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PROPONENTS OF THE BHAKTI
MOVEMENT
RAMANUJA
 Proponent of the Vaishnavite tradition and the
Vishishtadvaita school
 Major works:
i. Vedarthasangraha
ii. Bhagawat Gita Bhashya
iii. Sri Bhasya
iv. Nithya Grantham
v. Vedantapida
vi. Vedantasara
vii. Gadya Traya (a trilogy)– Saranagati Gadyam +
Sriranga Gadyam +Vaikunta Gadyam
NIMBARKA
 Founded Dvaitadvaita or dualistic monism
 Work: Vedanta Parijata Saurabha
MADHAVACHARYA
 Associated with the Dvaita school of Vedanta
 Almost 37 works are attributed to him.
• Madhava Bhasya (based on the Brahma Sutras)
• Gita Bhasya (based on the Bhagawat Gita)
• Anu Vyakhyana
 Reinterpreted Verse 6.8.7 of the Chandogya
Upanishad, which says “Tat tvam asi” and
parsed the text as “Atat tvam asi”.
VALLABHACHARYA
 Propounded:
Sudhadvaita Vedanta
Pustimarga
Rudra Sampradaya
Wrote in : Sanskrit and Brajbhasha
RAMANANDA
 “the bridge between the Bhakti movement of the
South and the North”
 Kabir was his disciple.
DNYANESHWAR
 Wrote in Marathi
 Major Works: Dnyaneshwari, Amruthanubhava,
Haripath and a number of abhangas
 Dnyaneshwari is a commentary on the Bhagawat
Gita
EKNATH
 Wrote in Marathi
 Belonged to the Varkari tradition
 Works: Eknathi Bhagawata, Bhavarth Ramayan,
Anand Lahari and Rukmini Swayamvar
Hastamalak.
 Introduced the Bharood, a form of Marathi religious
song.
NAMADEVA
 Wrote in Marathi
 It is believed that he was a tailor who later resorted
to thievery before he became a saint.
 Associated with the Varkari sect
 Influenced by Vaishnavism and the Vithoba cult
 Composed bhajans and also abhangas
CHAITANYA MAHAPRABHU
 Popularized the Bhakti movement in Bengal
 Founded Gaudiya Vaishnavism
 Several biographies of Chaitanya were written. Some of
them are:
 Chaitanya Charitramrita by Krishnadasa Kaviraja
 Chaitanya Bhagavata by Vrindavana Dasa
 Chaitanya Mangala by Lochana Dasa
o The biographical film on Chaitanya – Nilachaley
Mahaprabhu, directed by Kartik Chattopadhyay
o ISKCON (The International Society for Krishna
Consciousness) was founded by C.Bhaktivedanta
Prabhupada to popularize Chaitanya’s teachings.
MIRABAI
 Devotee of Lord Krishna
 Born as a Rajput princess, she married King Bhoj
Raj of Mewar.
 M.S.Subbulakshmi starred as Mirabai in Meera, a
Tamil film based on Mirabai’s life.
 Gulzar directed a Hindi film titled Meera on
Mirabai’s life in 1979.
TULSIDAS
 Devotee of Lord Rama
 Wrote in Awadhi and Braja Bhasha
 Wrote Ramacharitamanas in Awadhi. It is a retelling
of the Ramayana.
 Began the ramlila plays (folk-theatre, depicting the
Ramayana)
 Believed to have composed the Hanuman Chalisa
 Also wrote Gitavali and Vinayapatrika in Braja
A NOTE ON RAMCHARITAMANAS
 Written in Awadhi, around 1574-76
 A retelling of the Ramayana in Awadhi
 Draws from the Adhyatma Ramayana and Valmiki
Ramayana as also other sources
 There are 7 books or kands
 The work has been acclaimed as “the living sum of
Indian culture”
SURDAS
 Lived in the 15th century
 Was blind; was a disciple of Vallabhacharya
 Wrote songs dedicated to Lord Krishna
 Called “the sun in the sky of Hindi literature”
 Most famous work: Sursagar
NARSINH MEHTA
 He was a Bhakti poet from Gujarat
 Composed the bhajan “Vaishnav Jan To”, which is
now associated with Mahatma Gandhi
 Major works: Putra Vivah, Sudama Charit,Chaturis,
Dana Leela
KABIR
 Born in Varanasi
 Disciple of Ramananda
 Wrote in Hindi and borrowed from Awadhi, Braj and
Bhojpuri
 Famous for his dohas and sakhis.
 His compositions can be seen in the Adi Granth as
also in Kabir Bijak, Kabir Parachai, Kabir Granth
and Kabir Granthawali.
KABIR (. . . )
 Rabindranath Tagore translated and compiled
Kabir’s poems as One Hundred Poems of Kabir.
 Arvind Krishna Mehrotra has also translated Kabir’s
poems into English
 The Pakistani Sufi singer who sang Kabir’s songs
for an album – Abida Parveen
TUKARAM
 Wrote in Marathi
 Belonged to the Varkari tradition
 Composed abhangas and kirtans, mostly devoted
to Vithoba.
 Dilip Chitre translated Tukaram’s writings into
English in the book titled “Says Tuka”. This work
won the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1994.
OTHER BHAKTI POETS
 Dadu Dayal
 Makukdasa
 Sundardasa
 Dharanidasa
THANK YOU

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Proponents of the Bhakti Movement

  • 1. PROPONENTS OF THE BHAKTI MOVEMENT
  • 2. RAMANUJA  Proponent of the Vaishnavite tradition and the Vishishtadvaita school  Major works: i. Vedarthasangraha ii. Bhagawat Gita Bhashya iii. Sri Bhasya iv. Nithya Grantham v. Vedantapida vi. Vedantasara vii. Gadya Traya (a trilogy)– Saranagati Gadyam + Sriranga Gadyam +Vaikunta Gadyam
  • 3. NIMBARKA  Founded Dvaitadvaita or dualistic monism  Work: Vedanta Parijata Saurabha
  • 4. MADHAVACHARYA  Associated with the Dvaita school of Vedanta  Almost 37 works are attributed to him. • Madhava Bhasya (based on the Brahma Sutras) • Gita Bhasya (based on the Bhagawat Gita) • Anu Vyakhyana  Reinterpreted Verse 6.8.7 of the Chandogya Upanishad, which says “Tat tvam asi” and parsed the text as “Atat tvam asi”.
  • 5. VALLABHACHARYA  Propounded: Sudhadvaita Vedanta Pustimarga Rudra Sampradaya Wrote in : Sanskrit and Brajbhasha
  • 6. RAMANANDA  “the bridge between the Bhakti movement of the South and the North”  Kabir was his disciple.
  • 7. DNYANESHWAR  Wrote in Marathi  Major Works: Dnyaneshwari, Amruthanubhava, Haripath and a number of abhangas  Dnyaneshwari is a commentary on the Bhagawat Gita
  • 8. EKNATH  Wrote in Marathi  Belonged to the Varkari tradition  Works: Eknathi Bhagawata, Bhavarth Ramayan, Anand Lahari and Rukmini Swayamvar Hastamalak.  Introduced the Bharood, a form of Marathi religious song.
  • 9. NAMADEVA  Wrote in Marathi  It is believed that he was a tailor who later resorted to thievery before he became a saint.  Associated with the Varkari sect  Influenced by Vaishnavism and the Vithoba cult  Composed bhajans and also abhangas
  • 10. CHAITANYA MAHAPRABHU  Popularized the Bhakti movement in Bengal  Founded Gaudiya Vaishnavism  Several biographies of Chaitanya were written. Some of them are:  Chaitanya Charitramrita by Krishnadasa Kaviraja  Chaitanya Bhagavata by Vrindavana Dasa  Chaitanya Mangala by Lochana Dasa o The biographical film on Chaitanya – Nilachaley Mahaprabhu, directed by Kartik Chattopadhyay o ISKCON (The International Society for Krishna Consciousness) was founded by C.Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada to popularize Chaitanya’s teachings.
  • 11. MIRABAI  Devotee of Lord Krishna  Born as a Rajput princess, she married King Bhoj Raj of Mewar.  M.S.Subbulakshmi starred as Mirabai in Meera, a Tamil film based on Mirabai’s life.  Gulzar directed a Hindi film titled Meera on Mirabai’s life in 1979.
  • 12. TULSIDAS  Devotee of Lord Rama  Wrote in Awadhi and Braja Bhasha  Wrote Ramacharitamanas in Awadhi. It is a retelling of the Ramayana.  Began the ramlila plays (folk-theatre, depicting the Ramayana)  Believed to have composed the Hanuman Chalisa  Also wrote Gitavali and Vinayapatrika in Braja
  • 13. A NOTE ON RAMCHARITAMANAS  Written in Awadhi, around 1574-76  A retelling of the Ramayana in Awadhi  Draws from the Adhyatma Ramayana and Valmiki Ramayana as also other sources  There are 7 books or kands  The work has been acclaimed as “the living sum of Indian culture”
  • 14. SURDAS  Lived in the 15th century  Was blind; was a disciple of Vallabhacharya  Wrote songs dedicated to Lord Krishna  Called “the sun in the sky of Hindi literature”  Most famous work: Sursagar
  • 15. NARSINH MEHTA  He was a Bhakti poet from Gujarat  Composed the bhajan “Vaishnav Jan To”, which is now associated with Mahatma Gandhi  Major works: Putra Vivah, Sudama Charit,Chaturis, Dana Leela
  • 16. KABIR  Born in Varanasi  Disciple of Ramananda  Wrote in Hindi and borrowed from Awadhi, Braj and Bhojpuri  Famous for his dohas and sakhis.  His compositions can be seen in the Adi Granth as also in Kabir Bijak, Kabir Parachai, Kabir Granth and Kabir Granthawali.
  • 17. KABIR (. . . )  Rabindranath Tagore translated and compiled Kabir’s poems as One Hundred Poems of Kabir.  Arvind Krishna Mehrotra has also translated Kabir’s poems into English  The Pakistani Sufi singer who sang Kabir’s songs for an album – Abida Parveen
  • 18. TUKARAM  Wrote in Marathi  Belonged to the Varkari tradition  Composed abhangas and kirtans, mostly devoted to Vithoba.  Dilip Chitre translated Tukaram’s writings into English in the book titled “Says Tuka”. This work won the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1994.
  • 19. OTHER BHAKTI POETS  Dadu Dayal  Makukdasa  Sundardasa  Dharanidasa