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Sub: Weed Management
Topic:- PROPAGATION AND DISSEMINATION OF WEEDS
Prepared By Dr. Pooja Goswami
Assistant professor (Agronomy)
Department of Agronomy
College of Agriculture Balaghat
PROPAGATION AND DISSEMINATION OF WEEDS
Propagation is the process of multiplying or increasing the number of plants of the same
species and at the same time perpetuating their desirable characteristics. Plants may be
propagated under two general categories: sexual and asexual propagation.
Reproduction by seed
Reproduction by seed is called sexual reproduction. It requires pollination and fertilization of an
egg which results in seed that is capable of producing a new plant. Seed production varies greatly
among and within weed species in part due to environmental variability between years,
competition from neighboring plants, and genetic variability. Majority of weeds reproduce by
distinct seed formation through
fertilization and they are largely „monoecious‟. A few like Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) and
eel grass (Vallisneria spirallis) are „dioecious‟ which bear male and
female flowers on different individuals. Obviously, only the female plants of such weeds set
seeds.
Canada thistle
Seed production in weeds is prolific, particularly in annuals and biennials (table 1) but in
perennial weeds seed production facility is limited like in eg. Cyperus and Cynodon spp which
produce only 40-170 seeds/plant but with exceptions which produce thousands of seeds/year
/plant by johnson grass (S.halepense) and tiger grass (S. spontaneum) as annual weeds.
Weed spp. Av.no. of seeds/plant
1. Amaranthus spp. 1,96,000
2. Cuscuta spp. 16,000
3. Chenopodium album 72,000
4. Cynodon dactylon 170
5. Cyperus rotundus 40
6. Commelina benghalensis 2,450
7. Portulaca sp. 1,93,000
8. Trianthema sp. 52,000
9. Solanum nigrum 1,78,000
10.Elusine indica 41,200
Vegetative reproduction
In vegetative (asexual) reproduction, a new plant develops from a vegetative organ such as
a stem, root, or leaf. Vegetative propagation is primarily a feature of perennial weeds and
this has two advantages like purity of parental stock is maintained and quick
multiplication. These modifications in the form of rhizomes root stocks, runners, tubers,
bulbs, bulbils and bulblets, stems and roots. Canada thistle, for example, can produce a
new plant from as small as a 1/4-inch section of root. Vegetative reproduction can be as
prolific as seed production. Yellow nut-sedge (Cyperus esculentus) has been reported to
produce more than 1,900 new plants and more than 6,800 tubers in 1 year.
Rhizomes and root stocks
It is a horizontally growing underground modified shoot bearing nodes, internodes, buds
and scaly leaves. Cynodon dactylon uses rhizome under the ground, runners and stolons
over the ground. When rhizome tends to grow vertically downward, it s called a rootstock,
such as seen in Johonson grass (Sorghum halepense).
The two terms rhizome and rootstock are often used synonymously. In quack grass
(Agropyron repens) rhizomes are sometimes called SOBOLES. The vegetative
reproduction through rhizomes is feature of perennial grasses, sedges, cattails and certain
broad leaf weeds including some ferns.
Cyprus esculantus Agroyron repense
Runners
Aerial shoots coming from axils of lower leaves are called runners .Creeping types of
weeds such as bermuda grass, wood sorrel (Oxalis corniculata) and pennywort (Centella
asiatica), produce special aerial shoots called runners from the axils of their lowest
leaves. The runners trial on soils surface in different directions and strike roots from their
terminal buds at short distances. This is followed by appearance of new shoots form their
crown region. Daughter plants of such weeds repeat the process and form big patches.
Stolons, suckers, offsets are different forms of runners.
Oxalis corniculata
Stolons, Suckers and Offsets
 These are different forms of runners. When a runner, instead of trailing on the soil
surface, rises in the form of an arch before hitting the soil, it is called a Stolon.
Weeds belonging to the family rosaceae propagate by stolons.
Suckers, in variance with runners, trial little below the soil surface as in hawkweed
(Hieracium spp.).
Hieracium spp
 Runners of floating weeds like water hyacinth and water lettuce (Pistia
lanceolata) are called Offset.
 Tubers
*Swollen ends of its wiry rhizomes and suckers are called tubers. Eg. Nut sedge
(Cyperus rotundus). A tuber possesses scaly leaves, inconspicuous nodes and
internodes, and minute buds which give rise to new aerial shoots, rhizomes and roots.
 Bulbs
When crown region of a plant is compressed in the shape of disc, it is called a bulb. Each
bulb contains many fleshy leaves, axillary buds and flowering buds at its apex. Wild onion
(Allium canadense) and wild garlic (Allium spp.) propagate by bulbs.
 Bulbils and Bulblets
Bulbils, also called aerial bulblets, are modifications of vegetative or flower buds. They
are commonly found in woody sorrel (Oxalis corniculata), wild onion and wild garlic,
sprout leaf (Bryophyllum pinnatum) and walking fern (Adiantum candatum). Hydrilla
(Hydrilla verticillata) produce aerial buds called turions as additional means of vegetative
propagation.
Bulbils of Wild Garlic Bulblets in Oxalis Corniculata
Stems and Roots
Fragments of stems and roots of many weeds can grow into full plants. Detached stems
pieces of dodder (Cuscuta arvensis) and prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) and the creeping
horizontal roots of canada thistle, perennial sow thistle and field bind weed for instance,
are common means of propagation of these weeds.All submerged aquatic weeds are
capable of propagating in water bodies through plant fragments and sticky glands
(Boerhavia repens).
Cuscuta Chinensis Opuntia dellini
Some annual weeds can also adopt specific vegetative propagation mechanism. Such
weeds vigourate their crown buds to produce new plants, when parent plants are cut at the
ground level. Carrot grass (P. hysterophorus) arrow-wood (Pluchea lanceolate) Lantana
(L. camara).
Parthenium hesterophorus Lantana camera
Weeds propagated through vegetative propagation mechanism are difficult to manage since
their propagates are located up to 100cm depth. Pluchea lanceolate (Rasna) may hit several
meters deep.
Pluchea lanceolate
Dispersal mechanism of weeds
The chances of a seed developing are generally enhanced if there is a mechanism for
dispersing to an appropriate habitat some distance from the parent plant. The reason for dispersal
is that closely related organisms have similar ecological requirements.
Weeds seeds/fruits produced by mother plant are dispersed off in three ways.
1) A part of it may fall near mother plant.
2) A part of it may move out of the fields as contamination with crop harvest.
3) The remaining portion dispersed with agents like wind, water, transport system, animal, man
and manure to short or long distance as follows.
An effective dispersal of weed seeds (fruits) requires two essentials viz.,
1) A successful agent and
(2) An effective adaptation.
Common agents of weed dispersal are wind, water, animals, birds, organic manures. agriculture
implements and human beings. In the absence of proper means of their dispersal, weeds could
not have moved from one country to another. An effective dispersal of weed seeds and fruits
requires two essentials a successful dispersing agent and an effective adaptation to the new
environment.
Wind: Seeds have no way to move on their own, but they are excellent travelers. Plants have
evolved various mechanisms that disperse their seeds effectively. Many species of plants have
seeds with anatomical structures that make them very buoyant, so they can be dispersed over
great distances by the winds.
Usually the weed seeds (fruits) that disseminate through wind posses special organs that keep
them afloat. Some such organs are:
a) Pappus: it is modification of persistent calyx into hairs. This is a parachute like structure.
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinalis ) several asteraceae (Compositae) and typhacea weeds
dispersed in this manner.
Tridex procumbens Pappus Structure
Dendelion Typha seeds dispersal
D
e
b) Comose: Weed seeds are covered with special hairs partially or fully for example blood
flower (Asclepias), Calotropis spp and saccharam spp.
Saccharum seeds dispersal mechanism
c) Feathery persistent styles: In some fruits the styles are persistent and feathery
Such as found in certain species of anemone. In some of the anemone spp. however,
the fruits (achenes) are hairy.
Anemone
c) Baloon: It is a modified papery calyx that encloses the fruit loosely with entrapped air as
seen in ground cherry (Physalis minima).
Seeds are covered with ballon shaped in Physalis minima
d) Wings: Some weed seeds and fruits develop one or more appendages that act as wings
and help them to float in air as in big leaf maple (Acer macrophyllum)
Wings like structure in Acer macrophyllum
Besides the above adoptions, some weed seeds and fruits are so light, as in jhonson grass as a
result they become airborne with a storm without any special floating arrangement.
Low test weight: The density and test weight of such weeds is very low.1000-seed wt. of
Polycrapaea corymbosa is 0.03 g where as Xantheum strumarium is194 g (Muniappa et al –
1973).Base on such observations Hitrove (1912) classified weed seeds according to inverse of
their density and called the resulting values „Voilure coefficient‟ „K‟. High „K‟ value weed
seeds are easily blown about by wind. High wind velocity disperses even heavy weight seeds is
yet another interesting manner. Heavy wind may detach whole plant of Carthamus oxycantha
(wild safflower) and russian thistle (Salsola Kali) weeds from its roots after the weed has
matured and roll it over ground, thus dispersing its seeds all along the way.
The wind swings intact plant of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana) and forces their mature
pod to disperse seeds. The mechanism is called censer mechanism.
Censer mechanism in Argemone Mexicana
(b) Water
Aquatic weeds disperse largely through water. They may drift either as whole plants, plant
fragments or as seeds with the water currents. Terrestrial weed seeds also disperse through
irrigation and drainage water.Weed seed often moves with surface water runoff into irrigation
water and ponds, where it is carried to other fields. Weeds growing in ditch banks along
irrigation canals and ponds are the major source of weed seed contamination of irrigation water.
Weed seed often remains viable in water for several years, creating a "floating seedbank" and
allowing weeds to disperse over large areas in moving water. Field bindweed seed, for example,
remains over 50 percent viable after being submerged in water for more than 4 years. Some
seeds have special adaptations that aid in water travel. The seedpod of curly dock, for example,
is equipped with pontoons that carry the floating seed.
Curly Dock seeds
(c) Animals
Several weed species produce seeds with barbs, hooks, spines, and rasps that cling to the fur of
animals or to clothing and then can be dispersed long distances. Farm animals carry weed seeds
and fruits on their skin, hair and hooves. This is aided by special appendages such as Hooks
(Xanthium strumarium), Stiff hairs (Cenchrus spp), Sharp spines (Tribulus terrestris) and
Scarious bracts (Achyranthus aspera). Even ants carry a huge number of weed seeds. Donkeys
eat Prosophis julifera pods.
Weed seed often is ingested and passed through the digestive tracts of animals. Animal
droppings provide an ideal nutrient and moisture environment for weed germination. While only
a small percentage of the seed remains viable after exposure to an animal's digestive enzymes.
The ingested weed seeds are passed in viable form with animal excreta (0.2% in chicks, 9.6% in
calves, 8.7% in horses and 6.4% in sheep), which is dropped wherever the animal moves. This
mechanism of weed dispersal in called endozoochory. Eg., Lantana seeds by birds. Loranthus
seeds stick on beaks of birds. Viable weed seeds are present in the dung of farm animals, which
forms part of the FYM. Besides, addition of mature weeds to compost pit as farm waste also act
as source. Loranthus also carried by beaks of birds which are transferred to new branches of the
trees when they rub their beaks against them.
Chicks – showed seed viability of 0.2%
Calves – showed seed viability of 9.6% in their excreta
Horse – showed seed viability of 8.7%
Sheep – showed seed viability of 6.4%
Lantana seeds
(d) Dispersal by Man
Man disperses numerous weed seeds and fruits with raw agricultural produce. Weeds mature at
the same time and height along with crop, due to their similar size and shape as that of crop seed
man unknowingly harvest the weeds also, and aids in dispersal of weed seeds. Such weeds are
called “Satellite weeds” Eg. Avena fatua, Phalaris minor. Puncture wine was brought to India
by air craft tyres.
Cichorium intybus and Cuscuta sp in lucern. They form as seed contaminants in respective host
crop seeds the integral part of specific crops.
E) Manures and silage
FYM is an important source of dissemination of weed seeds (Amaranthus, Trianthema, Cucumis
sp.). C. arvensis retain its viability in FYM to the extent of 4% in the first month of composting
and up to 1% two months later and nil in 4th month of composting. Silage and hay are also found
to carry considerable viable weed seeds. Dispersal of vegetative propagules of weeds Careless
cultivation of land is the important factor in the dispersal of vegetative propgules of weeds.
Cultivation detaches under ground organs such as rhizomes, root stocks and tubers and drags
them to uninfected areas where they grow into new colonies.
F) Intercontinental movement of weeds:
Introduction of weeds from one continent to another through crop seed, feed stock,
packing material and nursery stock. Eg. Parthenium hysterophorus
G) Mimic with the Crop Plants :
The aerial bulbs of Allium spp disseminate with seeds of small grains. Transplants of crops also
carry weed seeds, rhizomes, root stocks and tubers hidden in their root soil. A weed like
barnyard grass ( Echinochloa spp) mimic rice plant and it may leave rice nurseries along with the
crop plants and get transplanted in the main field.
nightshade fruit ("berries") same size, shape as dry beans, harvested and dispersed with beans.
H) Indirectly dispersal by man’s activities:
Aquatic weeds disseminate along with water currents, boats and ships. Some weedy plants
transplanted around the house for their attractive look. Later they escaped the attention and
spread out as costly weeds. Two such living examples weeds with us in India are Eichornia
crassipes and Lantana camara.

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Propagation and Dissemination of weeds

  • 1. Sub: Weed Management Topic:- PROPAGATION AND DISSEMINATION OF WEEDS Prepared By Dr. Pooja Goswami Assistant professor (Agronomy) Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture Balaghat
  • 2. PROPAGATION AND DISSEMINATION OF WEEDS Propagation is the process of multiplying or increasing the number of plants of the same species and at the same time perpetuating their desirable characteristics. Plants may be propagated under two general categories: sexual and asexual propagation. Reproduction by seed Reproduction by seed is called sexual reproduction. It requires pollination and fertilization of an egg which results in seed that is capable of producing a new plant. Seed production varies greatly among and within weed species in part due to environmental variability between years, competition from neighboring plants, and genetic variability. Majority of weeds reproduce by distinct seed formation through fertilization and they are largely „monoecious‟. A few like Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) and eel grass (Vallisneria spirallis) are „dioecious‟ which bear male and female flowers on different individuals. Obviously, only the female plants of such weeds set seeds. Canada thistle Seed production in weeds is prolific, particularly in annuals and biennials (table 1) but in perennial weeds seed production facility is limited like in eg. Cyperus and Cynodon spp which produce only 40-170 seeds/plant but with exceptions which produce thousands of seeds/year /plant by johnson grass (S.halepense) and tiger grass (S. spontaneum) as annual weeds.
  • 3. Weed spp. Av.no. of seeds/plant 1. Amaranthus spp. 1,96,000 2. Cuscuta spp. 16,000 3. Chenopodium album 72,000 4. Cynodon dactylon 170 5. Cyperus rotundus 40 6. Commelina benghalensis 2,450 7. Portulaca sp. 1,93,000 8. Trianthema sp. 52,000 9. Solanum nigrum 1,78,000 10.Elusine indica 41,200 Vegetative reproduction In vegetative (asexual) reproduction, a new plant develops from a vegetative organ such as a stem, root, or leaf. Vegetative propagation is primarily a feature of perennial weeds and this has two advantages like purity of parental stock is maintained and quick multiplication. These modifications in the form of rhizomes root stocks, runners, tubers, bulbs, bulbils and bulblets, stems and roots. Canada thistle, for example, can produce a new plant from as small as a 1/4-inch section of root. Vegetative reproduction can be as prolific as seed production. Yellow nut-sedge (Cyperus esculentus) has been reported to produce more than 1,900 new plants and more than 6,800 tubers in 1 year. Rhizomes and root stocks It is a horizontally growing underground modified shoot bearing nodes, internodes, buds and scaly leaves. Cynodon dactylon uses rhizome under the ground, runners and stolons over the ground. When rhizome tends to grow vertically downward, it s called a rootstock, such as seen in Johonson grass (Sorghum halepense). The two terms rhizome and rootstock are often used synonymously. In quack grass (Agropyron repens) rhizomes are sometimes called SOBOLES. The vegetative reproduction through rhizomes is feature of perennial grasses, sedges, cattails and certain
  • 4. broad leaf weeds including some ferns. Cyprus esculantus Agroyron repense Runners Aerial shoots coming from axils of lower leaves are called runners .Creeping types of weeds such as bermuda grass, wood sorrel (Oxalis corniculata) and pennywort (Centella asiatica), produce special aerial shoots called runners from the axils of their lowest leaves. The runners trial on soils surface in different directions and strike roots from their terminal buds at short distances. This is followed by appearance of new shoots form their crown region. Daughter plants of such weeds repeat the process and form big patches. Stolons, suckers, offsets are different forms of runners. Oxalis corniculata
  • 5. Stolons, Suckers and Offsets  These are different forms of runners. When a runner, instead of trailing on the soil surface, rises in the form of an arch before hitting the soil, it is called a Stolon. Weeds belonging to the family rosaceae propagate by stolons. Suckers, in variance with runners, trial little below the soil surface as in hawkweed (Hieracium spp.). Hieracium spp
  • 6.  Runners of floating weeds like water hyacinth and water lettuce (Pistia lanceolata) are called Offset.  Tubers *Swollen ends of its wiry rhizomes and suckers are called tubers. Eg. Nut sedge (Cyperus rotundus). A tuber possesses scaly leaves, inconspicuous nodes and internodes, and minute buds which give rise to new aerial shoots, rhizomes and roots.  Bulbs When crown region of a plant is compressed in the shape of disc, it is called a bulb. Each bulb contains many fleshy leaves, axillary buds and flowering buds at its apex. Wild onion (Allium canadense) and wild garlic (Allium spp.) propagate by bulbs.
  • 7.  Bulbils and Bulblets Bulbils, also called aerial bulblets, are modifications of vegetative or flower buds. They are commonly found in woody sorrel (Oxalis corniculata), wild onion and wild garlic, sprout leaf (Bryophyllum pinnatum) and walking fern (Adiantum candatum). Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) produce aerial buds called turions as additional means of vegetative propagation. Bulbils of Wild Garlic Bulblets in Oxalis Corniculata Stems and Roots Fragments of stems and roots of many weeds can grow into full plants. Detached stems pieces of dodder (Cuscuta arvensis) and prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) and the creeping horizontal roots of canada thistle, perennial sow thistle and field bind weed for instance, are common means of propagation of these weeds.All submerged aquatic weeds are capable of propagating in water bodies through plant fragments and sticky glands (Boerhavia repens).
  • 8. Cuscuta Chinensis Opuntia dellini Some annual weeds can also adopt specific vegetative propagation mechanism. Such weeds vigourate their crown buds to produce new plants, when parent plants are cut at the ground level. Carrot grass (P. hysterophorus) arrow-wood (Pluchea lanceolate) Lantana (L. camara). Parthenium hesterophorus Lantana camera Weeds propagated through vegetative propagation mechanism are difficult to manage since their propagates are located up to 100cm depth. Pluchea lanceolate (Rasna) may hit several meters deep. Pluchea lanceolate
  • 9. Dispersal mechanism of weeds The chances of a seed developing are generally enhanced if there is a mechanism for dispersing to an appropriate habitat some distance from the parent plant. The reason for dispersal is that closely related organisms have similar ecological requirements. Weeds seeds/fruits produced by mother plant are dispersed off in three ways. 1) A part of it may fall near mother plant. 2) A part of it may move out of the fields as contamination with crop harvest. 3) The remaining portion dispersed with agents like wind, water, transport system, animal, man and manure to short or long distance as follows. An effective dispersal of weed seeds (fruits) requires two essentials viz., 1) A successful agent and (2) An effective adaptation. Common agents of weed dispersal are wind, water, animals, birds, organic manures. agriculture implements and human beings. In the absence of proper means of their dispersal, weeds could not have moved from one country to another. An effective dispersal of weed seeds and fruits requires two essentials a successful dispersing agent and an effective adaptation to the new environment. Wind: Seeds have no way to move on their own, but they are excellent travelers. Plants have evolved various mechanisms that disperse their seeds effectively. Many species of plants have seeds with anatomical structures that make them very buoyant, so they can be dispersed over great distances by the winds. Usually the weed seeds (fruits) that disseminate through wind posses special organs that keep them afloat. Some such organs are: a) Pappus: it is modification of persistent calyx into hairs. This is a parachute like structure. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinalis ) several asteraceae (Compositae) and typhacea weeds dispersed in this manner.
  • 10. Tridex procumbens Pappus Structure Dendelion Typha seeds dispersal D e b) Comose: Weed seeds are covered with special hairs partially or fully for example blood flower (Asclepias), Calotropis spp and saccharam spp.
  • 11. Saccharum seeds dispersal mechanism c) Feathery persistent styles: In some fruits the styles are persistent and feathery Such as found in certain species of anemone. In some of the anemone spp. however, the fruits (achenes) are hairy. Anemone c) Baloon: It is a modified papery calyx that encloses the fruit loosely with entrapped air as seen in ground cherry (Physalis minima). Seeds are covered with ballon shaped in Physalis minima
  • 12. d) Wings: Some weed seeds and fruits develop one or more appendages that act as wings and help them to float in air as in big leaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) Wings like structure in Acer macrophyllum Besides the above adoptions, some weed seeds and fruits are so light, as in jhonson grass as a result they become airborne with a storm without any special floating arrangement. Low test weight: The density and test weight of such weeds is very low.1000-seed wt. of Polycrapaea corymbosa is 0.03 g where as Xantheum strumarium is194 g (Muniappa et al – 1973).Base on such observations Hitrove (1912) classified weed seeds according to inverse of their density and called the resulting values „Voilure coefficient‟ „K‟. High „K‟ value weed seeds are easily blown about by wind. High wind velocity disperses even heavy weight seeds is yet another interesting manner. Heavy wind may detach whole plant of Carthamus oxycantha (wild safflower) and russian thistle (Salsola Kali) weeds from its roots after the weed has matured and roll it over ground, thus dispersing its seeds all along the way. The wind swings intact plant of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana) and forces their mature pod to disperse seeds. The mechanism is called censer mechanism. Censer mechanism in Argemone Mexicana
  • 13. (b) Water Aquatic weeds disperse largely through water. They may drift either as whole plants, plant fragments or as seeds with the water currents. Terrestrial weed seeds also disperse through irrigation and drainage water.Weed seed often moves with surface water runoff into irrigation water and ponds, where it is carried to other fields. Weeds growing in ditch banks along irrigation canals and ponds are the major source of weed seed contamination of irrigation water. Weed seed often remains viable in water for several years, creating a "floating seedbank" and allowing weeds to disperse over large areas in moving water. Field bindweed seed, for example, remains over 50 percent viable after being submerged in water for more than 4 years. Some seeds have special adaptations that aid in water travel. The seedpod of curly dock, for example, is equipped with pontoons that carry the floating seed. Curly Dock seeds (c) Animals Several weed species produce seeds with barbs, hooks, spines, and rasps that cling to the fur of animals or to clothing and then can be dispersed long distances. Farm animals carry weed seeds and fruits on their skin, hair and hooves. This is aided by special appendages such as Hooks (Xanthium strumarium), Stiff hairs (Cenchrus spp), Sharp spines (Tribulus terrestris) and Scarious bracts (Achyranthus aspera). Even ants carry a huge number of weed seeds. Donkeys eat Prosophis julifera pods.
  • 14. Weed seed often is ingested and passed through the digestive tracts of animals. Animal droppings provide an ideal nutrient and moisture environment for weed germination. While only a small percentage of the seed remains viable after exposure to an animal's digestive enzymes. The ingested weed seeds are passed in viable form with animal excreta (0.2% in chicks, 9.6% in calves, 8.7% in horses and 6.4% in sheep), which is dropped wherever the animal moves. This mechanism of weed dispersal in called endozoochory. Eg., Lantana seeds by birds. Loranthus seeds stick on beaks of birds. Viable weed seeds are present in the dung of farm animals, which forms part of the FYM. Besides, addition of mature weeds to compost pit as farm waste also act as source. Loranthus also carried by beaks of birds which are transferred to new branches of the trees when they rub their beaks against them. Chicks – showed seed viability of 0.2% Calves – showed seed viability of 9.6% in their excreta Horse – showed seed viability of 8.7% Sheep – showed seed viability of 6.4% Lantana seeds
  • 15. (d) Dispersal by Man Man disperses numerous weed seeds and fruits with raw agricultural produce. Weeds mature at the same time and height along with crop, due to their similar size and shape as that of crop seed man unknowingly harvest the weeds also, and aids in dispersal of weed seeds. Such weeds are called “Satellite weeds” Eg. Avena fatua, Phalaris minor. Puncture wine was brought to India by air craft tyres. Cichorium intybus and Cuscuta sp in lucern. They form as seed contaminants in respective host crop seeds the integral part of specific crops. E) Manures and silage FYM is an important source of dissemination of weed seeds (Amaranthus, Trianthema, Cucumis sp.). C. arvensis retain its viability in FYM to the extent of 4% in the first month of composting and up to 1% two months later and nil in 4th month of composting. Silage and hay are also found to carry considerable viable weed seeds. Dispersal of vegetative propagules of weeds Careless cultivation of land is the important factor in the dispersal of vegetative propgules of weeds. Cultivation detaches under ground organs such as rhizomes, root stocks and tubers and drags them to uninfected areas where they grow into new colonies.
  • 16. F) Intercontinental movement of weeds: Introduction of weeds from one continent to another through crop seed, feed stock, packing material and nursery stock. Eg. Parthenium hysterophorus G) Mimic with the Crop Plants : The aerial bulbs of Allium spp disseminate with seeds of small grains. Transplants of crops also carry weed seeds, rhizomes, root stocks and tubers hidden in their root soil. A weed like barnyard grass ( Echinochloa spp) mimic rice plant and it may leave rice nurseries along with the crop plants and get transplanted in the main field. nightshade fruit ("berries") same size, shape as dry beans, harvested and dispersed with beans. H) Indirectly dispersal by man’s activities: Aquatic weeds disseminate along with water currents, boats and ships. Some weedy plants transplanted around the house for their attractive look. Later they escaped the attention and spread out as costly weeds. Two such living examples weeds with us in India are Eichornia crassipes and Lantana camara.