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JEFFREY A. LUCEROMPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEDr, FIIER
Healthcare Provider, Educator, Research Generalist
RESEARCH
DESIGN
What is research design?
What is its significance in
writing a research paper?
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
During the session, the participants are expected to:
1. Familiarize with the definition, purpose and nature
of different research designs
2. Identify the different research designs in
quantitative method; and
3. Select what research design can be applicable for a
given research problem.
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Research Design
Definition
“Research design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for
collection and analyzing the needed information” -William Zikmund
“ Research design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so
as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance” -Kerlinger
Methods
Questions
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Identifying the appropriate
method of gathering information
Ideal to solve the problem
identified
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Approaches in Research
Qualitative Mixed Quantitative
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Significant relationship among
variables through the use of
numbers
Meaning of responses, verbal or
non-verbal
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Quantitative Research Designs
•Describes
•Relates variables
Non-
Experimental
•Cause and effect
Experimental
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Quantitative Research Designs
Non-Experimental
Descriptive Research Design
Longitudinal Research Design
Correlational Research Design
Experimental
True Experimental Design
Quasi-Experimental Design
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Non-Experimental Research Design (1)
• Descriptive Research Design
• A design used to describe a certain condition or phenomenon
in a given sample using quantifiable descriptors.
• It involves the use frequency count, percentage, Likert scale,
mean, and standard deviation in answering the research
questions.
• Example:
• A teacher wants to determine the number of her students, grouped
according to their sex, who are still non-readers.
• A teacher wants to determine the general academic performance of
her students in mathematics.
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Non-Experimental Research Design (2)
•Longitudinal Research Design
• A design used to describe a certain condition or
phenomenon in a given population using quantifiable
descriptors.
• It involves the use frequency count, percentage, Likert
scale, mean, and standard deviation in answering the
research questions.
• It is the prolonged process of a descriptive research.
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Non-Experimental Research Design (3)
•Correlational Research Design
•A design used to seek significant relationship
between identified variables.
• Example:
• A teacher wants to find out if sex can be a predictor of
performance in English in his class.
• A teacher wants to determine if belonging to a broken
family has a relationship to the students’ attitude towards
attending classes.
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Experimental Research Design (1)
•True Experimental
•Characteristics:
•Randomization
•Manipulation
•Control
The absence of
ONE
characteristic then
makes the research
quasi-experimental.
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Experimental Research Design (2)
•Quasi-Experimental
•Pre-experimental
•Time series design
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Definitions
• Experimental Treatments
• Alternative manipulations/intervention of the independent variable being
investigated
• Experimental Group
• Group of subjects exposed to the experimental treatment
• Control Group
• Group of subjects exposed to the control condition
• Not exposed to the experimental treatment
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
•Extraneous Variables
•Variables other than the manipulated
variables that affect the results of the
experiment
•Can potentially invalidate the results
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Symbolism for Diagramming Experimental
Designs
X = exposure of a group to an experimental
treatment
O = observation or measurement of the dependent
variable
If multiple observations or measurements are taken,
subscripts indicate temporal order –
I.e., O1, O2, etc.
= random assignment of test units;
individuals selected as subjects for the
experiment are randomly assigned to the
experimental groups
R
Pre-Experimental Designs
• Do not adequately control for the problems
associated with loss of external or internal validity
• Cannot be classified as true experiments
• Often used in exploratory research
• Three Examples of Pre-Experimental Designs
• One-Shot Design
• One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
• Static Group Design
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
1. One-Shot Design
• A.K.A. – after-only design
• A single measure is recorded after the treatment is
administered
• Study lacks any comparison or control of extraneous
influences
• No measure of test units not exposed to the
experimental treatment
• May be the only viable choice in taste tests
• Diagrammed as: X O1
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
SAMPLE PROBLEM
One-Shot Design
A group of students were given a lecture about
sentence patterns in English and then were
given a some exercises about it.
Diagrammed as: X O1
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
2. One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
• Subjects in the experimental group are measured
before and after the treatment is administered.
• No control group
• Offers comparison of the same individuals before and
after the treatment (e.g., training)
• If time between 1st & 2nd measurements is extended,
may suffer maturation
• Can also suffer from history, mortality, and testing
effects
• Diagrammed as O1 X O2
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
SAMPLE PROBLEM
One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
Students in a homogenous section were given a
diagnostic test in Mathematics. Then, they designed a
software to improve learning outcomes in this
subject. Afterwards, they were given an achievement
test to show how technology can be successfully
implemented in schools.
• Diagrammed as O1 X O2
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
3. Static Group Design
•A.K.A., after-only design with control group
•Experimental group is measured after being exposed to the
experimental treatment
•Control group is measured without having been exposed to
the experimental treatment
•No pre-measure is taken
•Major weakness is lack of assurance that the groups were
equal on variables of interest prior to the treatment
•Diagrammed as: Experimental Group X O1
Control Group O2
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
SAMPLE PROBLEM
Static Group Design
A teacher is handling two groups of non-readers. In order to find
out the effectiveness of her intervention, she applied it to one
group while applying a traditional approach to the other.
• Diagrammed as:
• Experimental Group X O1
Control Group O2
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
True-Experimental Designs
• It can establish cause and effect relationships
• Supports or refutes a hypothesis using statistical analysis
• There are three criteria that must be met in a true experiment
Control group and experimental group
Researcher-manipulated variable
Random assignment
• Three Examples of True-Experimental Designs
• Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design
• Posttest-Only Control Group Design
• Solomon Four-Group Design
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
1. Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design
• A.K.A., Before-After with Control
• True experimental design
• Experimental group tested before and after treatment
exposure
• Control group tested at same two times without
exposure to experimental treatment
• Includes random assignment to groups
• Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the
same on both groups
• Do run the risk of a testing effect
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design
• Diagrammed as
• Experimental Group: O1 X O2
• Control Group: O3 O4
• Effect of the experimental treatment equals
(O2 – O1) -- (O4 – O3)
R
R
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
SAMPLE PROBLEM
Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design
Researchers want to monitor the effect of a new teaching
method upon two groups of children, both with pretest and
posttest. Only the second group has the treatment. Other
areas include evaluating the effects of counseling, testing
medical treatments, and measuring psychological constructs.
The only stipulation is that the subjects must be
randomly assigned to groups, in a true experimental design.
• Diagrammed as
• Experimental Group: O1 X O2
• Control Group: O3 O4
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
2. Posttest-Only Control Group Design
• A.K.A., After-Only with Control
• True experimental design
• Experimental group tested after treatment exposure
• Control group tested at same time without exposure to
experimental treatment
• Includes random assignment to groups
• Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the
same on both groups
• Do not run the risk of a testing effect
• Use in situations when cannot pretest
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Posttest-Only Control Group Design
•Diagrammed as
• Experimental Group: X O1
• Control Group: O2
•Effect of the experimental treatment equals
(O2 – O1)
R
R
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
SAMPLE PROBLEM
Posttest-Only Control Design
A teacher is handling two groups of non-
readers. In order to find out the effectiveness
of her intervention, she applied it to one group
while applying a traditional approach to the
other.
•Diagrammed as:
• Experimental Group: X O1
• Control Group: O2
R
R
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
3. Solomon Four-Group Design
• True experimental design
• Combines pretest-posttest with control group design
and the posttest-only with control group design
• Provides means for controlling the interactive testing
effect and other sources of extraneous variation
• Does include random assignment
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Solomon Four-Group Design
• Diagrammed as
• Experimental Group 1: O1 X O2
• Control Group 1: O3 O4
• Experimental Group 2: X O5
• Control Group 2: O6
• Effect of independent variable (O2 – O4) & (O5 – O6)
• Effect of pretesting (O4 – O6)
• Effect of pretesting & measuring (O2 – O5)
• Effect of random assignment (O1 – O3)
R
R
R
R
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
SAMPLE PROBLEM
Solomon Four Group Design
A researcher would like to find out the effect of reading
intervention in the student’s English academic grade. All
groups undergo randomization. First group, students with
intervention, pretest & posttest. Second group, students
with pretest & posttest only. Third group, students with
intervention & posttest. Fourth group, students were given
posttest only.
• Diagrammed as
• Experimental Group 1: O1 X O2
• Control Group 1: O3 O4
• Experimental Group 2: X O5
• Control Group 2: O6
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
• Involves periodic measurements on the dependent variable for a
group of test units (one group only)
• After multiple measurements, experimental treatment is
administered (or occurs naturally)
• After the treatment, periodic measurements are continued in order
to determine the treatment effect
• Diagrammed as:
O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8
Time Series Designs
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Time Series Design
To examine the effect of using an online classroom on the
academic performance of students in biology, The students’
performance is measured once before the program, and then 3
weeks after the program, and at the end of one quarter following
program implementation. The outcomes at different time points
are compared to assess the program effect.
SAMPLE PROBLEM
Diagrammed as:
O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
• A series of periodic measurements is taken from two
groups of test units (an experimental group
and a control).
• The experimental group is exposed to a treatment and
then another series of periodic measurements is taken
from both groups.
Diagrammed as:
O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 O7 O8
O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8
Multiple Time Series Design
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
Multiple Time Series Design
Suppose that a weight loss study used different follow-up procedures for
experimental and control group participants. The researchers assess
weight data after one year by telephoning control group participants, but
they have the intervention participants come in to the clinic to be
weighed. Then the weight differences between the groups could be due
to differing assessment procedures, rather than to the intervention.
SAMPLE PROBLEM
Diagrammed as:
O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 O7 O8
O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8
©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
THANK YOU
FOR LISTENING!

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Quantitative Research Design

  • 1. JEFFREY A. LUCEROMPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEDr, FIIER Healthcare Provider, Educator, Research Generalist RESEARCH DESIGN
  • 2. What is research design? What is its significance in writing a research paper? ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 3. During the session, the participants are expected to: 1. Familiarize with the definition, purpose and nature of different research designs 2. Identify the different research designs in quantitative method; and 3. Select what research design can be applicable for a given research problem. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 4. Research Design Definition “Research design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collection and analyzing the needed information” -William Zikmund “ Research design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance” -Kerlinger Methods Questions ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 5. Identifying the appropriate method of gathering information Ideal to solve the problem identified ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 6. Approaches in Research Qualitative Mixed Quantitative ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 7. Significant relationship among variables through the use of numbers Meaning of responses, verbal or non-verbal ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 8. Quantitative Research Designs •Describes •Relates variables Non- Experimental •Cause and effect Experimental ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 9. Quantitative Research Designs Non-Experimental Descriptive Research Design Longitudinal Research Design Correlational Research Design Experimental True Experimental Design Quasi-Experimental Design ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 10. Non-Experimental Research Design (1) • Descriptive Research Design • A design used to describe a certain condition or phenomenon in a given sample using quantifiable descriptors. • It involves the use frequency count, percentage, Likert scale, mean, and standard deviation in answering the research questions. • Example: • A teacher wants to determine the number of her students, grouped according to their sex, who are still non-readers. • A teacher wants to determine the general academic performance of her students in mathematics. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 11. Non-Experimental Research Design (2) •Longitudinal Research Design • A design used to describe a certain condition or phenomenon in a given population using quantifiable descriptors. • It involves the use frequency count, percentage, Likert scale, mean, and standard deviation in answering the research questions. • It is the prolonged process of a descriptive research. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 12. Non-Experimental Research Design (3) •Correlational Research Design •A design used to seek significant relationship between identified variables. • Example: • A teacher wants to find out if sex can be a predictor of performance in English in his class. • A teacher wants to determine if belonging to a broken family has a relationship to the students’ attitude towards attending classes. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 13. Experimental Research Design (1) •True Experimental •Characteristics: •Randomization •Manipulation •Control The absence of ONE characteristic then makes the research quasi-experimental. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 14. Experimental Research Design (2) •Quasi-Experimental •Pre-experimental •Time series design ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 15. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 16. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 17. Definitions • Experimental Treatments • Alternative manipulations/intervention of the independent variable being investigated • Experimental Group • Group of subjects exposed to the experimental treatment • Control Group • Group of subjects exposed to the control condition • Not exposed to the experimental treatment ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 18. •Extraneous Variables •Variables other than the manipulated variables that affect the results of the experiment •Can potentially invalidate the results ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 19. Symbolism for Diagramming Experimental Designs X = exposure of a group to an experimental treatment O = observation or measurement of the dependent variable If multiple observations or measurements are taken, subscripts indicate temporal order – I.e., O1, O2, etc. = random assignment of test units; individuals selected as subjects for the experiment are randomly assigned to the experimental groups R
  • 20. Pre-Experimental Designs • Do not adequately control for the problems associated with loss of external or internal validity • Cannot be classified as true experiments • Often used in exploratory research • Three Examples of Pre-Experimental Designs • One-Shot Design • One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design • Static Group Design ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 21. 1. One-Shot Design • A.K.A. – after-only design • A single measure is recorded after the treatment is administered • Study lacks any comparison or control of extraneous influences • No measure of test units not exposed to the experimental treatment • May be the only viable choice in taste tests • Diagrammed as: X O1 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 22. SAMPLE PROBLEM One-Shot Design A group of students were given a lecture about sentence patterns in English and then were given a some exercises about it. Diagrammed as: X O1 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 23. 2. One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design • Subjects in the experimental group are measured before and after the treatment is administered. • No control group • Offers comparison of the same individuals before and after the treatment (e.g., training) • If time between 1st & 2nd measurements is extended, may suffer maturation • Can also suffer from history, mortality, and testing effects • Diagrammed as O1 X O2 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 24. SAMPLE PROBLEM One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design Students in a homogenous section were given a diagnostic test in Mathematics. Then, they designed a software to improve learning outcomes in this subject. Afterwards, they were given an achievement test to show how technology can be successfully implemented in schools. • Diagrammed as O1 X O2 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 25. 3. Static Group Design •A.K.A., after-only design with control group •Experimental group is measured after being exposed to the experimental treatment •Control group is measured without having been exposed to the experimental treatment •No pre-measure is taken •Major weakness is lack of assurance that the groups were equal on variables of interest prior to the treatment •Diagrammed as: Experimental Group X O1 Control Group O2 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 26. SAMPLE PROBLEM Static Group Design A teacher is handling two groups of non-readers. In order to find out the effectiveness of her intervention, she applied it to one group while applying a traditional approach to the other. • Diagrammed as: • Experimental Group X O1 Control Group O2 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 27. True-Experimental Designs • It can establish cause and effect relationships • Supports or refutes a hypothesis using statistical analysis • There are three criteria that must be met in a true experiment Control group and experimental group Researcher-manipulated variable Random assignment • Three Examples of True-Experimental Designs • Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design • Posttest-Only Control Group Design • Solomon Four-Group Design ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 28. 1. Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design • A.K.A., Before-After with Control • True experimental design • Experimental group tested before and after treatment exposure • Control group tested at same two times without exposure to experimental treatment • Includes random assignment to groups • Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the same on both groups • Do run the risk of a testing effect ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 29. Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design • Diagrammed as • Experimental Group: O1 X O2 • Control Group: O3 O4 • Effect of the experimental treatment equals (O2 – O1) -- (O4 – O3) R R ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 30. SAMPLE PROBLEM Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design Researchers want to monitor the effect of a new teaching method upon two groups of children, both with pretest and posttest. Only the second group has the treatment. Other areas include evaluating the effects of counseling, testing medical treatments, and measuring psychological constructs. The only stipulation is that the subjects must be randomly assigned to groups, in a true experimental design. • Diagrammed as • Experimental Group: O1 X O2 • Control Group: O3 O4 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 31. 2. Posttest-Only Control Group Design • A.K.A., After-Only with Control • True experimental design • Experimental group tested after treatment exposure • Control group tested at same time without exposure to experimental treatment • Includes random assignment to groups • Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the same on both groups • Do not run the risk of a testing effect • Use in situations when cannot pretest ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 32. Posttest-Only Control Group Design •Diagrammed as • Experimental Group: X O1 • Control Group: O2 •Effect of the experimental treatment equals (O2 – O1) R R ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 33. SAMPLE PROBLEM Posttest-Only Control Design A teacher is handling two groups of non- readers. In order to find out the effectiveness of her intervention, she applied it to one group while applying a traditional approach to the other. •Diagrammed as: • Experimental Group: X O1 • Control Group: O2 R R ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 34. 3. Solomon Four-Group Design • True experimental design • Combines pretest-posttest with control group design and the posttest-only with control group design • Provides means for controlling the interactive testing effect and other sources of extraneous variation • Does include random assignment ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 35. Solomon Four-Group Design • Diagrammed as • Experimental Group 1: O1 X O2 • Control Group 1: O3 O4 • Experimental Group 2: X O5 • Control Group 2: O6 • Effect of independent variable (O2 – O4) & (O5 – O6) • Effect of pretesting (O4 – O6) • Effect of pretesting & measuring (O2 – O5) • Effect of random assignment (O1 – O3) R R R R ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 36. SAMPLE PROBLEM Solomon Four Group Design A researcher would like to find out the effect of reading intervention in the student’s English academic grade. All groups undergo randomization. First group, students with intervention, pretest & posttest. Second group, students with pretest & posttest only. Third group, students with intervention & posttest. Fourth group, students were given posttest only. • Diagrammed as • Experimental Group 1: O1 X O2 • Control Group 1: O3 O4 • Experimental Group 2: X O5 • Control Group 2: O6 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 37. • Involves periodic measurements on the dependent variable for a group of test units (one group only) • After multiple measurements, experimental treatment is administered (or occurs naturally) • After the treatment, periodic measurements are continued in order to determine the treatment effect • Diagrammed as: O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8 Time Series Designs ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 38. Time Series Design To examine the effect of using an online classroom on the academic performance of students in biology, The students’ performance is measured once before the program, and then 3 weeks after the program, and at the end of one quarter following program implementation. The outcomes at different time points are compared to assess the program effect. SAMPLE PROBLEM Diagrammed as: O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 39. • A series of periodic measurements is taken from two groups of test units (an experimental group and a control). • The experimental group is exposed to a treatment and then another series of periodic measurements is taken from both groups. Diagrammed as: O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 O7 O8 O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8 Multiple Time Series Design ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  • 40. Multiple Time Series Design Suppose that a weight loss study used different follow-up procedures for experimental and control group participants. The researchers assess weight data after one year by telephoning control group participants, but they have the intervention participants come in to the clinic to be weighed. Then the weight differences between the groups could be due to differing assessment procedures, rather than to the intervention. SAMPLE PROBLEM Diagrammed as: O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 O7 O8 O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8
  • 41. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER