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Properties of Matter
Ch. 2
Quick Review


 Matter is anything that: a) has mass, and b) takes up
  space
 Mass = a measure of the amount of ―stuff‖ (or material)
  the object contains (don’t confuse this with weight, a
  measure of gravity)
 Volume = a measure of the space occupied by the object
States of Matter

1)   Solid- matter that can not flow (definite shape) and
     has definite volume.
2)   Liquid- definite volume but takes the shape of its
     container (flows).
3)   Gas- a substance without definite volume or shape
     and can flow.
           Vapor- a substance that is currently a gas, but normally
            is a liquid or solid at room temperature. (Which is
            correct: ―water gas‖, or ―water vapor‖?)
4)       Plasma- Ionized gas that contains positive ions and
                  electrons
Drawing the States of Matter



 Solid       Liquid       Gas
States of Matter            Result of a
         Definite Definite   Temperature Will it
                                         Compress?
         Volume? Shape?      Increase?

                             Small
Solid     YES      YES       Expansion      NO

                              Small
Liquid     YES      NO        Expansion     NO


                              Large
Gas                 NO        Expansion
           NO                               YES
The 6 Phase Changes


1. Melting: Solid to Liquid
2. Freezing: Liquid to Solid
3. Evaporation: Liquid to Gas
4. Condensation: Gas to Liquid
5. Sublimation: Solid to Gas
6. Deposition: Gas to Solid
Describing Matter

Properties used to describe matter can be
classified as:
   1) Extensive – depends on the amount
        of matter in the sample
     - Mass, volume, calories are examples
  2) Intensive – depends on the type of
     matter, not the amount present
     - Hardness, Boiling Point
Is Density Intensive or
Extensive?





Properties

Words that describe matter
 (adjectives)
Physical Properties- a property that
 can be observed and measured
 without changing the material’s
 composition.
Examples- color, hardness, m.p.,
 b.p.
Properties

Chemical Properties- a property that
 can only be observed by changing
 the composition of the material.
Examples- ability to burn,
 decompose, ferment, react with,
 etc.
Physical Change
Physical change will change the visible
 appearance, without changing the
 composition of the material.
Can be reversible, or irreversible
  Boil, melt, cut, bend, split, crack
  Is boiled water still water?
  ***ALL 6 PHASE CHANGES ARE
  PHYSICAL CHANGES!***
Chemical Change



Chemical Change - a change where
 a new form of matter is made.
 Rust, burn, decompose, ferment
Signs of a Chemical Change


1. Gas production
2. Precipitate formation
3. Energy production (light, sound)
4. Change in Temperature
5. Change in color
6. Change in chemical or physical property
Chemical vs. Physical Change




Ask yourself: Is anything new being
 made?
3 Types of Matter
1. Elements
2. Compounds
3. Mixtures
      a. Heterogeneous
      b. Homogeneous (Solutions)
Pure Substances




 Pure substances can be either
   Elements
   Compounds
1. Elements

Simplest kind of matter
Cannot be broken down any
 simpler and still have properties
 of that element!
All one kind of atom.
    Atoms– the smallest particle or
     unit of an element that has the
     properties of that element.
2. Compounds
Substances that can be broken
 down only by chemical methods
  When broken down, the pieces
   have completely different
   properties than the original
   compound.
  Made of two or more atoms,
   chemically combined (not just a
   physical blend!)
3. Mixtures

 Mixtures are a physical blend
  of at least two substances;
  have variable composition.
 Every part keeps it’s own
  properties.
 They can be either:
3. Mixtures (cont.)


 1) Heterogeneous – the
    mixture is not uniform in
    composition
 Ex. Chocolate chip cookie, gravel,
 soil.
3. Mixtures (cont.)



 2) Homogeneous - same
 composition throughout;
 called ―solutions‖
 • Kool-aid, air, salt water
More on Homogenous (solutions)
 Mixed molecule by molecule, thus too small to see the
  different parts
 Can occur between any state of matter: gas in gas;
  liquid in gas; gas in liquid; solid in liquid; solid in solid
  (alloys), etc.
 Most common solutions consist of 1 or more substances
  dissolved (the dissolved ―stuff‖ is called the solute) in a
  liquid (called the solvent)
 If the solvent is water—aqueous solution
 A true solution will never separate or settle out on its
  own.
Ways of Separating Mixtures


 Differences in physical properties can be used to
  separate mixtures.
1) Filtration - separates a solid from the liquid in a
   heterogeneous mixture (by size)
2) Distillation – separates a solution by boiling points


There are other ways as well: magnets, evporation
chromotography
Law of Conservation of
Mass/Matter
During any chemical reaction, the
 mass of the products (right side of
 arrow) is always equal to the mass of
 the reactants (left side of arrow).
All the mass can be accounted
 for:
  Burning of wood results in products that
   appear to have less mass as ashes;
   where is the rest?
Example Problem



When methane gas burns, and reacts and
combines with oxygen to produce carbon
dioxide and water vapor. If 4 grams of
methane reacts with 16 grams of oxygen to
produce 11 grams of carbon dioxide, how
much water vapor is produced?

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Properties of matter ppt

  • 2. Quick Review  Matter is anything that: a) has mass, and b) takes up space  Mass = a measure of the amount of ―stuff‖ (or material) the object contains (don’t confuse this with weight, a measure of gravity)  Volume = a measure of the space occupied by the object
  • 3. States of Matter 1) Solid- matter that can not flow (definite shape) and has definite volume. 2) Liquid- definite volume but takes the shape of its container (flows). 3) Gas- a substance without definite volume or shape and can flow.  Vapor- a substance that is currently a gas, but normally is a liquid or solid at room temperature. (Which is correct: ―water gas‖, or ―water vapor‖?) 4) Plasma- Ionized gas that contains positive ions and electrons
  • 4. Drawing the States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas
  • 5. States of Matter Result of a Definite Definite Temperature Will it Compress? Volume? Shape? Increase? Small Solid YES YES Expansion NO Small Liquid YES NO Expansion NO Large Gas NO Expansion NO YES
  • 6. The 6 Phase Changes 1. Melting: Solid to Liquid 2. Freezing: Liquid to Solid 3. Evaporation: Liquid to Gas 4. Condensation: Gas to Liquid 5. Sublimation: Solid to Gas 6. Deposition: Gas to Solid
  • 7. Describing Matter Properties used to describe matter can be classified as: 1) Extensive – depends on the amount of matter in the sample - Mass, volume, calories are examples 2) Intensive – depends on the type of matter, not the amount present - Hardness, Boiling Point
  • 8. Is Density Intensive or Extensive? 
  • 9. Properties Words that describe matter (adjectives) Physical Properties- a property that can be observed and measured without changing the material’s composition. Examples- color, hardness, m.p., b.p.
  • 10. Properties Chemical Properties- a property that can only be observed by changing the composition of the material. Examples- ability to burn, decompose, ferment, react with, etc.
  • 11. Physical Change Physical change will change the visible appearance, without changing the composition of the material. Can be reversible, or irreversible Boil, melt, cut, bend, split, crack Is boiled water still water? ***ALL 6 PHASE CHANGES ARE PHYSICAL CHANGES!***
  • 12. Chemical Change Chemical Change - a change where a new form of matter is made. Rust, burn, decompose, ferment
  • 13. Signs of a Chemical Change 1. Gas production 2. Precipitate formation 3. Energy production (light, sound) 4. Change in Temperature 5. Change in color 6. Change in chemical or physical property
  • 14. Chemical vs. Physical Change Ask yourself: Is anything new being made?
  • 15. 3 Types of Matter 1. Elements 2. Compounds 3. Mixtures a. Heterogeneous b. Homogeneous (Solutions)
  • 16. Pure Substances  Pure substances can be either  Elements  Compounds
  • 17. 1. Elements Simplest kind of matter Cannot be broken down any simpler and still have properties of that element! All one kind of atom. Atoms– the smallest particle or unit of an element that has the properties of that element.
  • 18. 2. Compounds Substances that can be broken down only by chemical methods When broken down, the pieces have completely different properties than the original compound. Made of two or more atoms, chemically combined (not just a physical blend!)
  • 19. 3. Mixtures  Mixtures are a physical blend of at least two substances; have variable composition.  Every part keeps it’s own properties.  They can be either:
  • 20. 3. Mixtures (cont.) 1) Heterogeneous – the mixture is not uniform in composition Ex. Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil.
  • 21. 3. Mixtures (cont.) 2) Homogeneous - same composition throughout; called ―solutions‖ • Kool-aid, air, salt water
  • 22. More on Homogenous (solutions)  Mixed molecule by molecule, thus too small to see the different parts  Can occur between any state of matter: gas in gas; liquid in gas; gas in liquid; solid in liquid; solid in solid (alloys), etc.  Most common solutions consist of 1 or more substances dissolved (the dissolved ―stuff‖ is called the solute) in a liquid (called the solvent)  If the solvent is water—aqueous solution  A true solution will never separate or settle out on its own.
  • 23. Ways of Separating Mixtures  Differences in physical properties can be used to separate mixtures. 1) Filtration - separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture (by size) 2) Distillation – separates a solution by boiling points There are other ways as well: magnets, evporation chromotography
  • 24. Law of Conservation of Mass/Matter
  • 25. During any chemical reaction, the mass of the products (right side of arrow) is always equal to the mass of the reactants (left side of arrow). All the mass can be accounted for: Burning of wood results in products that appear to have less mass as ashes; where is the rest?
  • 26. Example Problem When methane gas burns, and reacts and combines with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water vapor. If 4 grams of methane reacts with 16 grams of oxygen to produce 11 grams of carbon dioxide, how much water vapor is produced?