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STUDY OF ELECTRONIC DIFFERENTIAL
FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE
Pranjal Barman
Research Scholar
Roll No: ELP14003
Under the supervision of
Dr. Santanu Sharma
Associate professor
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering
WORK DONE DURING PREVIOUS YEAR
Work done in first semester
Coursework : 14 credits (out of 16)
Research topics and preliminary study
Literature survey
Work done in second semester
Coursework : 4 credits (Total=14+4=18)
Literature survey continue…
Preliminary prototype implementation
8/3/2016
2
OVERVIEW
 Research Topic
 Electric Vehicle Driveline System
 Electronic Differential System (EDS)
 Prototype Design
 EDS With Single Wheel Reference
 Mechanical structure of Electric Vehicle
 Control Strategy
 DC and Induction motor
 Field Oriented Control
 Publication
 Conclusion
 References
8/3/2016
3
RESEARCH TOPIC
An pure electric vehicle is an
automobile that is propelled by
one electric motor or more,
using electrical energy stored
in batteries or another energy
storage device.
Types
 Battery electric vehicle
 Fuel cell electric vehicle
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4
VEHICLE DRIVELINE SYSTEM
8/3/2016
5
ELECTRONIC DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM
 Provides required torque
for each driving wheel
and allows different
wheel speeds
 Simplicity : Avoids
additional mechanical
parts such as a gearbox or
clutch
8/3/2016
6
PROBLEM OVERVIEW
Importance of Differential Systems in Vehicle
Allows the outer drive wheel to rotate faster than the inner
drive wheel during a turn.
This can be done using complex mechanical shaft,
differential gears and pinions.
Provide stability of the vehicle
Early Stages of Differential Systems in Vehicle
First use of differential on an Australian steam car by David
Shearer in 1897.
Vernon Gleasman patents the dual-drive differential, a type
of limited slip differential in 1958.
8/3/2016
7
NECESSITY OF ELECTRONIC DIFFERENTIAL
 It replaces the loose, heavy and complex mechanical
differential gears and driveline weight reduced.
 Mechanical differentials is that it do not change torque
distribution to the driving wheels which may cause
steering trouble in some situation.
 Contact stresses between the gears, which limits the
torque transmission, as well as fatigue and losses due to
friction between the gears.
 Allows opportunity to improve traction and stability
control.
 Reconfigurable and faster response
8/3/2016
8
LITERATURE SURVEY
Electronic differentials can be classified into two different
categories depending on its control.
 Implicit EDS: No control algorithm, maintains the speed
difference due to the layout of the machines and converters.
 Explicit EDS: Speed synchronization algorithm, faster and
precise control
8/3/2016
9
COMPONENTS OF EDS
 Driving Trajectory : Steering Geometry
 Control Strategies : PWM control, Vector control, Theory
based control
 Power Electronics : Power MOSFET, Power BJT , IGBT
converters mostly used
 Motors : DC , IM , PMBL , SR etc.
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10
EXISTING EDS
With Steering Feedback
 Reliable and Stable
 Complex algorithm
8/3/2016
11
EXISTING EDS
Without Steering Feedback
 Simple Construction
 Satisfactory in low speed operation
8/3/2016
12
ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
 Maintaining car stability in various driving environment
 Symmetrical torque distribution is a challenge
 Inconsistent dynamic response of Motors
 Real time implementation is difficult
 Complicated circuitry that comprises of a number of
sensors
8/3/2016
13
PROTOTYPE
 Presents technique of implementing an EDS for a rear
wheel driven EV using DC motor
 The system uses single wheel speed and steering angle as
reference to determine the speed of the driven wheels.
 Consists of a shaft encoder and microcontroller used
8/3/2016
14
CIRCUIT FOR EDS
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15
RESULTS
 Increasing steering angle increases
the outer wheel speed
 More traction experiences by
inner wheel without EDS
8/3/2016
16
FURTHER STUDY
 Vehicular Steering types
 Study of EV behaviour for the performances on off
road
 Traction control systems
 Theory based control algorithms
 AC motor control
8/3/2016
17
PUBLICATION
 S Sharma, R. Pegu, P. Barman ; “Electronic
Differential for Electric Vehicle with Single Wheel
Reference”, Conference of power, dielectric and
energy management, NERIST, Arunachal, Jan,
2015 (Accepted)
8/3/2016
18
REFERENCES
1. C.C.Chan,The state of the art of electric vehicle,Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, 2004.
2. Zitong Wang, Wei Yao, and Wei Zhang, Research on Electric Differential for Steering Electric
Vehicles, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing,Vol.169,405-411,2012.
3. Xiaodong Wu, Min Xu, Lei Wang, Differential Speed Steering Control for Four-Wheel
Independent Driving Electric Vehicle, Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2013 IEEE International
Symposium on, 2013.
4. Haddoun, A. ; Benbouzid, M.E.H. ; Diallo, D. ; Abdessemed, R. ; Ghouili, J. ; Srairi, K.,
Modeling, Analysis, and Neural Network Control of an EV Electrical Differential, IEEE
transaction on industrial electronics, Vol. 55, No. 6, June 2008.
5. Yoichi Hori, Future Vehicle Driven by Electricity and Control Research on our Wheel-Motored
“UOT Electric March II”, IEEE transaction on industrial electronics, Vol. 51, No. 5, October
2004
6. Ju-Sang Lee, Young-Jae Ryoo, Young-Cheol Lim, Peter Freere, Tae-Gon Kim, Seok-Jun Son,
Eui-Sun Kim, A Neural Network Model of Electric Differential System for Electric Vehicle,
Industrial Electronics Society, 2000. IECON 2000. 26th Annual Confjerence of the IEEE, Vol.1,
Page(s): 83 – 88, 2000
7. Bekheira Tabbache, Abdelaziz Kheloui and Mohamed El Hachemi Benbouzid, An Adaptive
Electric Differential for Electric Vehicles Motion Stabilization, IEEE transaction on vehicular
technology, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 2011.
8. K. Kozlowski and D. Pazderski, Modeling and control of a 4-wheel skid-steering mobile robot,
Int. J. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci., Vol. 14(4),pp. 477-496,2004.
9. W. Yu, O. Chuy, E. G. Collins, and P. Hollis, Analysis and Experimental Verification for
Dynamic Modeling of A Skid-Steered Wheeled Vehicle, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol.
26(2), pp. 340-353,2010.
10. Nobuyoshi Mutoh, Takuro Kazama, and Kazuya Takita, Driving Characteristics of an Electric
Vehicle System With Independently Driven Front and Rear Wheels, IEEE transaction on
industrial electronics, Vol. 53, No. 3, June 2006
8/3/2016
19
REFERENCES
11. Tao Guilin, Ma Zhiyun, Zhou Libing, Li Langru , A Novel Driving and Control System for
Direct-wheel-driven Electric Vehicle, Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on,Vol:41, Issue:1,2005
12. M. Gougani, M. Chapariha, J. Jatskevich, Locking Electric Differential for Brushless DC
Machine-based Electric Vehicle with Independent Wheel Drives, Vehicle Power and Propulsion
Conference (VPPC), 6-9 Sept. 2011.
13. Chenming Zhao, Weidong Xiang, Paul Richardson, Vehicle Lateral Control and Yaw Stability
Control through Differential Braking, IEEE ISIE, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, July 9-12, 2006
14. Bo-Chiuan Chen, Cheng-Chi Yu, Wei-Shuo Lee, and Wei-Feng Hsu, Design of an Electric
Differential System for Three-Wheeled Electric Welfare Vehicles With Driver-in-the-Loop
Verification, IEEE transaction on vehicular technology, Vol. 56, No. 4, July 2007
15. Bin Li; Daofei Li; Fan Yu; Vehicle Yaw Stability Control Using the Fuzzy-Logic Controller,
Vehicular Electronics and Safety, ICVES. IEEE International Conference on , Page(s):1-5,2007.
16. Bekheira Tabbache, Abdelaziz Kheloui and Mohamed El Hachemi Benbouzid, An
Adaptive Electric Differential for Electric Vehicles Motion Stabilization, IEEE
transaction on vehicular technology, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 2011.
17. A.Ravi and Sankaran Palani, Robust electronic differential controller for an electric
vehicle, A.Ravi and Sankaran Palani, Robust electronic differential controller for an
electric vehicle, American Journal of Applied Sciences 10 (11): 1356-1362, 2013
18. Juan de Santiago, Hans Bernhoff, Boel Ekergård, Sandra Eriksson, Senad Ferhatovic,
Rafael Waters, and Mats Leijon, Electrical Motor Drivelines in Commercial All-Electric
Vehicles: A Review, IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology ,Vol.61,No.2,February
2012
8/3/2016
20
THANK YOU
8/3/2016
21

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  • 1. STUDY OF ELECTRONIC DIFFERENTIAL FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE Pranjal Barman Research Scholar Roll No: ELP14003 Under the supervision of Dr. Santanu Sharma Associate professor Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering
  • 2. WORK DONE DURING PREVIOUS YEAR Work done in first semester Coursework : 14 credits (out of 16) Research topics and preliminary study Literature survey Work done in second semester Coursework : 4 credits (Total=14+4=18) Literature survey continue… Preliminary prototype implementation 8/3/2016 2
  • 3. OVERVIEW  Research Topic  Electric Vehicle Driveline System  Electronic Differential System (EDS)  Prototype Design  EDS With Single Wheel Reference  Mechanical structure of Electric Vehicle  Control Strategy  DC and Induction motor  Field Oriented Control  Publication  Conclusion  References 8/3/2016 3
  • 4. RESEARCH TOPIC An pure electric vehicle is an automobile that is propelled by one electric motor or more, using electrical energy stored in batteries or another energy storage device. Types  Battery electric vehicle  Fuel cell electric vehicle 8/3/2016 4
  • 6. ELECTRONIC DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM  Provides required torque for each driving wheel and allows different wheel speeds  Simplicity : Avoids additional mechanical parts such as a gearbox or clutch 8/3/2016 6
  • 7. PROBLEM OVERVIEW Importance of Differential Systems in Vehicle Allows the outer drive wheel to rotate faster than the inner drive wheel during a turn. This can be done using complex mechanical shaft, differential gears and pinions. Provide stability of the vehicle Early Stages of Differential Systems in Vehicle First use of differential on an Australian steam car by David Shearer in 1897. Vernon Gleasman patents the dual-drive differential, a type of limited slip differential in 1958. 8/3/2016 7
  • 8. NECESSITY OF ELECTRONIC DIFFERENTIAL  It replaces the loose, heavy and complex mechanical differential gears and driveline weight reduced.  Mechanical differentials is that it do not change torque distribution to the driving wheels which may cause steering trouble in some situation.  Contact stresses between the gears, which limits the torque transmission, as well as fatigue and losses due to friction between the gears.  Allows opportunity to improve traction and stability control.  Reconfigurable and faster response 8/3/2016 8
  • 9. LITERATURE SURVEY Electronic differentials can be classified into two different categories depending on its control.  Implicit EDS: No control algorithm, maintains the speed difference due to the layout of the machines and converters.  Explicit EDS: Speed synchronization algorithm, faster and precise control 8/3/2016 9
  • 10. COMPONENTS OF EDS  Driving Trajectory : Steering Geometry  Control Strategies : PWM control, Vector control, Theory based control  Power Electronics : Power MOSFET, Power BJT , IGBT converters mostly used  Motors : DC , IM , PMBL , SR etc. 8/3/2016 10
  • 11. EXISTING EDS With Steering Feedback  Reliable and Stable  Complex algorithm 8/3/2016 11
  • 12. EXISTING EDS Without Steering Feedback  Simple Construction  Satisfactory in low speed operation 8/3/2016 12
  • 13. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES  Maintaining car stability in various driving environment  Symmetrical torque distribution is a challenge  Inconsistent dynamic response of Motors  Real time implementation is difficult  Complicated circuitry that comprises of a number of sensors 8/3/2016 13
  • 14. PROTOTYPE  Presents technique of implementing an EDS for a rear wheel driven EV using DC motor  The system uses single wheel speed and steering angle as reference to determine the speed of the driven wheels.  Consists of a shaft encoder and microcontroller used 8/3/2016 14
  • 16. RESULTS  Increasing steering angle increases the outer wheel speed  More traction experiences by inner wheel without EDS 8/3/2016 16
  • 17. FURTHER STUDY  Vehicular Steering types  Study of EV behaviour for the performances on off road  Traction control systems  Theory based control algorithms  AC motor control 8/3/2016 17
  • 18. PUBLICATION  S Sharma, R. Pegu, P. Barman ; “Electronic Differential for Electric Vehicle with Single Wheel Reference”, Conference of power, dielectric and energy management, NERIST, Arunachal, Jan, 2015 (Accepted) 8/3/2016 18
  • 19. REFERENCES 1. C.C.Chan,The state of the art of electric vehicle,Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, 2004. 2. Zitong Wang, Wei Yao, and Wei Zhang, Research on Electric Differential for Steering Electric Vehicles, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing,Vol.169,405-411,2012. 3. Xiaodong Wu, Min Xu, Lei Wang, Differential Speed Steering Control for Four-Wheel Independent Driving Electric Vehicle, Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on, 2013. 4. Haddoun, A. ; Benbouzid, M.E.H. ; Diallo, D. ; Abdessemed, R. ; Ghouili, J. ; Srairi, K., Modeling, Analysis, and Neural Network Control of an EV Electrical Differential, IEEE transaction on industrial electronics, Vol. 55, No. 6, June 2008. 5. Yoichi Hori, Future Vehicle Driven by Electricity and Control Research on our Wheel-Motored “UOT Electric March II”, IEEE transaction on industrial electronics, Vol. 51, No. 5, October 2004 6. Ju-Sang Lee, Young-Jae Ryoo, Young-Cheol Lim, Peter Freere, Tae-Gon Kim, Seok-Jun Son, Eui-Sun Kim, A Neural Network Model of Electric Differential System for Electric Vehicle, Industrial Electronics Society, 2000. IECON 2000. 26th Annual Confjerence of the IEEE, Vol.1, Page(s): 83 – 88, 2000 7. Bekheira Tabbache, Abdelaziz Kheloui and Mohamed El Hachemi Benbouzid, An Adaptive Electric Differential for Electric Vehicles Motion Stabilization, IEEE transaction on vehicular technology, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 2011. 8. K. Kozlowski and D. Pazderski, Modeling and control of a 4-wheel skid-steering mobile robot, Int. J. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci., Vol. 14(4),pp. 477-496,2004. 9. W. Yu, O. Chuy, E. G. Collins, and P. Hollis, Analysis and Experimental Verification for Dynamic Modeling of A Skid-Steered Wheeled Vehicle, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 26(2), pp. 340-353,2010. 10. Nobuyoshi Mutoh, Takuro Kazama, and Kazuya Takita, Driving Characteristics of an Electric Vehicle System With Independently Driven Front and Rear Wheels, IEEE transaction on industrial electronics, Vol. 53, No. 3, June 2006 8/3/2016 19
  • 20. REFERENCES 11. Tao Guilin, Ma Zhiyun, Zhou Libing, Li Langru , A Novel Driving and Control System for Direct-wheel-driven Electric Vehicle, Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on,Vol:41, Issue:1,2005 12. M. Gougani, M. Chapariha, J. Jatskevich, Locking Electric Differential for Brushless DC Machine-based Electric Vehicle with Independent Wheel Drives, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 6-9 Sept. 2011. 13. Chenming Zhao, Weidong Xiang, Paul Richardson, Vehicle Lateral Control and Yaw Stability Control through Differential Braking, IEEE ISIE, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, July 9-12, 2006 14. Bo-Chiuan Chen, Cheng-Chi Yu, Wei-Shuo Lee, and Wei-Feng Hsu, Design of an Electric Differential System for Three-Wheeled Electric Welfare Vehicles With Driver-in-the-Loop Verification, IEEE transaction on vehicular technology, Vol. 56, No. 4, July 2007 15. Bin Li; Daofei Li; Fan Yu; Vehicle Yaw Stability Control Using the Fuzzy-Logic Controller, Vehicular Electronics and Safety, ICVES. IEEE International Conference on , Page(s):1-5,2007. 16. Bekheira Tabbache, Abdelaziz Kheloui and Mohamed El Hachemi Benbouzid, An Adaptive Electric Differential for Electric Vehicles Motion Stabilization, IEEE transaction on vehicular technology, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 2011. 17. A.Ravi and Sankaran Palani, Robust electronic differential controller for an electric vehicle, A.Ravi and Sankaran Palani, Robust electronic differential controller for an electric vehicle, American Journal of Applied Sciences 10 (11): 1356-1362, 2013 18. Juan de Santiago, Hans Bernhoff, Boel Ekergård, Sandra Eriksson, Senad Ferhatovic, Rafael Waters, and Mats Leijon, Electrical Motor Drivelines in Commercial All-Electric Vehicles: A Review, IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology ,Vol.61,No.2,February 2012 8/3/2016 20