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IntroChapter 13:
Stress, Health, and
Coping
Stress
• A negative emotional state in response
to events that we perceive as taxing our
resources or our ability to cope
• Stressors—events that are perceived as
harmful, threatening, or challenging
• Daily hassles—everyday minor events that
annoy and upset people
Biopsychosocial Model of Health
• Biopsychosocial model—the belief that
physical health and illness are determined
by the complex interaction of biological,
psychological, and social factors
• Health psychology—the study of how
psychological factors influence health,
illness, and health-related behaviors
• Change is stressful.
– For example, death, marriage,
divorce, loss of job, having children,
retirement
Life Changes
•Annoying events in everyday life
• We all have “bad hair” days; these
minor things can add up to lots of stress
Daily Hassles
Unpredictable, large-scale events can be
extremely stressful and change our lives;
can lead to PTSD
Catastrophes
Conflict
Pull between two opposing desires or goals
• Approach-approach conflict
– choice between 2 appealing outcomes
– easy to resolve, low stress
• Avoidance-avoidance conflict
– choice between 2 unappealing outcomes
– more stressful than approach-approach
• Approach-avoidance conflict
– one goal with both appealing and unappealing
aspects
– most stressful type of conflict
– often see vacillation
Social and Cultural
Sources of Stress
• Social conditions that promote stress
– poverty, racism, crime
– lowest SES tend to have highest levels
of stress
• Culture clashes lead to stress
– company owned by different culture
– refugees, immigrants suffer
– acculturative stress
Social and Cultural
Sources of Stress
• Acculturative stress—the stress that
results from the pressure of adapting
to a new culture
Health Effects of Stress
• Indirect effects promote behaviors
that jeopardize physical well being;
use of drugs, lack of sleep, poor
concentration
• Direct effects promote changes in
body functions, leading to illness such
as headaches and other physical
symptoms
Endocrine Responses to Stress
• Fight or flight preparation of body
• Stress hormones—produced by
adrenal glands
– Adrenal medulla—catecholamines
• Epinephrine and norepinephrine
• Increases respiration, BP, heart rate
– Adrenal cortex—corticosteroids
• Release stored energy
• Reduces inflammation and immune
system responses
PSYC 1113 Chapter 13
General Adaptation Syndrome
• Hans Selye
• Three-stage process
Alarm—intense arousal, mobilization of physical
resources (catecholamines)
Resistive—body actively resists stressors
(corticosteroids)
Exhaustion—more intense arousal but this leads
to physical exhaustion and physical disorders
General Adaptation Syndrome
Phase 1:
Alarm
Reaction
Phase 2:
Resistance
(cope)
Phase 3:
Exhaustion
Stress
Resistance
Stress and the Immune System
• Psychoneuroimmunology—studies interaction
between nervous system, endocrine system,
and immune system
• Stress leads to suppressed immune function
• Chronic stress tends to have more influence
• A stress-weakened immune system increases
likelihood of illness
Your immune system battles
bacteria, viruses, and other
foreign invaders that try to set
up housekeeping in your
body. The specialized white
blood cells that fight infection
are manufactured in the bone
marrow and are stored in the
thymus, spleen, and lymph
nodes until needed.
Response to Stress
• Psychological Factors
– Perception of control
– Explanatory style
– Chronic negative emotions
– Hostility
• Social Factors
– Outside resources
– Friends and family
– Positive relationships
Perceived Control
• Sense of control decreases stress,
anxiety, and depression
• Perceptions of control must be
realistic to be adaptive
Explanatory Style
• Optimism
– use external, unstable, and specific
explanations for negative events
– predicts better health outcomes
• Pessimism
– use internal, stable, and global
explanations for negative events
– predicts worse health outcomes
Stress, Personality,
and Heart Disease
• Coronary heart disease is North America’s
leading cause of death
• Habitually grouchy people tend to have
poorer health outcomes
• Chronic negative emotions have a
negative effect on immune system
Type A vs. Type B Personality
• Type A
– time urgency
– intense ambition and competitiveness
– general hostility
– associated with heart disease
• Type B
– more easygoing
– not associated with heart disease
Research on Type A Personality
• Time urgency and
competitiveness not
associated with poor
health outcomes
• Negative emotions,
anger, aggressive
reactivity
• High levels of hostility
increase chance of all
disease (eg, cancer)
Social Factors Promoting Health
Social support—resources provided by
others in times of need
• Emotional—expressions of concern,
empathy, positive regard
• Tangible—direct assistance, such as
lending money, providing meals
• Informational—such as making good
suggestions, advice, good referrals
Social Support
• Improves ability to cope with stress and benefits
health
– person modifies appraisal of stressor’s
significance to be less threatening
– helps to decrease intensity of physical
reactions to stress
– make person less likely to experience negative
emotions
• Pets as social support
– especially for elderly and people who live
alone
• Gender and social support
Coping
Behavioral and cognitive responses
used to deal with stressors; involves
efforts to change circumstances, or our
interpretation of them to make them
more favorable and less threatening.
Coping
• Problem-focused coping
– managing or changing the stressor
– use if problem seems alterable
– confrontive coping
– planful problem solving
• Emotion-focused coping
– try to feel better about situation
– use if problem out of our control
Emotion-Focused Coping Strategies
• Escape-avoidance—try to escape
stressor
• Distancing—minimize impact of
stressor
• Denial—refuse to acknowledge
problem exists
Emotion-Focused Coping Strategies
• Wishful thinking—imagining stressor is
magically gone
• Seeking social support—turn to friends,
support people
• Positive reappraisal—minimize
negative, emphasize positive
• Downward comparison—compare self
with those less fortunate
Culture and Coping
– Individualist
• less likely to seek social support
• favor problem-focused coping
– Collectivist
• more oriented toward social support
• favor emotion-focused coping
Active Coping Strategies
• Aerobic exercise can reduce
stress, depression, and anxiety.
• More effective than relaxation
treatment
Relaxation
• Meditation can lower blood
pressure, heart rate, and oxygen
consumption.
• Possibly helps stress-related
symptoms

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PSYC 1113 Chapter 13

  • 2. Stress • A negative emotional state in response to events that we perceive as taxing our resources or our ability to cope • Stressors—events that are perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging • Daily hassles—everyday minor events that annoy and upset people
  • 3. Biopsychosocial Model of Health • Biopsychosocial model—the belief that physical health and illness are determined by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors • Health psychology—the study of how psychological factors influence health, illness, and health-related behaviors
  • 4. • Change is stressful. – For example, death, marriage, divorce, loss of job, having children, retirement Life Changes
  • 5. •Annoying events in everyday life • We all have “bad hair” days; these minor things can add up to lots of stress Daily Hassles
  • 6. Unpredictable, large-scale events can be extremely stressful and change our lives; can lead to PTSD Catastrophes
  • 7. Conflict Pull between two opposing desires or goals • Approach-approach conflict – choice between 2 appealing outcomes – easy to resolve, low stress • Avoidance-avoidance conflict – choice between 2 unappealing outcomes – more stressful than approach-approach • Approach-avoidance conflict – one goal with both appealing and unappealing aspects – most stressful type of conflict – often see vacillation
  • 8. Social and Cultural Sources of Stress • Social conditions that promote stress – poverty, racism, crime – lowest SES tend to have highest levels of stress • Culture clashes lead to stress – company owned by different culture – refugees, immigrants suffer – acculturative stress
  • 9. Social and Cultural Sources of Stress • Acculturative stress—the stress that results from the pressure of adapting to a new culture
  • 10. Health Effects of Stress • Indirect effects promote behaviors that jeopardize physical well being; use of drugs, lack of sleep, poor concentration • Direct effects promote changes in body functions, leading to illness such as headaches and other physical symptoms
  • 11. Endocrine Responses to Stress • Fight or flight preparation of body • Stress hormones—produced by adrenal glands – Adrenal medulla—catecholamines • Epinephrine and norepinephrine • Increases respiration, BP, heart rate – Adrenal cortex—corticosteroids • Release stored energy • Reduces inflammation and immune system responses
  • 13. General Adaptation Syndrome • Hans Selye • Three-stage process Alarm—intense arousal, mobilization of physical resources (catecholamines) Resistive—body actively resists stressors (corticosteroids) Exhaustion—more intense arousal but this leads to physical exhaustion and physical disorders
  • 14. General Adaptation Syndrome Phase 1: Alarm Reaction Phase 2: Resistance (cope) Phase 3: Exhaustion Stress Resistance
  • 15. Stress and the Immune System • Psychoneuroimmunology—studies interaction between nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system • Stress leads to suppressed immune function • Chronic stress tends to have more influence • A stress-weakened immune system increases likelihood of illness
  • 16. Your immune system battles bacteria, viruses, and other foreign invaders that try to set up housekeeping in your body. The specialized white blood cells that fight infection are manufactured in the bone marrow and are stored in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes until needed.
  • 17. Response to Stress • Psychological Factors – Perception of control – Explanatory style – Chronic negative emotions – Hostility • Social Factors – Outside resources – Friends and family – Positive relationships
  • 18. Perceived Control • Sense of control decreases stress, anxiety, and depression • Perceptions of control must be realistic to be adaptive
  • 19. Explanatory Style • Optimism – use external, unstable, and specific explanations for negative events – predicts better health outcomes • Pessimism – use internal, stable, and global explanations for negative events – predicts worse health outcomes
  • 20. Stress, Personality, and Heart Disease • Coronary heart disease is North America’s leading cause of death • Habitually grouchy people tend to have poorer health outcomes • Chronic negative emotions have a negative effect on immune system
  • 21. Type A vs. Type B Personality • Type A – time urgency – intense ambition and competitiveness – general hostility – associated with heart disease • Type B – more easygoing – not associated with heart disease
  • 22. Research on Type A Personality • Time urgency and competitiveness not associated with poor health outcomes • Negative emotions, anger, aggressive reactivity • High levels of hostility increase chance of all disease (eg, cancer)
  • 23. Social Factors Promoting Health Social support—resources provided by others in times of need • Emotional—expressions of concern, empathy, positive regard • Tangible—direct assistance, such as lending money, providing meals • Informational—such as making good suggestions, advice, good referrals
  • 24. Social Support • Improves ability to cope with stress and benefits health – person modifies appraisal of stressor’s significance to be less threatening – helps to decrease intensity of physical reactions to stress – make person less likely to experience negative emotions • Pets as social support – especially for elderly and people who live alone • Gender and social support
  • 25. Coping Behavioral and cognitive responses used to deal with stressors; involves efforts to change circumstances, or our interpretation of them to make them more favorable and less threatening.
  • 26. Coping • Problem-focused coping – managing or changing the stressor – use if problem seems alterable – confrontive coping – planful problem solving • Emotion-focused coping – try to feel better about situation – use if problem out of our control
  • 27. Emotion-Focused Coping Strategies • Escape-avoidance—try to escape stressor • Distancing—minimize impact of stressor • Denial—refuse to acknowledge problem exists
  • 28. Emotion-Focused Coping Strategies • Wishful thinking—imagining stressor is magically gone • Seeking social support—turn to friends, support people • Positive reappraisal—minimize negative, emphasize positive • Downward comparison—compare self with those less fortunate
  • 29. Culture and Coping – Individualist • less likely to seek social support • favor problem-focused coping – Collectivist • more oriented toward social support • favor emotion-focused coping
  • 30. Active Coping Strategies • Aerobic exercise can reduce stress, depression, and anxiety. • More effective than relaxation treatment
  • 31. Relaxation • Meditation can lower blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen consumption. • Possibly helps stress-related symptoms

Editor's Notes

  1. Include discussion in class about ways in which feelings of alienation and loss of identity can occur when one is adapting to a new culture. How does this impact the person’s home life? School life? Social life?