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ESUG 2009:
[Project planning].
Tim Mackinnon
(www.iterex.co.uk)
Smalltalk and Planning

 Smalltalk - synonymous with the invention and refinement
 of many techniques and technologies from GUI’s, unit
 testing, refactoring, vm's, and project planning.

 Planning? NOT glamorous, but the secret to successful
 projects. As developers we HATE it!

 This session will review, clarify and myth-bust some of the
 common techniques. More importantly, I will present what
 new ideas have surfaced around successful teams and the
 way they plan. Planning doesn't have to be tedious and
 boring, it can be rapid and successful.

                                                               2
Tim Mackinnon - Who are you?

       2006 – Iterex (Iterative Excellence)
          Tailored Consulting/Coaching for Agile projects
          iPhone Development (ReDo, WonderWorld)

       2003 – ThoughtWorks
            Agile enablement coaching
            Papers on release estimation techniques

       1999 – Connextra
          Formed one of the first Agile teams in the UK
          Invented “Mock Objects” test technique
          Pioneered Iteration Retrospectives, XtC

       1996 – OTI
          Developer on UniBowser/VA-Modeler (early agile practices)
          Uni-Browser framework, early UI predecessor to Eclipse




                                                                                      3


I use many languages and environments, but Smalltalk is still my favourite and most
productive environment.
Thank you Smalltalkers...




                                                                                    4


Its unusual to start with Thank you, but most of the ideas in this presentation come from
Smalltalk and Smalltalkers.
Microsoft Project Tutorial...




                                                               5


There are other ways of planning instead of using MS-Project
Microsoft Project Tutorial...




                                                               5


There are other ways of planning instead of using MS-Project
Microsoft Project Tutorial...




                                                               5


There are other ways of planning instead of using MS-Project
Apples+Oranges = ?




                                                                                6


Described the “Dashboards” planning experience - hours were added to days, were added
to weeks and a final number came out of the exercise which was deemed to be the “end
date”
Apples+Oranges = ?




                                                                                6


Described the “Dashboards” planning experience - hours were added to days, were added
to weeks and a final number came out of the exercise which was deemed to be the “end
date”
IEEE article by Tom DeMarco (Jul/Aug 2009)

   I'm gradually coming to the conclusion
    that software engineering is an idea
    whose time has come and gone.

   Software development is and always will
    be somewhat experimental. The actual
    software construction isn't necessarily
    experimental, but its conception is. And
    this is where our focus ought to be. It's
    where our focus always ought to have
    been.



                                                7
The Agile Approach...




                                                           8


The wonder of agile... Scrum leprechauns and XP wizardry
The Agile Approach...




                                                           Image attribution: Renewtek   8


The wonder of agile... Scrum leprechauns and XP wizardry
The Risk of Flacid Scrum!




                                                                                   9


Many projects jump on the Scrum bandwagon - it seems easy, but without good
engineering discipline you can watch a burndown chart just extend out to infinity
XP: Turning Extreme into Excellence!

 Take common sense practises to extreme levels -
 “turning the dials to 11!”

     If code reviews are good, review code all the time
      (Pair Programming)
     If testing is good, everybody will test all the time
      (Unit Testing)
     If design is good, make it part of everyone’s daily business
      (Refactoring)
     If simplicity is good, always leave the system with the simplest
      design that supports it’s current functionality.
      (The simplest thing that could possibly work)
Comparison of Approaches


           Waterfall

           Analysis



           Design
Time


           Implementation



           Testing




Explained differences between Waterfall, Iterative, Agile. Hilited the added Red blocks in
Agile for more corporate environments.
Comparison of Approaches


           Waterfall                  Iterative

           Analysis



           Design
Time


           Implementation



           Testing




Explained differences between Waterfall, Iterative, Agile. Hilited the added Red blocks in
Agile for more corporate environments.
Comparison of Approaches


           Waterfall                  Iterative                Agile

           Analysis



           Design
Time


           Implementation



           Testing




Explained differences between Waterfall, Iterative, Agile. Hilited the added Red blocks in
Agile for more corporate environments.
The Importance of maintaining Simple Design


   Do the simplest thing that can
    possibly work
   Always have the simplest/
    smallest system
   Don’t predict future
    requirements, they slow you      vs
    down
   Remove redundancy
   Refactor for simplicity
   Remember YAGNI
    (you aren’t going to need it)
Reinforcing Practices Flatten the Cost Curve




Described the tilting platform of reinforcing practices - trying to keep a balanced
platform you can build on
Planning for an Agile Lifecycle…


                                                                                      QA
                                                                                                    Int
                                                           y                                           e   gra
                                                       plo                                                       te
                                                  De

        Project Initiation (Forecasting)
                                              Ite
                                                  rat
                      Release Planning               io
                                                          n                                                           de
                                                              Pl
                                                                   an                                        Co
                                                                        ni                               e
                                                                             ng                       rit
                                                                                                     W
                                                                                   Write Tests




      Day 1              Day               Week1                                  Week2              ...Week4
                         ~5/10             (Iteration 1)                          (Iteration 2)         (Sprint)/(Release)




                                                                                  Retrospective – Revisit Release Goals



Clicked to show incremental iterations stairs - a reminder that these cycles are the little
slices discussed earlier
Planning for an Agile Lifecycle…


                                                                                      QA
                                                                                                    Int
                                                           y                                           e   gra
                                                       plo                                                       te
                                                  De

        Project Initiation (Forecasting)
                                              Ite
                                                  rat
                      Release Planning               io
                                                          n                                                           de
                                                              Pl
                                                                   an                                        Co
                                                                        ni                               e
                                                                             ng                       rit
                                                                                                     W
                                                                                   Write Tests




      Day 1              Day               Week1                                  Week2              ...Week4
                         ~5/10             (Iteration 1)                          (Iteration 2)         (Sprint)/(Release)




                                                                                  Retrospective – Revisit Release Goals



Clicked to show incremental iterations stairs - a reminder that these cycles are the little
slices discussed earlier
So how do you plan then?




                           15
Create a Project Backlog




                                                        image attribution: Thoughtworks
                                                                                          16


You need a backlog of requirements (best with tactile cards) that you can prioritise with
the team (including customers)
Forecasting – predicting the journey


                 -2         -1



   Chartering       1-5 Days       Showcase
                Iterative Analysis
                                         Release 1 Iterations
                                   0          1         2         3


                      Forecast                                          Release
                                         Release 2 Iterations         Retrospective
                                   4          5         6         7


                      Forecast                                          Release
                                                                      Retrospective




Forecasting - the weather metaphor (ie. its not perfect, but a guide)
The idea is to build up requirement “stories” to determine how the project can break up
into smaller releases
So where do artefacts come from ?

      Real users, product owners,
       team members
         Examples from existing
          systems
         Kick-off workshops


      Workshops with the whole
       team exploring options with
       users
         Prototypes
         Persona’s
         Story boards/Whiteboarding
         High level cards (Epics)




Described the Elseveir team and how they were good at writing stories (they are
publishers)
Creating High Level Visual Artefacts

       High level stories called
        “Epics”
       Give them useful names
       Describe a goal of a persona
        and business reason for epic
       Fill in important reminders and
        background information
           Observations, previous systems
           Technical data from developer
            investigations
       Include visual sketches,
        diagrams, screenshots
       Hang them in your workspace


Epics, and forming a useful vision of hi level
stories
Different levels of stories
                                     Epics                                         Stories
             Project Backlog                 Release Backlog               Iteration/Sprint Backlog




                                Release Planning             Iteration/Sprint Planning


            As a _____, I                     As a _____, I                    As a _____, I
            want _____ so                     want _____ so                    want _____ so
            that _____                        that _____                       that _____

                                                                                                      Acceptance criteria
                                              I will know this
                                                                               I will know this       may be automated
    Typically will have an initial            is complete                                                at this point
                                                                               is complete
        high level estimate                   when _______
                                                                               when _______
     (analysis + development)
        and an indication of
        business value and
           technical risk                     More detailed                    To achieve this
                                          estimates with specific              we:                    Team breaks down
                                           acceptance criteria                 1) ________             stories into tasks
                                          and design indicators.               2) ________            they can complete
                                          Risky stories might be                                         to pass tests
                                                 “spiked”


But a story Card is still a Placeholder / Token (for further JIT conversation)
Mature teams generally avoid task breakdown - or do this when pairing on a story in
play
Story Card Technology…


      Cards, a simple
       effective requirements
       capture tool
      Resist overusing
       technology
      Simple and tactile

      JIT requirements

      A Story has enough
       information to allow a
       basic estimate

But what are stories? - A common format helps, this is the blueprint we designed at
“Connextra” which has become widely popular, although there are other variations you
can try
Cards are flexible, even when printed




                                                                                    22


This is a card printed using “Iterex Planning Cards”, which was then subsequently
adjusted when meeting with a customer (several times as work progressed)
Metrics: Velocity

       Velocity is an
        unfortunate name
        (widely misused in
        industry)

       Mistaken for
        speed when really
        its about range
        (MPG)




                                                                                    23


Originally used Load Factor - too confusing. Wanted an easy budget figure that the
business understood.
Simple Estimation Requires a Unit




                                                     Planning Poker Cards           24


Talk about selling planning cards vs. using your hand (no-one forgets their hand)
Simple Estimation Requires a Unit




                                                     Planning Poker Cards           24


Talk about selling planning cards vs. using your hand (no-one forgets their hand)
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)


                                      2
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)


                                      2
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)


                                      2                           2
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)


                                      2                           2
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      1
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)


                                      2                           2
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      1
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)


                                      2                           3
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      1
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)


                                      2                           3
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      1
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      3
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)


                                      2                           3
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      1
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      3
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)


                                      2                           6
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      1
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      3
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)


                                      2                           6
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      1
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      3
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      2
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
Calculating Velocity

                                   Estimate                    Velocity (total)


                                      2                           6
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      1
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      3
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                      2
            As a _____, I
            want _____ so
            that _____




                                                                                  25


Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
The Planning Game (but should it be fun?)




                                                                                26


These are real customers making decisions based on the velocity budget measured by the
team.
The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather




                                       7

                                                                                    27


Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next
iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new
one, or split it some way)
The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather

  Last Velocity


     7



                                                                                    27


Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next
iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new
one, or split it some way)
The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather

  Last Velocity


     7                                 2
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                                                                    27


Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next
iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new
one, or split it some way)
The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather

  Last Velocity                                                Current Cost


     7                                 2                              2
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                                                                    27


Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next
iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new
one, or split it some way)
The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather

  Last Velocity                                                Current Cost


     7                                 2                              2
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                                                                    27


Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next
iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new
one, or split it some way)
The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather

  Last Velocity                                                Current Cost


     7                                 2                              5
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                                                                    27


Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next
iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new
one, or split it some way)
The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather

  Last Velocity                                                Current Cost


     7                                 2                              5
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                                                                    27


Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next
iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new
one, or split it some way)
The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather

  Last Velocity                                                Current Cost


     7                                 2
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____                         8
                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                                                                    27


Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next
iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new
one, or split it some way)
The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather

  Last Velocity                                                Current Cost


     7                                 2
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____                         8
                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                                                                    27


Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next
iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new
one, or split it some way)
The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather

  Last Velocity                                                Current Cost


     7                                 2
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____                         8
                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                       2
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                                                                    27


Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next
iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new
one, or split it some way)
The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather

  Last Velocity                                                Current Cost


     7                                 2                              7
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                       3
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                       2
                                   As a _____, I
                                   want _____ so
                                   that _____




                                                                                    27


Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next
iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new
one, or split it some way)
The Planning Game (making decisions)




                                                                                28


Re-emphasize how in these cases the customers had to work with the team to take out
cards and find suitable replacements that could fit (this is a collaborative effort)
Tracking: Burndown vs Burnup




                                                                               29


Real burndown and burnup diagrams from the Scrum template, and Iterex planning cards
Tracking: Burndown vs Burnup




                                                                               29


Real burndown and burnup diagrams from the Scrum template, and Iterex planning cards
Really Tracking Progress




                                                                            30


Described planning boards, and avatars with standups for showing progress
Really Tracking Progress




                                                                            30


Described planning boards, and avatars with standups for showing progress
Really Tracking Progress




                                                                            30


Described planning boards, and avatars with standups for showing progress
Burnup Signatures




                       Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card          31


Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
Burnup Signatures




                       Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card          31


Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
Burnup Signatures




                       Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card          31


Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
Burnup Signatures




                       Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card          31


Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
Burnup Signatures




                       Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card          31


Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
Burnup Signatures




                       Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card          31


Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
Burnup Signatures




                       Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card          31


Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
Low-Tech can also work better...




                                                                                32


A simple whiteboard that team members update each day can be very educational
Leaning towards Equal Cards

   Keep cards to between 0.5
    to 2 days
   Errors tend to cancel each
    other out
   Allows for easier believable
    forecasting
   Experiment with Avg. card
    size




                                   33
Projecting Velocity




                                                                                     34


Talked about early experiments, and avoiding a trending line which leads to better
questions of whether things are on track
Projecting Velocity




                                                                                     34


Talked about early experiments, and avoiding a trending line which leads to better
questions of whether things are on track
What about hi-level planning?




Described experiments with hi level planning and individual blink estimation
Kanban + No Estimation

       Kanban




                         Reconstructed from photos of boards used at Yahoo
                                                                             36


Talked about KanBan card system, queue sizes, siloing issues.
Driver to force choice of stories (without velocity)
Driver to split/change stories (without estimation)
Fishbowl estimation




                                                               37


Alternative estimations techniques (courtesy Energized Work)
Measuring other project aspects…




Safety check, practices sliders,
retrospectives...
Honest feedback not just lip service…




Other interesting activities to try: Project pictures, Belbin team roles
Don’t be afraid to make process fun...




                                         40

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Project planning

  • 1. ESUG 2009: [Project planning]. Tim Mackinnon (www.iterex.co.uk)
  • 2. Smalltalk and Planning Smalltalk - synonymous with the invention and refinement of many techniques and technologies from GUI’s, unit testing, refactoring, vm's, and project planning. Planning? NOT glamorous, but the secret to successful projects. As developers we HATE it! This session will review, clarify and myth-bust some of the common techniques. More importantly, I will present what new ideas have surfaced around successful teams and the way they plan. Planning doesn't have to be tedious and boring, it can be rapid and successful. 2
  • 3. Tim Mackinnon - Who are you?  2006 – Iterex (Iterative Excellence)  Tailored Consulting/Coaching for Agile projects  iPhone Development (ReDo, WonderWorld)  2003 – ThoughtWorks  Agile enablement coaching  Papers on release estimation techniques  1999 – Connextra  Formed one of the first Agile teams in the UK  Invented “Mock Objects” test technique  Pioneered Iteration Retrospectives, XtC  1996 – OTI  Developer on UniBowser/VA-Modeler (early agile practices)  Uni-Browser framework, early UI predecessor to Eclipse 3 I use many languages and environments, but Smalltalk is still my favourite and most productive environment.
  • 4. Thank you Smalltalkers... 4 Its unusual to start with Thank you, but most of the ideas in this presentation come from Smalltalk and Smalltalkers.
  • 5. Microsoft Project Tutorial... 5 There are other ways of planning instead of using MS-Project
  • 6. Microsoft Project Tutorial... 5 There are other ways of planning instead of using MS-Project
  • 7. Microsoft Project Tutorial... 5 There are other ways of planning instead of using MS-Project
  • 8. Apples+Oranges = ? 6 Described the “Dashboards” planning experience - hours were added to days, were added to weeks and a final number came out of the exercise which was deemed to be the “end date”
  • 9. Apples+Oranges = ? 6 Described the “Dashboards” planning experience - hours were added to days, were added to weeks and a final number came out of the exercise which was deemed to be the “end date”
  • 10. IEEE article by Tom DeMarco (Jul/Aug 2009)  I'm gradually coming to the conclusion that software engineering is an idea whose time has come and gone.  Software development is and always will be somewhat experimental. The actual software construction isn't necessarily experimental, but its conception is. And this is where our focus ought to be. It's where our focus always ought to have been. 7
  • 11. The Agile Approach... 8 The wonder of agile... Scrum leprechauns and XP wizardry
  • 12. The Agile Approach... Image attribution: Renewtek 8 The wonder of agile... Scrum leprechauns and XP wizardry
  • 13. The Risk of Flacid Scrum! 9 Many projects jump on the Scrum bandwagon - it seems easy, but without good engineering discipline you can watch a burndown chart just extend out to infinity
  • 14. XP: Turning Extreme into Excellence! Take common sense practises to extreme levels - “turning the dials to 11!”  If code reviews are good, review code all the time (Pair Programming)  If testing is good, everybody will test all the time (Unit Testing)  If design is good, make it part of everyone’s daily business (Refactoring)  If simplicity is good, always leave the system with the simplest design that supports it’s current functionality. (The simplest thing that could possibly work)
  • 15. Comparison of Approaches Waterfall Analysis Design Time Implementation Testing Explained differences between Waterfall, Iterative, Agile. Hilited the added Red blocks in Agile for more corporate environments.
  • 16. Comparison of Approaches Waterfall Iterative Analysis Design Time Implementation Testing Explained differences between Waterfall, Iterative, Agile. Hilited the added Red blocks in Agile for more corporate environments.
  • 17. Comparison of Approaches Waterfall Iterative Agile Analysis Design Time Implementation Testing Explained differences between Waterfall, Iterative, Agile. Hilited the added Red blocks in Agile for more corporate environments.
  • 18. The Importance of maintaining Simple Design  Do the simplest thing that can possibly work  Always have the simplest/ smallest system  Don’t predict future requirements, they slow you vs down  Remove redundancy  Refactor for simplicity  Remember YAGNI (you aren’t going to need it)
  • 19. Reinforcing Practices Flatten the Cost Curve Described the tilting platform of reinforcing practices - trying to keep a balanced platform you can build on
  • 20. Planning for an Agile Lifecycle… QA Int y e gra plo te De Project Initiation (Forecasting) Ite rat Release Planning io n de Pl an Co ni e ng rit W Write Tests Day 1 Day Week1 Week2 ...Week4 ~5/10 (Iteration 1) (Iteration 2) (Sprint)/(Release) Retrospective – Revisit Release Goals Clicked to show incremental iterations stairs - a reminder that these cycles are the little slices discussed earlier
  • 21. Planning for an Agile Lifecycle… QA Int y e gra plo te De Project Initiation (Forecasting) Ite rat Release Planning io n de Pl an Co ni e ng rit W Write Tests Day 1 Day Week1 Week2 ...Week4 ~5/10 (Iteration 1) (Iteration 2) (Sprint)/(Release) Retrospective – Revisit Release Goals Clicked to show incremental iterations stairs - a reminder that these cycles are the little slices discussed earlier
  • 22. So how do you plan then? 15
  • 23. Create a Project Backlog image attribution: Thoughtworks 16 You need a backlog of requirements (best with tactile cards) that you can prioritise with the team (including customers)
  • 24. Forecasting – predicting the journey -2 -1 Chartering 1-5 Days Showcase Iterative Analysis Release 1 Iterations 0 1 2 3 Forecast Release Release 2 Iterations Retrospective 4 5 6 7 Forecast Release Retrospective Forecasting - the weather metaphor (ie. its not perfect, but a guide) The idea is to build up requirement “stories” to determine how the project can break up into smaller releases
  • 25. So where do artefacts come from ?  Real users, product owners, team members  Examples from existing systems  Kick-off workshops  Workshops with the whole team exploring options with users  Prototypes  Persona’s  Story boards/Whiteboarding  High level cards (Epics) Described the Elseveir team and how they were good at writing stories (they are publishers)
  • 26. Creating High Level Visual Artefacts  High level stories called “Epics”  Give them useful names  Describe a goal of a persona and business reason for epic  Fill in important reminders and background information  Observations, previous systems  Technical data from developer investigations  Include visual sketches, diagrams, screenshots  Hang them in your workspace Epics, and forming a useful vision of hi level stories
  • 27. Different levels of stories Epics Stories Project Backlog Release Backlog Iteration/Sprint Backlog Release Planning Iteration/Sprint Planning As a _____, I As a _____, I As a _____, I want _____ so want _____ so want _____ so that _____ that _____ that _____ Acceptance criteria I will know this I will know this may be automated Typically will have an initial is complete at this point is complete high level estimate when _______ when _______ (analysis + development) and an indication of business value and technical risk More detailed To achieve this estimates with specific we: Team breaks down acceptance criteria 1) ________ stories into tasks and design indicators. 2) ________ they can complete Risky stories might be to pass tests “spiked” But a story Card is still a Placeholder / Token (for further JIT conversation) Mature teams generally avoid task breakdown - or do this when pairing on a story in play
  • 28. Story Card Technology…  Cards, a simple effective requirements capture tool  Resist overusing technology  Simple and tactile  JIT requirements  A Story has enough information to allow a basic estimate But what are stories? - A common format helps, this is the blueprint we designed at “Connextra” which has become widely popular, although there are other variations you can try
  • 29. Cards are flexible, even when printed 22 This is a card printed using “Iterex Planning Cards”, which was then subsequently adjusted when meeting with a customer (several times as work progressed)
  • 30. Metrics: Velocity  Velocity is an unfortunate name (widely misused in industry)  Mistaken for speed when really its about range (MPG) 23 Originally used Load Factor - too confusing. Wanted an easy budget figure that the business understood.
  • 31. Simple Estimation Requires a Unit Planning Poker Cards 24 Talk about selling planning cards vs. using your hand (no-one forgets their hand)
  • 32. Simple Estimation Requires a Unit Planning Poker Cards 24 Talk about selling planning cards vs. using your hand (no-one forgets their hand)
  • 33. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 34. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 35. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 36. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) 2 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 37. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) 2 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 1 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 38. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) 2 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 1 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 39. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) 2 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 1 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 40. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) 2 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 1 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 41. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) 2 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 1 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 42. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) 2 6 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 1 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 43. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) 2 6 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 1 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 44. Calculating Velocity Estimate Velocity (total) 2 6 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 1 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 25 Emphasise that velocity is simply the sum of the estimates on cards that were completed
  • 45. The Planning Game (but should it be fun?) 26 These are real customers making decisions based on the velocity budget measured by the team.
  • 46. The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather 7 27 Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new one, or split it some way)
  • 47. The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather Last Velocity 7 27 Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new one, or split it some way)
  • 48. The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather Last Velocity 7 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 27 Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new one, or split it some way)
  • 49. The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather Last Velocity Current Cost 7 2 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 27 Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new one, or split it some way)
  • 50. The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather Last Velocity Current Cost 7 2 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 27 Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new one, or split it some way)
  • 51. The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather Last Velocity Current Cost 7 2 5 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 27 Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new one, or split it some way)
  • 52. The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather Last Velocity Current Cost 7 2 5 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 27 Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new one, or split it some way)
  • 53. The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather Last Velocity Current Cost 7 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 8 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 27 Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new one, or split it some way)
  • 54. The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather Last Velocity Current Cost 7 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 8 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 27 Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new one, or split it some way)
  • 55. The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather Last Velocity Current Cost 7 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 8 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 27 Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new one, or split it some way)
  • 56. The Velocity Budget and Yesterday’s Weather Last Velocity Current Cost 7 2 7 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 3 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 2 As a _____, I want _____ so that _____ 27 Demonstrate how you use your last velocity as a budget for accepting cards in the next iteration. When you exceed the budget you have to reject that card (either select a new one, or split it some way)
  • 57. The Planning Game (making decisions) 28 Re-emphasize how in these cases the customers had to work with the team to take out cards and find suitable replacements that could fit (this is a collaborative effort)
  • 58. Tracking: Burndown vs Burnup 29 Real burndown and burnup diagrams from the Scrum template, and Iterex planning cards
  • 59. Tracking: Burndown vs Burnup 29 Real burndown and burnup diagrams from the Scrum template, and Iterex planning cards
  • 60. Really Tracking Progress 30 Described planning boards, and avatars with standups for showing progress
  • 61. Really Tracking Progress 30 Described planning boards, and avatars with standups for showing progress
  • 62. Really Tracking Progress 30 Described planning boards, and avatars with standups for showing progress
  • 63. Burnup Signatures Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card 31 Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
  • 64. Burnup Signatures Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card 31 Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
  • 65. Burnup Signatures Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card 31 Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
  • 66. Burnup Signatures Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card 31 Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
  • 67. Burnup Signatures Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card 31 Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
  • 68. Burnup Signatures Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card 31 Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
  • 69. Burnup Signatures Tracking diagrams from Iterex Story Card 31 Ask audience how well they think the team is doing in these situations
  • 70. Low-Tech can also work better... 32 A simple whiteboard that team members update each day can be very educational
  • 71. Leaning towards Equal Cards  Keep cards to between 0.5 to 2 days  Errors tend to cancel each other out  Allows for easier believable forecasting  Experiment with Avg. card size 33
  • 72. Projecting Velocity 34 Talked about early experiments, and avoiding a trending line which leads to better questions of whether things are on track
  • 73. Projecting Velocity 34 Talked about early experiments, and avoiding a trending line which leads to better questions of whether things are on track
  • 74. What about hi-level planning? Described experiments with hi level planning and individual blink estimation
  • 75. Kanban + No Estimation  Kanban Reconstructed from photos of boards used at Yahoo 36 Talked about KanBan card system, queue sizes, siloing issues. Driver to force choice of stories (without velocity) Driver to split/change stories (without estimation)
  • 76. Fishbowl estimation 37 Alternative estimations techniques (courtesy Energized Work)
  • 77. Measuring other project aspects… Safety check, practices sliders, retrospectives...
  • 78. Honest feedback not just lip service… Other interesting activities to try: Project pictures, Belbin team roles
  • 79. Don’t be afraid to make process fun... 40