for Five

1. Before Five teams
       Be first, often let others do details
2. Beyond Five years
       What no one is thinking about
3. Within Five layers of ‘Human’ Impact
       Relevance
4. Beyond Five minutes of description
       Deep, iterative, participatory
5. Fusing Five+ Expertise
     Multi-disciplinary, proactive



                                               Ramesh Raskar, http://raskar.info
Acknowledgements

• Members of Camera Culture, MIT group

•   Vitor Pamplona
•   Kari Pulli, Nokia
•   Asmita Joshi
•   Rupesh Nasre, IISc
•   Mark Bolas, USC
•   Rajiv Narayan, Broad Institute, MIT
•   Joost Bonsen, MIT


                                          Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Research ..
• http://raskar.info
   – How to come up w ideas: Idea Hexagon
   – How to write a paper
   – How to give a talk
   – Open research problems
   – How to decide merit of a project
   – How to attend a conference, brainstorm
   – Facebook.com/ rRaskar
• Tips
   – Get on Seminar/Talks mailing lists worldwide
   – http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~robins/YouAndYourResearch.html
   – Why do so few scientists make significant contributions and so many are
      forgotten in the long run?
   – Highly recommended Hamming talk at Bell Labs
Unfair Advantage




              Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Extras ..
Prepare                                                                  IP
•   Internships                                                          •    Do asmuch in univ, file provisionals (talk to TLO)
•   Incubator (YC, TechStars)                                            •    Why not to file
•   Move to cluster                                                            –     To enforce rather than defend (5 years, $3M)
                                                                               –     Prevent someone else from patenting (write journal paper instead)
•   Find a mentor (but impress them first)                                     –     License (too much effort and luck)
•   If you do good stuff, good stuff will happen to you                  •    Why to file
•   Journal paper, conf (get your ideas validated)                             –     Stimulate investment or acquisition
                                                                               –     Deter patent infringements lawsuits
•   Dont worry about discussing your plans w hundreds                          –     Have leverage wrt partners (before JV)
      –   Ideas don’t matter as much, team and execution matters
•   Talk to people in very diff areas
      –   (e.g. arial survey of powerlines)                              Productivity
•   Should you have Prof. on board?                                      •     Biz Card
•   Kickstarter (video demo)                                             •     LinkedIn
•                                                                        •     Website
                                                                         •     CardMunch
                                                                         •     Use Google Doc for Exec Summary
                                                                               –     (read only mode)
                                                                         •         Many online resources
                                                                               –     biz plan, Founders Workbench (Goodwin Procter)



Unfair Advantage
•   Why now? (why not before, what’s new that makes possible)
•   Why us? (wrong answers: I am smart, I can work harder than others)
ne   X   t

             Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
MIT Media Lab     Ramesh Raskar   http://raskar.info    facebook.com/rraskar




            X               X+Y

                                      d
   X            neXt                 X

            X++            X
                                                   Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab

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Raskar Entrepreneurship in Imaging, Imaging Ventures, CVPR 2012

  • 1. Raskar, Camera Culture, MIT Media Lab Imaging Ventures Camera Culture Ramesh Raskar Associate Professor MIT Media Lab Ramesh Raskar http://raskar.info http://FB.com/rraskar
  • 2. Business Plan Executive Summaries Hadzima’s Pyramid Phrase Core Concept Paragraph Elevator Speech Few Pages Executive Summary Powerpoint Presentation 5-15 Slides Full Business Plan 20-50 Pages Detailed Support Foundation Binders MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/ Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 3. Tech “Push” vs Market “Pull” • Refining a business idea is iterating between “what you can do (the How)” and “what’s most worth doing (the Why)” • Converging top-down and bottom-up thinking Why Problem How Solution Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-
  • 4. How to Invent? After X, what is neXt Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab Lab Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media
  • 5. X X+Y d X neXt X X++ X Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab Lab Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media
  • 6. Imaging Ventures MAS.533 Exploring Cameras, Displays & Visual Computing Innovations Spring 20xx Tue 4-6p Media Lab e14-525 Professor Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu Joost Bonsen MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
  • 7. The Full MIT Innovation Ecology Commercial University Basic+Applied Emerging Established Research Promise & Spin-Off Growth Company Viability Academic / Research Offices QuickTime™ and a decompressor Support / are needed to see this picture. Alum Offices: Student / Informal Organizations MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
  • 8. Action Labs @ MIT Both For-Credit Curricular & Non-Credit Extracurricular Offerings The MIT InnovatIon PIpelIne Commercial University Basic+Applied Emerging Established Research Promise & Spin-Off Growth Company Viability Tech Testbeds MarketLabs New Enterprises Tiger Teams D-Lab Energy, D-Lab Development ICT, Health, Ventures, Dissemination Africa Health Delivery Lab Cycles, Design… India Lab Imaging VenturesMedia China Lab Neuro Ventures Ventures S-Lab VentureSIGs Leadership Lab MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
  • 9. Goals of Class 1. Quality Connections with Fellow Classmates, Course Advisors, & Guest Speakers 2. Survey-Level Awareness of Imaging Technology Business Challenges & Opportunities 3. Lessons-Learned from Live-Cases 4. A Specific Venture Proposal written up as a Business Plan Executive Summary 5. Increased Skills for Analyzing, Communicating, and Synthesizing Information towards Imaging Venture Creation 6. Global Perspective on Imaging Innovations MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
  • 10. MIT Alum Venture Legacy ~ US$ Hundreds of Billions in Market Valuation Joost Bonsen © 2010 ~ jpbonsen@alum.mit.edu ~ Please email if you use or re-distribute this PPT MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
  • 11. The MIT $100K Entrepreneurship & IDEAS Competitions • Elevator Pitch Competition -- October – 1 minute, $1000 (October) • Executive Summary Competition -- November – 2 pages, $1000 – Announced next week Thurs 2/11 7:30pm 10-250 • Business Plan Competition -- Spring – 2 page executive summary + business plan DUE 3/4! – $100k Grand Prize + Track Prizes http://www.mit100k.org/ • IDEAS Competition – Mid-Month Rolling Submission; Grant Funds http://web.mit.edu/ideas MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
  • 12. MIT $100K Alumni Companies MAS.533 Imaging Ventures ~ Ramesh Raskar & Joost Bonsen © Spring 2010 ~ Tue 6-8pm ~ http://imagingventures.media.mit.edu/
  • 13. MIT Media Lab Camera Culture Creating new ways to capture and share visual information Ramesh Raskar http://cameraculture.info Facebook.com/cameraculture Computational Photography Femtosecond Imaging 3D Displays 1. Looking around corners 1. Tensor Display 1.Light-Field Camera Using short laser pulses and fast detector, we A family of compressive light A new camera design aim to build a device that can look around field displays comprising all exploiting the fundamental corners with no imaging device in the line of architectures employing a stack dictionary of light-fields for a sight using time resolved transient imaging. of time-multiplexed, light- single-capture capture of attenuating layers illuminated by light-fields with full- uniform or directional resolution refocusing backlighting effects. 2. Layered 3D 2. Color Primaries Tomographic techniques for A new camera design with image synthesis on displays switchable color filter arrays composed of compact volumes for optimal color fidelity and of light-attenuating material. picture quality on scene 2. Reflectance Recovery Such volumetric attenuators geometry, color and We demonstrate a new technique that allows recreate a 4D light field or high- illumination. a camera to rapidly acquire reflectance contrast 2D image when properties of objects 'in the wild' from a single illuminated by a uniform viewpoint, over relatively long distances and backlight. 3. Flutter-Shutter without encircling equipment. A camera that codes the 3. Glasses-free 3D HDTV exposure time with a binary 3. Trillion Frames per Second Imaging Light field displays with pseudo-sequence to de- A camera fast enough to capture light pulses increased brightness and convolve and remove moving through objects. We can use such a refresh rate by stacking a pair of motion blur in textured camera to understand reflectance, absorption modified LCD panels, exploiting backgrounds and partial and scattering properties of materials. rank and constraint of 3D occluders. displays 4. BIDI Screen 4. Compressive A thin, depth-sensing LCD for Capture 3D interaction using light fields We analyze the gamut of which supports both 2D multi- visual signals from low- touch and unencumbered 3D dimensional images to light- gestures. fields and propose non- adaptive projections for efficient sparsity exploiting 5. Living Windows 6D reconstruction. Display May 2012 A completely passive display
  • 14. Can you look around the corner ?
  • 15. Multi-path Analysis 2nd Bounce 1st Bounce 3rd Bounce
  • 16. Compressive Displays mask K … mask 3 mask 2 mask 1 light box Layered 3D
  • 17. Health & Wellness Human Computer Interaction Visual Social Computing 1. Retinal Imaging 1. Bokode 1. Photocloud With simplified optics and cleaver Low-cost, passive optical design A near real-time system for illumination we visualize images of so that bar codes can be shrunk interactively exploring a the retina in a standalone device to fewer than 3mm and read by collectively captured moment easily operated by the end user. ordinary cameras several meters without explicit 3D 2. NETRA/CATRA away. reconstruction. Low-cost cell-phone attachments that measures eye-glass 2. Specklesense 2. Vision Blocks prescription and cataract information Set of motion-sensing On-demand, in-browser, from the eye. configurations based on laser customizable, computer-vision speckle sensing . The underlying application-building platform for 3. Cellphone Microscopy principles allow interactions to the masses. Without any prior A platform for computational be fast, precise, extremely programming experience, users microscopy and remote healthcare compact, and low cost. can create and share computer 4. High-speed Tomography vision applications. A compact, fast CAT scan machine 3. Sound Around using no mechanical moving parts or Soundaround is a multi-viewer synchronization. interactive audio system, 3. Lenschat LensChat allows users to share designed to be integrated into mutual photos with friends or 5. Shield Fields multi-view displays presenting borrow the perspective and 3D reconstruction of objects from a localized audio/video channels abilities of many cameras. single shot photo using spatial with no need for glasses or heterodyning. headphones. 6. Second Skin Using 3D motion tracking with real- time vibrotactile feedback aids the correct of movement and position errors to improve motor learning. Visit us online at Cameraculture.info fb.com/cameraculture Light Propagation Theory and Fourier Optics 1. Augmented Light Fields 2. Hologram v Parallax Barrier 3. Ray–Based Diffraction Model Expands light field representations Defines connections between Simplified capture of diffraction to describe phase and diffraction parallax barrier displays and model for computer graphics effects by using the Wigner holographic displays by analyzing applications. Distribution Function their operations and limitations in phase space Post-Doctorial Researchers: Doug Lanman, Gordon Wetzstein, Alex Olwal, Christopher Barsi Research Assistants: Matthew Hirsch, Otkrist Gupta, Nikhil Naik, Jason Boggess, Everett Lawson, Aydın Arpa, Kshitij Marwah Visiting Researchers & Students: Di Wu, Daryl Lim
  • 18. Computational Smart Cameras Camera Pixels Photons Images Light Fields (4D/6D/8D) Illumination Computational Light Lenses Transport Image Processing Algebraic Rank Scene Priors/sparsity Transforms (signal proc)
  • 19. Co-designing Optical and Digital Processing Computational Optics Light Transport Photon Hacking Displays Sensors Computational Illumination Photography Signal Processing Computer Vision Machine Learning Bit Hacking
  • 20. How to Invent? After X, what is neXt Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab Lab Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media
  • 21. X X+Y d X neXt X X++ X Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab Lab Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media
  • 22. Simple Exercise .. • Image Compression – Save Bandwidth and storage What is neXt Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 23. Simple Exercise .. • Image Compression – Save Bandwidth and storage .. Video Compression .. – Extend the idea to time dimension Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 24. Strategy #1: Xd Extend it to next (or some other) dimension Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 25. X= • Idea you just heard • Concept • Patent • New Product • Product feature • Design • Art • Algorithm Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 26. Strategy #1: Xd • Extend it to next dimension (or some other) dimension – Flickr to Youtube – Wikipedia to .. ? • Generalize the concept (common in patent applications) • Text, Audio (Speech), Image, Video .. Whats next ? – CD .. • Images to infrared, sound, ultrasound to EM spectrum • Macro scale to microscale • Airbag for car to airbag for .. ? Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 27. Data  Text  Audio  Images  Video  .. 32
  • 28. Strategy #2: X+Y • Fusion of the dissimilar – More dissimilar, more spectacular the output • Example – Scientific imaging + Photography • Eye-care • Coded aperture • Tomography Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 29. Slit Lamp for Cataracts
  • 30. Retinal Scan Slit Lamp Exam Retinal Scan 35
  • 31. Phoropter Reading Charts
  • 32. NETRA Near Eye Tool for Refractive Assessment Vitor Pamplona, Ankit Mohan, Manuel Oliveira, Ramesh Raskar SIGGRAPH 2010
  • 33. 0.6B without 2B glasses refractive errors 4.5B cell phones 7 Billion people NETRA at LVP Eye Institute
  • 34. Diagnostics Dispensing Glasses Bulky Equipment , Trained Professionals Increasingly cheap and easy
  • 35. Refraction Map using Wavefront Sensor Wavefront aberrometer Shack-Hartmann WS
  • 36. NETRA = Inverse of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor User interactively creates the Spot Diagram Spot Diagram CellPhone on LCD LCD 2. Displace spots till single dot perceived 1. Displace 25 EyePiece spots with smart UI 41
  • 38. NETRA Worldwide Confidential 43
  • 40. India
  • 42.
  • 43. Strategy #3: X Do exactly the opposite Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 44. Fosbury Flop Replacement of landing surfaces with foam rubber Fosbury Method 1968 Olympics: 2.24m http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-S0305- 0030,_Rolf_Beilschmidt.jpg Straddle Method for High Jump http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dick_Fosbury Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 45. • Toll Free calls • Reverse Auction Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 46. Strategy #3: X Do exactly the opposite • Processing, Memory, Bandwidth – In Computing world, in any era, one of this is a bottleneck – But overtime, they change – E.g. bandwidth is now considered virtually limitless • Business Process Reengineering (BPR) – Michael Hammer, James Champy, 1990s • In imaging: – SLR: Faster mirror flip or no mirror flip • Companies spent years improving mirror flip speed • Why not just remove it? • More computation • Less light Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 47. X X+Y d X neXt X X++ X Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 48. Strategy #4: X • Given a Hammer .. – Find all the nails – Sometimes even screws and bolts Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 49. Strategy #4: X • Given a Hammer .. – Find all the nails – Sometimes even screws and bolts • Given a cool solution/technique/Opportunity – Find other problems – (Where to find them?) • Examples – Compressive sensing – Mobile phone opportunity Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 50. Strategy #5: X • Given a nail, – Find all hammers – Sometimes even screwdrivers/pliers may work • Given a problem, – Find other solutions – (Where to find them?) • Examples – App store (Apple) .. – How to create Open platform for all devices – How to create a ‘hardware’ app store Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 51. Strategy #6: X++ • Pick your adjective .. • Making it faster, better, cheaper neXt = adjective + X Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 52. X++ : Add your favorite adjective • Context aware, • Adaptive • (temporally) Coherent, • Hierarchical, • Progressive • Efficient • Parallelized • Distributed • Example: Image or video compression schemes • Personalized/Customized • Democratized Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 53. X++ : Add your favorite adjective • Example: Image or video compression schemes • But X++ is a sign – The field is maturing in terms of research – But booming in business impact • Kaizen – Small incremental changes – Japanese Management styles (6sigma, Kanban) Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 54. Where to find the ‘X’ • Awards (best papers, product, researchers) • Talks abstract – no need to attend, subscribe to mailing lists • Network and talk to people • Avoid small-talk .. Ask ‘what is the latest X’ • Patents • Table of Contents • Index pages Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 55. Pitfalls • These six ways are only a start • They are a good mental exercise and will allow you to train as a researcher • Great for projects • But – Maynot produce radically new ideas – Sometimes a danger of being labeled incremental – Could be into ‘public domain ideas’ Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 56. What are Bad ideas to pursue • X then Y (then Z) – X+Y is great with true fusion, fusion of dissimilar is best – But avoid a ‘pipeline’ systems, where the output of one is THEN channeled into the input of the next stage, and non of the components are novel (idea is easy to scoop) http://www.flickr.com/photos/rsilfver/178134761/ Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 57. What are Bad ideas to pursue • X then Y (then Z) – X+Y is great with true fusion, fusion of dissimilar is best – But avoid a ‘pipeline’ systems, where the output of one is THEN channeled into the input of the next stage, and non of the components are novel (idea is easy to scoop) • Follow the hype (too much competition) • Do because it can be done – (Why do we climb a mountain? because it is there! ) – But only the first one gets a credit. – May make you strong, and give you a sense of achievement but not a research project. Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 58. Is the idea worth pursuing? – My personal triangle of criteria • Fun, Impact, Money • 2 out of 3 – Intersection of interests, skills, demand – Maybe another talk .. Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 59. Is project worthwhile? Heilmeier's Questions http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_H._Heilmeier#Heilmeier.27s_Catechism • What – What are you trying to do? Articulate your objectives using absolutely no jargon. • Related work – How is it done today, and what are the limits of current practice? • Contribution – What's new in your approach and why do you think it will be successful? • Motivation – Who cares? – If you're successful, what difference will it make? • Challenges – What are the risks and the payoffs? – How much will it cost? – How long will it take? • Evaluation – What are the midterm and final "exams" to check for success? • Why now? (why not before, what’s new that makes possible) • Why us? (wrong answers: I am smart, I can work harder than others)
  • 60. Great Research: Strive for Five 1. Before Five teams Be first, often let others do details 2. Beyond Five years What no one is thinking about 3. Within Five layers of ‘Human’ Impact Relevance 4. Beyond Five minutes of description Deep, iterative, participatory 5. Fusing Five+ Expertise Multi-disciplinary, proactive Ramesh Raskar, http://raskar.info
  • 61. Acknowledgements • Members of Camera Culture, MIT group • Vitor Pamplona • Kari Pulli, Nokia • Asmita Joshi • Rupesh Nasre, IISc • Mark Bolas, USC • Rajiv Narayan, Broad Institute, MIT • Joost Bonsen, MIT Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 62. Research .. • http://raskar.info – How to come up w ideas: Idea Hexagon – How to write a paper – How to give a talk – Open research problems – How to decide merit of a project – How to attend a conference, brainstorm – Facebook.com/ rRaskar • Tips – Get on Seminar/Talks mailing lists worldwide – http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~robins/YouAndYourResearch.html – Why do so few scientists make significant contributions and so many are forgotten in the long run? – Highly recommended Hamming talk at Bell Labs
  • 63. Unfair Advantage Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 64. Extras .. Prepare IP • Internships • Do asmuch in univ, file provisionals (talk to TLO) • Incubator (YC, TechStars) • Why not to file • Move to cluster – To enforce rather than defend (5 years, $3M) – Prevent someone else from patenting (write journal paper instead) • Find a mentor (but impress them first) – License (too much effort and luck) • If you do good stuff, good stuff will happen to you • Why to file • Journal paper, conf (get your ideas validated) – Stimulate investment or acquisition – Deter patent infringements lawsuits • Dont worry about discussing your plans w hundreds – Have leverage wrt partners (before JV) – Ideas don’t matter as much, team and execution matters • Talk to people in very diff areas – (e.g. arial survey of powerlines) Productivity • Should you have Prof. on board? • Biz Card • Kickstarter (video demo) • LinkedIn • • Website • CardMunch • Use Google Doc for Exec Summary – (read only mode) • Many online resources – biz plan, Founders Workbench (Goodwin Procter) Unfair Advantage • Why now? (why not before, what’s new that makes possible) • Why us? (wrong answers: I am smart, I can work harder than others)
  • 65. ne X t Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab
  • 66. MIT Media Lab Ramesh Raskar http://raskar.info facebook.com/rraskar X X+Y d X neXt X X++ X Ramesh Raskar, MIT Media Lab