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BUILDING SERVICE (BLD 60903)
Project 2: Application of Building Services
Building Services Diary:
Electrical Supply System
Water Supply System
Sewerage and Sanitary System
Rainwater/ Surface Drainage System
Prepare By:
Ong Shi Hui
0320303
Tutor:
Mr. Azim
INDEX
INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT
INFO AND DATA OF BUILDING SERVICES
1 Electrical Supply system
1.1 Introduction and function of electrical system
1.2 Components of electrical system
1.3 Operation of electrical system
1.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations
2 Cold water and hot water supply system
2.1 Introduction and function of water supply system
2.2 Components of water supply system
2.3 Operation of water supply system
2.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations
3 Sewerage and sanitary system
3.1 Introduction and function of sewerage system
3.2 Components of sewerage and sanitary system
3.3 Operation of sewerage and sanitary system
3.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations
4 Rainwater /Surface water drainage system
4.1 Introduction and function of rainwater drainage system
4.2 Components of rainwater/ surface water drainage system
4.3 Operation of rainwater/ surface water drainage system
4.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations
DRAWINGS
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
Introduction of project
This project is an individual assignment on application of basic building services. This is an
individual project to apply building services systems to a domestic sized building. This
exercise requires us to demonstrate our understanding on the application by producing
technical drawings incorporating the necessary building services. The objectives of this
project are to develop our understanding and knowledge of building services systems in
design and construction. This project also requires us to apply appropriate building services
system and solution for our Studio 4 design which is a specific design to demonstrate a
comprehensive understanding of applicability of specific building services systems in the
design in response to practical considerations. It also develops our ability to resolve issues
related to specific building services systems.
1. Electrical Supply System
1.1 Introduction and function of electrical system
An electric power system is a network of electrical components deployed to supply, transfer
and distribute electricity to consumers. TNB (Tenaga Nasional Berhad) is the largest
electricity utility in Malaysia. There mainly uses coal, oil and gas to generate the electrical
power. Other than that, there are a few of power plants that generated by renewable energy
which are solar, hydropower (water) and biomass.
1.2 Components of electrical system
TNB Meter
An electricity meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of energy
consumed.For billing purposes, TNB will require energy consumption reading measured in
Kilowatt ( kWh). The reading is available on the LCD display on meter. The Incoming fuse
and the meter are the property of TNB and tampering with them is a criminal offence.
Image of TNB Meter
Consumer box
A fusebox, which control and distribute the electricity in a building.It contains three things-
main switch, fuses and Residual Current Devices.
a) Main Switch - Allow to turn off the electricity supply.
b) Residual Current Device( RCD) - Switch that trip a circuit under dangerous condition
and instantly disconnect the electricity.
c) Circuit Breaker- An automatic protection device in the fusebox that switch off the
power to the individual circuit in the event of high fault current.
Image of consumer box and interior circuit
Emergency lighting
Lighting for an emergency when the main power supply is cut and any normal illuminate
fails. It normally required to operate fully automatically to enable all occupants to evacuate
the premises safety. Nowadays, it installed during construction in accordance with current
Building Regulations and local authority requirements.
Image of emergency lighting
Ceiling fan
A mechanical fan, suspended from the ceiling of a room that rotate counterclockwise to push
cool air down to the floor to circulate air.
Image of ceiling fan
One gang socket
A socket for an electric plug that is fixed to a wall and connected to an electricity supply. It
provides a manual controlling of appliance during off-load and on-load.
Image of one gang socket
LED Downlight
A light that has been recessed into a ceiling and that throws light downward in a narrow
beam. It provide a modern appearance to the room. LED bulb is suitable to install in school
due to energy efficient.
Image of LED downlight
Three Gang Switch
Light switch has three separate switches which is three single gang switches combine in a
single face plate. These switches are used when there are three lightings or ceiling fans in a
single room.
Image of three gang switch
1.3 Operation of electrical system
Electricity arrives at school from local utility company by a power line or underground
through a conduit. An electric meter monitored, is mounted where the electricity enters.
Basically, the main panel placed right next to or under meter. This is the central distribution
point for electrical circuits that run to lights, receptacles and appliance.
In electronics, a circuit is a path between two or more points along which an electrical current
can be carried. Current begins at a power source, powers the appliance or device along the
circuit, and then returns to the power source. Interruption along the path will cause the circuit
dead.
A circuit consists of a hot (usually black) wire that goes from the main panel to a series of
lights and other appliances. While a neutral (usually white) wire that returns to the main
panel. In addition to the neutral wire, a grounding wire also returns to the main panel. The
purpose of the ground is to divert electricity into the earth, preventing electric shock.
Subpanels also connected to the main panel. It provides power to large appliances, such as
the kitchen and laundry room. They also are equipped with a secondary set of circuit
breakers.
Low-voltage electrical systems are commonly used for sprinkler timers, outdoor lighting,
and some types of low-voltage indoor lighting. These systems are much safer than
conventional voltage wiring.
1.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations
ELECTRICAL REGULATION 1994
Regulation 15.
Apparatus, conductor, accessory, etc.
(1) Any apparatus, conductor or accessory for the purpose of connection to an installation
shall be sufficient in size, power and number to serve the purpose for which it is intended and
shall be constructed, installed, arranged, protected, worked and maintained in such a manner
as to prevent danger.
(2) A conductor shall be insulated and effectively protected or so placed or safeguarded in
such a manner as to prevent danger.
(3) A conductor which is neither protected by metallic sheath nor conveyed in a conduit shall
be protected by an insulating bush or tube, where is passes through a wall, partition, floor, or
the roof of a building or other structure.
(4) Every cable or metallic conduit in which cables are run can be buried in plaster provided
that the cable or conduit is of such material that corrosion of the cable or conduit will not
cause weakening of the insulation and consequent danger from leakage of current.
(5) A cable or metallic conduit in which cables are run may be buried in pure cement or
concrete.
(6) Any conductor or apparatus that is exposes to the weather, water, corrosion, undue
heating or used in inflammable surroundings or in an explosive atmosphere shall be
constructed or protected in such a manner as to prevent danger.
Regulation 16.
Switch, switch fuse, fuse switch, circuit breaker, contactor, fuse, etc.
(1) Any switch, switch fuse, fuse switch, circuit breaker or isolating link shall be—
(a) constructed, placed or protected in such a manner as to prevent danger;
(b) constructed and adjusted in such a manner as to and maintain efficient contact;
(c) provided with an efficient handle insulated from the system and arranged in such a
manner that the handle cannot inadvertently touch any live part;
(d) constructed or arranged in such a manner that it cannot accidentally come into contact
with any live conductor when left in the "off" position;
(e) constructed in such a manner that it cannot be left in partial contact with any live
conductor; and
(f) constructed in such a manner that an arc cannot be maintained when used for breaking a
circuit on load.
(2) Any circuit breaker or contactor used for changing a source of supply shall have poles
which include a pole for the neutral.
(3) Any fuse or circuit breaker shall be—
(a) constructed and arranged in such a manner so as to break the current when it exceeds a
given value for a sufficient time to prevent danger; and
(b) constructed, guarded or placed in such a manner as to prevent danger of overheating,
arcing or from the scattering of hot metal or other substance.
(4) A fuse in subregulation (3) shall be either of such construction or protected by a switch so
that the fusible portion shall be readily renewed without danger.
2 Cold water and hot water supply system
2.1 Introduction and function of water supply system
A water supply system is a system for the collection, transmission, treatment, distribution and
storage of water from source to customers. There are three types of water supply system,
which are the direct supply system, indirect supply system and sump and pump supply supply
system.
a. Direct supply system- Water is transmitted directly from public water mains to
households at the lower floors by means of hydraulic pressure inside the main
b. Indirect supply system- Water pump is used to draw water from the storage tank
installed at the ground level of the building, and fresh water drawn into the rooftop
water tank is then transmitted to each household through a network of sub-mains.
c. Sump and pump supply system- Water is transmitted to the receiving end by fitting a
pressure pump to the supply: a fire main is one that functions in this way.
2.2 Components of water supply system
Water Meter
Water meter is a device to measure the amount of water supplied to a building for billing
purpose.
Image and detail of water meter
Gate valve
Gate valve is valves that operate by lifting of a round or rectangular gate out of the path of
the fluid. It used in fluid-handling system for flow control. It also designed to be fully opened
or closed. When the valve is fully open, gate valves are has no obstruct to flow.
Image and sectional detail of gate valve
Stopcock
Stopcock is a valve , used to restrict the flow of water through a mains water inlet pipe. It
prevent the flow of water into a domestic water system when carrying out the maintenance.
There are two types of stopcock which are internal and external. Internal stopcock is
normally placed under a sink in kitchen and utility room. For the external stopcock, it placed
below ground level beneath a metal cover on the property boundary.
Image and detail of stopcock
HDPE Water tank
Water tank is a container for storing water. HDPE is used because it is superb chemical
resistance, strength resistance, lightweight and odour free. The container is opaque which
blocks direct sunlight and avoid the growth of harmful bacteria.
Image of HDPE Water Tank
Hot Water Storage Tank
Hot water storage tank is installed to stored hot water for domestic use in the building.
Image and detail of hot water storage
Copper pipe
Copper is used for channel hot water due to its strength such as thermal efficient, durable heat
exchange and excellent conduct of heat. Other desirable properties is corrosion resistance
and allowable stress, internal pressure and ease of joining.
Image of copper pipe
uPVC Pipe
It is an unplasticized piping. It was able to distribution heating and domestic. It also
recyclable, lightweight and safe for transport drinking water.
Image of uPVC pipe
2.3 Operation of water supply system
Water supply system begins from the main water supply channel. It comes to every building
by using piping network. Before supplying the water to storage tank in individual building,
the piping must pass through water meter into the water filter to remove impurities. After
that, the piping is diverted into two piping network, which is hot and cold water piping. From
the cold piping, it will directly deliver to HDPE piping for the consumer. Moreover, another
hot water piping is using copper piping. It connects to water heater to heat up and store in the
hot water storage.
2.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations
UBBL 84
1) Suitable measures shall be taken to prevent the dampness and moisture into a building
2) Damp proof courses where provided shall comply with BS 743 (material for Horizontal
D.P.C.)
UBBL 89
A chase made in a wall for pipes and other service facilities shall leave the wall at the back of
the chase not less than 100 mm thick in external wall and not less than 100mm thick in a
party wall and shall not wider than 200mm.
Example of water filter that located outside of the building
Diagram: Installation of water filter
UBBL 123
1) Where ducts or enclosures are provided in any building to accommodate pipes, cables or to
the dimension of such ducts or enclosures shall be:
a) Adequate for the accommodation of the pipes, cables or conduits and for crossing of
branches and mains together with support and fixings; and
b) Sufficiently large permit access to cleaning eyes, stop cocks and other controls there to
enable repairs and extension and modifications to be made for each or all of the services
accommodated
3 Sewerage and sanitary system
3.1 Introduction and function of sewerage system
Sewerage system is a network of pipes, pumps and force mains for collection of wastewater
or sewage from a community. In Malaysia, IWK (Indah Water Konsortium) is mainly
responsible for operating and maintaining the public sewage treatment plants and network of
underground sewerage pipelines. The function of sewerage system is to protect the public
health and water quality. Sewage can be classificate by domestic sewage , agricultural
sewage and industrial sewage.
3.2 Components of sewerage and sanitary system
Septic tank
Septic tank is a system that constructed underground sewage treatment structures. It used to
digests organic matter and separates floatable matter and solids from wastewater. It
commonly used in an individual building such as bungalow. Septic tank structure has proven
the technology of using nature to treat wastewater.
Moreover, septic tank installed with inlet, outlet & vent pipes. It may have one, two or three
chambers, but normally two chambers is used. A typical septic system consists of septic tank
and a drainfield or soil absorption field. There are three layers in septic tank, which are scum
(oil and grease) , liquid and sludge (soil, grit, bones).
a. Scum- Scum is the upper layer of septic tank. It contains cooking oil, grease and other
suspended matter that lighter than water. It provides an environment for the culture of
anaerobic bacteria. For the maintenance part, it must ensure the presence of anaerobic
bacteria is maximized.
b. Liquid- Liquid is the middle layer of septic tank. It consists of suspended solid and
bacteria. The bacteria decompose the suspended solid before it is being drained out of
the septic tank together with the effluent.
c. Sludge- Sludge is the lower layer of septic tank. Non-decomposable solid settles to
the base of the tank and undergo anaerobic decomposition to form this layer. Bacteria
decomposes the settled sewage solid and reduces its volume. When the
non-decomposable solid thicken up to maximum layer, it will be remove out of the
tank.
Image of placement and detail of septic tank
Manhole
Manhole is chamber with a removeable cover and large enough for a person to get into an
underground utility vault. It is masonry or RCC chambers constructed at suitable intervals
along the sewer line. Basically, it used to allow cleaning, inspection, connections and repairs.
Also, it allows the escape of considerable gases through perforated cover and thus help in
ventilation of sewage.
Image and detail of manhole
Vent cowl
Vent cowl is a piping that designed at the top of toilet vent pipe to reduce pan syphoning. It
allow fresh air into the cab. It also protect against seater spray and rain.
Image of vent cowl
Gully trap
A gully trap is a basin in the ground which receives piped wastewater from bathroom, kitchen
and laundry. It constructed outside the building to carry wastewater discharge to drain. It
prevents foul odours of the sewer reaching the surface. The design of gully trap is raised
above the ground level to prevent stormwater and other matter entering the sewer.
Image and placement of gully trap
Floor trap
A trap is provided in the floor to collect the wastewater from bathroom, shower and
washbasin. Also, it prevents the foul gases and the entry of cockroach and other insects from
sewer line to enter into the building. The minimum depth of water seal should be 30mm. It
available in cast iron, PVC and UPVC.
Image and section of floor trap
P-trap
P-trap is a U-shaped of plumbing fixture that installed under the sinks in bathroom and
kitchen. It can be made from PVC pipe or steel. The function of P-trap is to prevent odorous
gas in plumbing drains and sewers rising up into building.
Image and detail of p-trap
3.3 Operation of sewerage and sanitary system
Sewerage and sanitary system is the way through a network of pipes to the sewage treatment
plant where it is treated and discharged back to the environment, where it flows downstream
to be used again. Firstly, the wastewater collected from basin, sink, kitchen and floor trap and
travel through gully trap before travel to manhole. While the sewerage collect from toilet
bowl and urinal are direct channel to manhole. A series of underground pipes and manholes,
pumping stations, and other appurtenances convey sewages from building to wastewater
treatment plants for filtration where it is cleaned and returned to the environment.
Diagram of sanitary and sewerage system
3.4 ​UBBL requirement or related regulations
Water Service Industry Act 2006
Section 63
The government may direct the owner or management of any premise to install or construct a
private sewerage system or septic for the premises
Law of Malaysia Act 133
Section 56
No pipe used for the carrying of rainwater from any roof shall be used for carrying off the
soil or drainage from any privy of water closet or any surface water.
Section 61
The local authority may erect or fix to any building such as pipes as are necessary for the
ventilation of the drains and sewer belonging to it
Street, Drainage & Building Act 1974
Section 57
No water pipe, stack pipe or downspout used for conveying surface water from any preemies
shall be used or be permitted to serve or to act as ventilating shaft to any drain or sewer.
Sewerage services act, Act 508
An act to amend and consolidate the laws relating to sewerage systems and sewerage services
throughout Malaysia for the purpose of improving sanitation and the environment and
promoting public health: and to provide for matters connected therewith and incidental there
to.
4 Rainwater /Surface water drainage system
4.1 Introduction and function of rainwater drainage system
Surface water is rainwater which run off roof and also include water that from garden,
driveway and linear drains. The function of rainwater drainage system is to collect rainwater
and direct away to drain. The gutter and rainwater pipes is referred to roof drainage while the
underground pipework is refer to as surface water drain and surface water sewers. The
drainage system must also protect the substructure from erosion, sodden, and losing its
load-bearing capacity and stability.  
4.2 Components of rainwater/ surface water drainage system
Gutters- 200mm
Gutter is an open ducts of slight slope, designed to collect and conduct rainwater which falls
on the roof to the underground drainage system. The standard gutter is made of PVC,
aluminium or galvanized steel and it attached at the eaves. PVC gutter is used because it is
light, cheap and flexible, requiring no maintenance such as painting. It is current made in
white, brown, black and various shades of grey as these colours offer the greater resistance to
fading in strong sunlight. PVC has a smooth internal surface which offers a better flow rate
than other materials.
Image of PVC gutter
Downpipes- 150mm
Downpipe is the pipes that run the height of building from the eaves to the ground. It used to
direct the water leaving the gutter down to the ground or drainage system. The material of
downpipe is normally same as gutter that used.
Image of PVC downpipe
Perimeter ​drains- 200mm
Perimeter drain is designed to collect the water from downpipes. Also, it attract water in the
soil in the soil that has accumulated from heavy rains. It carries the water away the building
so it is less likely to seep through the walls. It is a PVC perforated pipe, which is installed
underground,around the perimeter of building. The perforations consist of thousands of tiny
slits that allow water to enter the pipe and be drained away from the foundation of building.
Image of perimeter drain
Sump
A sump is simply a container to collect water from a plumbed system. It may made of clay,
tile, concrete, steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. It is located at the lowest point in the
basement. Tank has a hole in each side of coming drain tile and all have a sturdy cover.
When ground water fills the tank to a given level, a float or some other type of switching
device activates a pump.The standard tanks are about 18 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 feet
deep.
Section and placement of sump
4.3 Operation of rainwater/ surface water drainage system
When rain coming, rainwater will collected at the rooftop. To ensure that the rainwater can be
run off, the roof must be constructed with gradient.So, the gutter can received the rainwater
easily. From gutter, it will pass through downpipe. Downpipes can discharge over the grid of
an open gully or be connected directly to an underground drain pipe. From there, the water
might run into a storm drain beneath the road or be piped to a soakaway underground.
4.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations
Laws of Malaysia Act 133
Section 56
No pipe used for the carrying of rainwater from any roof shall be used for carrying off the
soil or drainage from any privy or water closet or any sulfate water.
Laws of Malaysia Act 133
Section 56
No water pipe, stack pipe or downspout used for the conveying of surface water from any
premises shall be used to serve or act as a ventilating shaft to any drain or sewer.
UBBL 115
All roof of building shall be constructed to drain effectively and sufficient channel shall be
provided in accordance with the requirement of these laws for receiving and conveying all
water which may fell on and from the roof.
Summary and conclusion
Throughout this project, I have learned to identify relevant information related to water and
electrical supply, liquid waste disposal, sanitary and rainwater management system.
Moreover, I have a deep understanding about the planning of building services within the
design and construction peripheries. I am able to propose the most suitable systems for a
specific type of building.
Reference
Advice, G., Items, E., & Explained, F. (2017). ​Fuse boxes explained​. ​Electrical Safety First​.
Retrieved 5 July 2017, from
http://www.electricalsafetyfirst.org.uk/guides-and-advice/electrical-items/fuseboxes-explaine
d/
TNB Better. Brighter.​. (2017). ​TNB Better. Brighter.​. Retrieved 5 July 2017, from
https://www.tnb.com.my/residential/billing/self-meter-reading/how-to-read-your-energy-met
er
Emergency Lighting : Firesafe.org.uk​. (2017). ​Firesafe.org.uk​. Retrieved 5 July 2017, from
http://www.firesafe.org.uk/emergency-lighting/
Don Vandervort, H. (2017). ​How a Home Electrical System Works​. ​Hometips.com​. Retrieved
5 July 2017, from
https://www.hometips.com/how-it-works/electrical-panel-circuit-breakers.html
How Your Septic System Works | US EPA​. (2017). ​US EPA​. Retrieved 5 July 2017, from
https://www.epa.gov/septic/how-your-septic-system-works
Plumbing Trap | Drain Traps | Plumbing Traps | Drainage Trap | Drainage Traps |
Drainage Traps Types - GharExpert.com​. (2017). ​Gharexpert.com​. Retrieved 5 July 2017,
from
http://www.gharexpert.com/tips/articles/Construction/1790/Waste-Water-Drainage-1790-Tra
ps--Types-Uses_0
Getting to know perimeter drain systems | Square One​. (2017). ​Home Insurance Policies
From $15/Month​. Retrieved 5 July 2017, from
https://www.squareoneinsurance.com/perimeter-drain-system
Google+, F. (2017). ​Water supply system and Drainage system​. ​En.pmcweb.vn​. Retrieved 5
July 2017, from
http://en.pmcweb.vn/property-management/condominium/daily-operation-of-building-manag
ement/repair-and-maintenance/water-supply-system-and-drainage-system/
What is a stopcock?​. (2017). ​Wonkeedonkeetools.co.uk​. Retrieved 5 July 2017, from
https://www.wonkeedonkeetools.co.uk/stopcock-keys/what-is-a-stopcock/
(2017). Retrieved from
http://econtent.tauranga.govt.nz/data/water/files/waterline_gully_traps.pdf

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Project 2 building service

  • 1. BUILDING SERVICE (BLD 60903) Project 2: Application of Building Services Building Services Diary: Electrical Supply System Water Supply System Sewerage and Sanitary System Rainwater/ Surface Drainage System Prepare By: Ong Shi Hui 0320303 Tutor: Mr. Azim
  • 2. INDEX INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT INFO AND DATA OF BUILDING SERVICES 1 Electrical Supply system 1.1 Introduction and function of electrical system 1.2 Components of electrical system 1.3 Operation of electrical system 1.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations 2 Cold water and hot water supply system 2.1 Introduction and function of water supply system 2.2 Components of water supply system 2.3 Operation of water supply system 2.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations 3 Sewerage and sanitary system 3.1 Introduction and function of sewerage system 3.2 Components of sewerage and sanitary system 3.3 Operation of sewerage and sanitary system 3.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations 4 Rainwater /Surface water drainage system 4.1 Introduction and function of rainwater drainage system 4.2 Components of rainwater/ surface water drainage system 4.3 Operation of rainwater/ surface water drainage system 4.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations DRAWINGS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
  • 3. Introduction of project This project is an individual assignment on application of basic building services. This is an individual project to apply building services systems to a domestic sized building. This exercise requires us to demonstrate our understanding on the application by producing technical drawings incorporating the necessary building services. The objectives of this project are to develop our understanding and knowledge of building services systems in design and construction. This project also requires us to apply appropriate building services system and solution for our Studio 4 design which is a specific design to demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of applicability of specific building services systems in the design in response to practical considerations. It also develops our ability to resolve issues related to specific building services systems. 1. Electrical Supply System 1.1 Introduction and function of electrical system An electric power system is a network of electrical components deployed to supply, transfer and distribute electricity to consumers. TNB (Tenaga Nasional Berhad) is the largest electricity utility in Malaysia. There mainly uses coal, oil and gas to generate the electrical power. Other than that, there are a few of power plants that generated by renewable energy which are solar, hydropower (water) and biomass. 1.2 Components of electrical system TNB Meter An electricity meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of energy consumed.For billing purposes, TNB will require energy consumption reading measured in Kilowatt ( kWh). The reading is available on the LCD display on meter. The Incoming fuse and the meter are the property of TNB and tampering with them is a criminal offence. Image of TNB Meter
  • 4. Consumer box A fusebox, which control and distribute the electricity in a building.It contains three things- main switch, fuses and Residual Current Devices. a) Main Switch - Allow to turn off the electricity supply. b) Residual Current Device( RCD) - Switch that trip a circuit under dangerous condition and instantly disconnect the electricity. c) Circuit Breaker- An automatic protection device in the fusebox that switch off the power to the individual circuit in the event of high fault current. Image of consumer box and interior circuit Emergency lighting Lighting for an emergency when the main power supply is cut and any normal illuminate fails. It normally required to operate fully automatically to enable all occupants to evacuate the premises safety. Nowadays, it installed during construction in accordance with current Building Regulations and local authority requirements. Image of emergency lighting Ceiling fan A mechanical fan, suspended from the ceiling of a room that rotate counterclockwise to push cool air down to the floor to circulate air. Image of ceiling fan
  • 5. One gang socket A socket for an electric plug that is fixed to a wall and connected to an electricity supply. It provides a manual controlling of appliance during off-load and on-load. Image of one gang socket LED Downlight A light that has been recessed into a ceiling and that throws light downward in a narrow beam. It provide a modern appearance to the room. LED bulb is suitable to install in school due to energy efficient. Image of LED downlight Three Gang Switch Light switch has three separate switches which is three single gang switches combine in a single face plate. These switches are used when there are three lightings or ceiling fans in a single room. Image of three gang switch
  • 6. 1.3 Operation of electrical system Electricity arrives at school from local utility company by a power line or underground through a conduit. An electric meter monitored, is mounted where the electricity enters. Basically, the main panel placed right next to or under meter. This is the central distribution point for electrical circuits that run to lights, receptacles and appliance. In electronics, a circuit is a path between two or more points along which an electrical current can be carried. Current begins at a power source, powers the appliance or device along the circuit, and then returns to the power source. Interruption along the path will cause the circuit dead. A circuit consists of a hot (usually black) wire that goes from the main panel to a series of lights and other appliances. While a neutral (usually white) wire that returns to the main panel. In addition to the neutral wire, a grounding wire also returns to the main panel. The purpose of the ground is to divert electricity into the earth, preventing electric shock. Subpanels also connected to the main panel. It provides power to large appliances, such as the kitchen and laundry room. They also are equipped with a secondary set of circuit breakers. Low-voltage electrical systems are commonly used for sprinkler timers, outdoor lighting, and some types of low-voltage indoor lighting. These systems are much safer than conventional voltage wiring. 1.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations ELECTRICAL REGULATION 1994 Regulation 15. Apparatus, conductor, accessory, etc. (1) Any apparatus, conductor or accessory for the purpose of connection to an installation shall be sufficient in size, power and number to serve the purpose for which it is intended and shall be constructed, installed, arranged, protected, worked and maintained in such a manner as to prevent danger. (2) A conductor shall be insulated and effectively protected or so placed or safeguarded in such a manner as to prevent danger. (3) A conductor which is neither protected by metallic sheath nor conveyed in a conduit shall be protected by an insulating bush or tube, where is passes through a wall, partition, floor, or the roof of a building or other structure. (4) Every cable or metallic conduit in which cables are run can be buried in plaster provided that the cable or conduit is of such material that corrosion of the cable or conduit will not cause weakening of the insulation and consequent danger from leakage of current.
  • 7. (5) A cable or metallic conduit in which cables are run may be buried in pure cement or concrete. (6) Any conductor or apparatus that is exposes to the weather, water, corrosion, undue heating or used in inflammable surroundings or in an explosive atmosphere shall be constructed or protected in such a manner as to prevent danger. Regulation 16. Switch, switch fuse, fuse switch, circuit breaker, contactor, fuse, etc. (1) Any switch, switch fuse, fuse switch, circuit breaker or isolating link shall be— (a) constructed, placed or protected in such a manner as to prevent danger; (b) constructed and adjusted in such a manner as to and maintain efficient contact; (c) provided with an efficient handle insulated from the system and arranged in such a manner that the handle cannot inadvertently touch any live part; (d) constructed or arranged in such a manner that it cannot accidentally come into contact with any live conductor when left in the "off" position; (e) constructed in such a manner that it cannot be left in partial contact with any live conductor; and (f) constructed in such a manner that an arc cannot be maintained when used for breaking a circuit on load. (2) Any circuit breaker or contactor used for changing a source of supply shall have poles which include a pole for the neutral. (3) Any fuse or circuit breaker shall be— (a) constructed and arranged in such a manner so as to break the current when it exceeds a given value for a sufficient time to prevent danger; and (b) constructed, guarded or placed in such a manner as to prevent danger of overheating, arcing or from the scattering of hot metal or other substance. (4) A fuse in subregulation (3) shall be either of such construction or protected by a switch so that the fusible portion shall be readily renewed without danger.
  • 8. 2 Cold water and hot water supply system 2.1 Introduction and function of water supply system A water supply system is a system for the collection, transmission, treatment, distribution and storage of water from source to customers. There are three types of water supply system, which are the direct supply system, indirect supply system and sump and pump supply supply system. a. Direct supply system- Water is transmitted directly from public water mains to households at the lower floors by means of hydraulic pressure inside the main b. Indirect supply system- Water pump is used to draw water from the storage tank installed at the ground level of the building, and fresh water drawn into the rooftop water tank is then transmitted to each household through a network of sub-mains. c. Sump and pump supply system- Water is transmitted to the receiving end by fitting a pressure pump to the supply: a fire main is one that functions in this way. 2.2 Components of water supply system Water Meter Water meter is a device to measure the amount of water supplied to a building for billing purpose. Image and detail of water meter Gate valve Gate valve is valves that operate by lifting of a round or rectangular gate out of the path of the fluid. It used in fluid-handling system for flow control. It also designed to be fully opened or closed. When the valve is fully open, gate valves are has no obstruct to flow. Image and sectional detail of gate valve
  • 9. Stopcock Stopcock is a valve , used to restrict the flow of water through a mains water inlet pipe. It prevent the flow of water into a domestic water system when carrying out the maintenance. There are two types of stopcock which are internal and external. Internal stopcock is normally placed under a sink in kitchen and utility room. For the external stopcock, it placed below ground level beneath a metal cover on the property boundary. Image and detail of stopcock HDPE Water tank Water tank is a container for storing water. HDPE is used because it is superb chemical resistance, strength resistance, lightweight and odour free. The container is opaque which blocks direct sunlight and avoid the growth of harmful bacteria. Image of HDPE Water Tank Hot Water Storage Tank Hot water storage tank is installed to stored hot water for domestic use in the building. Image and detail of hot water storage
  • 10. Copper pipe Copper is used for channel hot water due to its strength such as thermal efficient, durable heat exchange and excellent conduct of heat. Other desirable properties is corrosion resistance and allowable stress, internal pressure and ease of joining. Image of copper pipe uPVC Pipe It is an unplasticized piping. It was able to distribution heating and domestic. It also recyclable, lightweight and safe for transport drinking water. Image of uPVC pipe 2.3 Operation of water supply system Water supply system begins from the main water supply channel. It comes to every building by using piping network. Before supplying the water to storage tank in individual building, the piping must pass through water meter into the water filter to remove impurities. After that, the piping is diverted into two piping network, which is hot and cold water piping. From the cold piping, it will directly deliver to HDPE piping for the consumer. Moreover, another hot water piping is using copper piping. It connects to water heater to heat up and store in the hot water storage.
  • 11. 2.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations UBBL 84 1) Suitable measures shall be taken to prevent the dampness and moisture into a building 2) Damp proof courses where provided shall comply with BS 743 (material for Horizontal D.P.C.) UBBL 89 A chase made in a wall for pipes and other service facilities shall leave the wall at the back of the chase not less than 100 mm thick in external wall and not less than 100mm thick in a party wall and shall not wider than 200mm. Example of water filter that located outside of the building Diagram: Installation of water filter UBBL 123 1) Where ducts or enclosures are provided in any building to accommodate pipes, cables or to the dimension of such ducts or enclosures shall be: a) Adequate for the accommodation of the pipes, cables or conduits and for crossing of branches and mains together with support and fixings; and b) Sufficiently large permit access to cleaning eyes, stop cocks and other controls there to enable repairs and extension and modifications to be made for each or all of the services accommodated
  • 12. 3 Sewerage and sanitary system 3.1 Introduction and function of sewerage system Sewerage system is a network of pipes, pumps and force mains for collection of wastewater or sewage from a community. In Malaysia, IWK (Indah Water Konsortium) is mainly responsible for operating and maintaining the public sewage treatment plants and network of underground sewerage pipelines. The function of sewerage system is to protect the public health and water quality. Sewage can be classificate by domestic sewage , agricultural sewage and industrial sewage. 3.2 Components of sewerage and sanitary system Septic tank Septic tank is a system that constructed underground sewage treatment structures. It used to digests organic matter and separates floatable matter and solids from wastewater. It commonly used in an individual building such as bungalow. Septic tank structure has proven the technology of using nature to treat wastewater. Moreover, septic tank installed with inlet, outlet & vent pipes. It may have one, two or three chambers, but normally two chambers is used. A typical septic system consists of septic tank and a drainfield or soil absorption field. There are three layers in septic tank, which are scum (oil and grease) , liquid and sludge (soil, grit, bones). a. Scum- Scum is the upper layer of septic tank. It contains cooking oil, grease and other suspended matter that lighter than water. It provides an environment for the culture of anaerobic bacteria. For the maintenance part, it must ensure the presence of anaerobic bacteria is maximized. b. Liquid- Liquid is the middle layer of septic tank. It consists of suspended solid and bacteria. The bacteria decompose the suspended solid before it is being drained out of the septic tank together with the effluent. c. Sludge- Sludge is the lower layer of septic tank. Non-decomposable solid settles to the base of the tank and undergo anaerobic decomposition to form this layer. Bacteria decomposes the settled sewage solid and reduces its volume. When the non-decomposable solid thicken up to maximum layer, it will be remove out of the tank. Image of placement and detail of septic tank
  • 13. Manhole Manhole is chamber with a removeable cover and large enough for a person to get into an underground utility vault. It is masonry or RCC chambers constructed at suitable intervals along the sewer line. Basically, it used to allow cleaning, inspection, connections and repairs. Also, it allows the escape of considerable gases through perforated cover and thus help in ventilation of sewage. Image and detail of manhole Vent cowl Vent cowl is a piping that designed at the top of toilet vent pipe to reduce pan syphoning. It allow fresh air into the cab. It also protect against seater spray and rain. Image of vent cowl Gully trap A gully trap is a basin in the ground which receives piped wastewater from bathroom, kitchen and laundry. It constructed outside the building to carry wastewater discharge to drain. It prevents foul odours of the sewer reaching the surface. The design of gully trap is raised above the ground level to prevent stormwater and other matter entering the sewer. Image and placement of gully trap
  • 14. Floor trap A trap is provided in the floor to collect the wastewater from bathroom, shower and washbasin. Also, it prevents the foul gases and the entry of cockroach and other insects from sewer line to enter into the building. The minimum depth of water seal should be 30mm. It available in cast iron, PVC and UPVC. Image and section of floor trap P-trap P-trap is a U-shaped of plumbing fixture that installed under the sinks in bathroom and kitchen. It can be made from PVC pipe or steel. The function of P-trap is to prevent odorous gas in plumbing drains and sewers rising up into building. Image and detail of p-trap
  • 15. 3.3 Operation of sewerage and sanitary system Sewerage and sanitary system is the way through a network of pipes to the sewage treatment plant where it is treated and discharged back to the environment, where it flows downstream to be used again. Firstly, the wastewater collected from basin, sink, kitchen and floor trap and travel through gully trap before travel to manhole. While the sewerage collect from toilet bowl and urinal are direct channel to manhole. A series of underground pipes and manholes, pumping stations, and other appurtenances convey sewages from building to wastewater treatment plants for filtration where it is cleaned and returned to the environment. Diagram of sanitary and sewerage system
  • 16. 3.4 ​UBBL requirement or related regulations Water Service Industry Act 2006 Section 63 The government may direct the owner or management of any premise to install or construct a private sewerage system or septic for the premises Law of Malaysia Act 133 Section 56 No pipe used for the carrying of rainwater from any roof shall be used for carrying off the soil or drainage from any privy of water closet or any surface water. Section 61 The local authority may erect or fix to any building such as pipes as are necessary for the ventilation of the drains and sewer belonging to it Street, Drainage & Building Act 1974 Section 57 No water pipe, stack pipe or downspout used for conveying surface water from any preemies shall be used or be permitted to serve or to act as ventilating shaft to any drain or sewer. Sewerage services act, Act 508 An act to amend and consolidate the laws relating to sewerage systems and sewerage services throughout Malaysia for the purpose of improving sanitation and the environment and promoting public health: and to provide for matters connected therewith and incidental there to.
  • 17. 4 Rainwater /Surface water drainage system 4.1 Introduction and function of rainwater drainage system Surface water is rainwater which run off roof and also include water that from garden, driveway and linear drains. The function of rainwater drainage system is to collect rainwater and direct away to drain. The gutter and rainwater pipes is referred to roof drainage while the underground pipework is refer to as surface water drain and surface water sewers. The drainage system must also protect the substructure from erosion, sodden, and losing its load-bearing capacity and stability.   4.2 Components of rainwater/ surface water drainage system Gutters- 200mm Gutter is an open ducts of slight slope, designed to collect and conduct rainwater which falls on the roof to the underground drainage system. The standard gutter is made of PVC, aluminium or galvanized steel and it attached at the eaves. PVC gutter is used because it is light, cheap and flexible, requiring no maintenance such as painting. It is current made in white, brown, black and various shades of grey as these colours offer the greater resistance to fading in strong sunlight. PVC has a smooth internal surface which offers a better flow rate than other materials. Image of PVC gutter Downpipes- 150mm Downpipe is the pipes that run the height of building from the eaves to the ground. It used to direct the water leaving the gutter down to the ground or drainage system. The material of downpipe is normally same as gutter that used. Image of PVC downpipe
  • 18. Perimeter ​drains- 200mm Perimeter drain is designed to collect the water from downpipes. Also, it attract water in the soil in the soil that has accumulated from heavy rains. It carries the water away the building so it is less likely to seep through the walls. It is a PVC perforated pipe, which is installed underground,around the perimeter of building. The perforations consist of thousands of tiny slits that allow water to enter the pipe and be drained away from the foundation of building. Image of perimeter drain Sump A sump is simply a container to collect water from a plumbed system. It may made of clay, tile, concrete, steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. It is located at the lowest point in the basement. Tank has a hole in each side of coming drain tile and all have a sturdy cover. When ground water fills the tank to a given level, a float or some other type of switching device activates a pump.The standard tanks are about 18 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 feet deep. Section and placement of sump
  • 19. 4.3 Operation of rainwater/ surface water drainage system When rain coming, rainwater will collected at the rooftop. To ensure that the rainwater can be run off, the roof must be constructed with gradient.So, the gutter can received the rainwater easily. From gutter, it will pass through downpipe. Downpipes can discharge over the grid of an open gully or be connected directly to an underground drain pipe. From there, the water might run into a storm drain beneath the road or be piped to a soakaway underground. 4.4 UBBL requirement or related regulations Laws of Malaysia Act 133 Section 56 No pipe used for the carrying of rainwater from any roof shall be used for carrying off the soil or drainage from any privy or water closet or any sulfate water. Laws of Malaysia Act 133 Section 56 No water pipe, stack pipe or downspout used for the conveying of surface water from any premises shall be used to serve or act as a ventilating shaft to any drain or sewer. UBBL 115 All roof of building shall be constructed to drain effectively and sufficient channel shall be provided in accordance with the requirement of these laws for receiving and conveying all water which may fell on and from the roof. Summary and conclusion Throughout this project, I have learned to identify relevant information related to water and electrical supply, liquid waste disposal, sanitary and rainwater management system. Moreover, I have a deep understanding about the planning of building services within the design and construction peripheries. I am able to propose the most suitable systems for a specific type of building.
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