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Pamela M. Veroy RN, MAN
 Freud's theory of 'Psychosexual
Development'
 Freud advanced a theory of
personality development focusing
on the effects of the sexual pleasure
drive on a person's emerging
personality.
 According to his theory, parts of
the personality develop as we
move through a series of
psychosexual stages.
 Each stage is characterized by
different demands for sexual
gratification and different ways of
achieving that gratification.
 If as growing humans, we do not
receive an appropriate amount
of gratification
 - receiving either too little or too
much - we may become fixated
in a particular stage. That is, we
continue to have the same
demand for gratification that we
had at that stage throughout the
rest of our lives.
 This condition is thought to
produce a variety of adult
behaviours.
What’s in
a man’s
mind?
 Oral stage drives
 A newborn is governed only
by its drives. Only the id is
present at this stage;
 so the infant seeks
immediate gratification,
achieved through its mouth -
feeding, crying, and oral
exploration of the world.
 Result of oral stage disturbance
 According to Freud, disturbance of the oral
stage may result in a permanent fixation on the
oral channel for gratification.
 Examples of resulting adult behaviours
include smoking, overeating, thumb-sucking,
and pencil chewing.
 Typical resulting personality traits include
impatience, passivity, greediness, dependence
and a preoccupation with giving and taking.
 Anal stage drives
 The focus of gratification shifts from
the mouth to the anus. The child
experiences pleasure from the
elimination of faeces.
 According to Freud, this brings them
into conflict with their parents.
Random elimination (as demanded by
the id) incurs parental displeasure, yet
withholding elimination (as requested
by the parents) is denying the demands
of the id,
 In which until this point has been the
source of all motivation. The resolution
of this conflict requires the
development of the ego, and as such
has important implications for
behaviours later in life.
 Result of anal stage disturbance
 Freud suggests that fixations may be caused by
either exceptionally strict toilet training or intense
pleasure associated with taboos such as smearing
faeces on the wall.
 Too little gratification in this stage results in an
'anal' or obsessive character who has a wish to
make a terrible mess and therefore must build
defenses against this, such as orderliness, rigidity,
and hatred of waste.
 They are also stubborn, stingy, punctual and
possessive.
 Too much gratification will result in opposite
behaviors, untidiness, a hot temper and
destructiveness.
 Phallic stage drives
 According to Freud, the focus of
gratification is now on the genitals,
although this gratification is not the
same as that experienced by adults.
 Children take an increasing interest in
their own genitals, and show a curiosity
about other people's bodies.
 Freud implies that the major conflict
faced during this stage is the
Oedipal/Electra conflict. Resolution
of this conflict should result in the
attachment to the parents, most
notably the same sex parent and the
development of a superego.
 Freud suggests that an Oedipus conflict
applies to boys.
 A boy wants his mother and therefore is
jealous of his father and wants to remove him.
The fear that his father will discover the son's
feelings are expressed in terms of fear of
castration, but is finally resolved through
identifying with the father.
 For girls, the Freudian Electra complex
describes the events leading up to gender
resolution. The young girl has 'penis envy' and
resents the mother for not providing her with
one.
 Result of phallic stage disturbance
 According to Freud, the conflicts may result in:
 homosexuality,
 authority problems,
 and rejection of appropriate gender roles if not
resolved.
 Latency stage drives
 The drives that have been
responsible for gratification in the
previous stages appear relatively
inactive. This is partly due to the
repression of sexual drives that is
accomplished during the Oedipal
stage.
 Result of latency stage
disturbance
 Freud suggests that these repressed
drives may be redirected into other
activities, such as the formation of
friendships, or hobbies.
 Genital stage drives
 With puberty there is re-emergence of
the earlier drives.
 Drive energy is focused on the genitals
once more, but this time with an adult
expression of sexuality.
 Although the term 'genital' suggests
that gratification during this stage must
inevitably be sexual,
 Freud emphasized the importance of
secondary process thinking as a form of
symbolic gratification in this stage.
 Thus, forming loving relationships or
assuming the responsibilities of adult
life may all be seen as symbolic ways of
satisfying the drive energy of this stage.
 Result of genital
stage disturbance
 If too much libidinal
energy is taken up in the
first three stages, the
individual
 cannot reach maturity,
 cannot shift the focus
from their own body,
their own parents and
their immediate needs to
larger responsibilities
involving others.
Psychosexual theories

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Psychosexual theories

  • 1. Pamela M. Veroy RN, MAN
  • 2.  Freud's theory of 'Psychosexual Development'  Freud advanced a theory of personality development focusing on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on a person's emerging personality.  According to his theory, parts of the personality develop as we move through a series of psychosexual stages.  Each stage is characterized by different demands for sexual gratification and different ways of achieving that gratification.
  • 3.  If as growing humans, we do not receive an appropriate amount of gratification  - receiving either too little or too much - we may become fixated in a particular stage. That is, we continue to have the same demand for gratification that we had at that stage throughout the rest of our lives.  This condition is thought to produce a variety of adult behaviours. What’s in a man’s mind?
  • 4.  Oral stage drives  A newborn is governed only by its drives. Only the id is present at this stage;  so the infant seeks immediate gratification, achieved through its mouth - feeding, crying, and oral exploration of the world.
  • 5.  Result of oral stage disturbance  According to Freud, disturbance of the oral stage may result in a permanent fixation on the oral channel for gratification.  Examples of resulting adult behaviours include smoking, overeating, thumb-sucking, and pencil chewing.  Typical resulting personality traits include impatience, passivity, greediness, dependence and a preoccupation with giving and taking.
  • 6.  Anal stage drives  The focus of gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus. The child experiences pleasure from the elimination of faeces.  According to Freud, this brings them into conflict with their parents. Random elimination (as demanded by the id) incurs parental displeasure, yet withholding elimination (as requested by the parents) is denying the demands of the id,  In which until this point has been the source of all motivation. The resolution of this conflict requires the development of the ego, and as such has important implications for behaviours later in life.
  • 7.  Result of anal stage disturbance  Freud suggests that fixations may be caused by either exceptionally strict toilet training or intense pleasure associated with taboos such as smearing faeces on the wall.  Too little gratification in this stage results in an 'anal' or obsessive character who has a wish to make a terrible mess and therefore must build defenses against this, such as orderliness, rigidity, and hatred of waste.  They are also stubborn, stingy, punctual and possessive.  Too much gratification will result in opposite behaviors, untidiness, a hot temper and destructiveness.
  • 8.  Phallic stage drives  According to Freud, the focus of gratification is now on the genitals, although this gratification is not the same as that experienced by adults.  Children take an increasing interest in their own genitals, and show a curiosity about other people's bodies.  Freud implies that the major conflict faced during this stage is the Oedipal/Electra conflict. Resolution of this conflict should result in the attachment to the parents, most notably the same sex parent and the development of a superego.
  • 9.  Freud suggests that an Oedipus conflict applies to boys.  A boy wants his mother and therefore is jealous of his father and wants to remove him. The fear that his father will discover the son's feelings are expressed in terms of fear of castration, but is finally resolved through identifying with the father.  For girls, the Freudian Electra complex describes the events leading up to gender resolution. The young girl has 'penis envy' and resents the mother for not providing her with one.
  • 10.  Result of phallic stage disturbance  According to Freud, the conflicts may result in:  homosexuality,  authority problems,  and rejection of appropriate gender roles if not resolved.
  • 11.  Latency stage drives  The drives that have been responsible for gratification in the previous stages appear relatively inactive. This is partly due to the repression of sexual drives that is accomplished during the Oedipal stage.  Result of latency stage disturbance  Freud suggests that these repressed drives may be redirected into other activities, such as the formation of friendships, or hobbies.
  • 12.  Genital stage drives  With puberty there is re-emergence of the earlier drives.  Drive energy is focused on the genitals once more, but this time with an adult expression of sexuality.  Although the term 'genital' suggests that gratification during this stage must inevitably be sexual,  Freud emphasized the importance of secondary process thinking as a form of symbolic gratification in this stage.  Thus, forming loving relationships or assuming the responsibilities of adult life may all be seen as symbolic ways of satisfying the drive energy of this stage.
  • 13.  Result of genital stage disturbance  If too much libidinal energy is taken up in the first three stages, the individual  cannot reach maturity,  cannot shift the focus from their own body, their own parents and their immediate needs to larger responsibilities involving others.