SlideShare a Scribd company logo
A moderately interesting event
at the Jurassic/Cretaceous
boundary
Jon Tennant
Images from Phylopic
Thanks! • NERC
• PALASS
• SVP
History of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary
• Pioneering work by Newell,
Raup, Sepkoski
• Originally considered to be a
‘major extinction’
• The ‘Sepkoski Compendium’
• Understood general controls
on the fossil record
• Evaluations at a very coarse
level
Jon Tennant Background
Raup (1976)
Raup and Sepkoski (1982)
History of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary
• Taxonomic selectivity
• Geographic constraints
• Not a mass extinction
• Changes caused by
regional facies shifts
Jon Tennant Background
Hallam (1986)
The era of not much happening
Jon Tennant Background
Bambach (2006)
The structure of the fossil record
Jon Tennant Sampling issues
Smith and McGowan (2011)
The structure of the fossil record
Jon Tennant Sampling issues
Smith and McGowan (2007)
Evidence for a faunal turnover on land?
Jon Tennant Current understanding
Zanno and Makovicky (2013)
Bronzati et al. (2015)
Newham et al. (2014)
Evidence for a faunal turnover in the oceans?
Jon Tennant Current understanding
Benson and Butler (2011) Nicholson et al. (2015)
What do we want to know?
•Can we quantify changes in tetrapod
diversity over the J/K transition?
•What is the spatial structure of these
changes?
•What external environmental parameters
were responsible for mediating diversity?
Jon Tennant Methods
The fully-functional Paleobiology Database
• 4907 species
• 15,472 occurrences
• 7314 references
• Split into higher taxonomic
clades
• Fully aquatic or non-marine
• Palaeocontinents
• Time binning methods
Jon Tennant Methods
Methodological approach
•Shareholder Quorum Subsampling
(SQS)
•Model-fitting of environmental
parameters
•Extinction and origination rates
•Regional sampling proxies
Jon Tennant Methods
Jurassic/Cretaceous tetrapod occurrences
Jon Tennant Results
Subsampled tetrapod diversity (I)
Jon Tennant Results
Subsampled tetrapod diversity (II)
Jon Tennant Results
Subsampled tetrapod diversity (III)
Jon Tennant Results
Subsampled tetrapod diversity (IV)
Jon Tennant Results
3T extinction rates
Jon Tennant Results
Stage Aves Chel Chor
Crocs (non-
marine)
Crocs
(marine)
Ichthy Lepid Liss Mamm Ornith Plesio Ptero Sauro Test Thero
Maastrichtian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Campanian 0.693 NA NA NA NA NA 1.038 1.03 1.658 0.916 NA 0.452 NA NA 0.84
Santonian NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.345 NA NA 0.511 0.875 0.606 NA 1.01 NA
Coniacian NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.345 NA NA 1.897 2.955 0.724 3.519 NA NA
Turonian 0.693 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.916 1.569 NA NA NA NA
Cenomanian NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.038 NA NA NA 1.569 NA 2.575 NA 1.805
Albian NA NA NA 0.956 NA 0.305 1.038 2.02 1.658 1.427 NA NA 1.322 NA 1.245
Aptian NA NA NA 1.361 NA 0.305 0.345 NA 1.253 NA NA NA NA NA 0.552
Barremian NA NA NA 0.262 NA 0.305 0.345 0.63 0.56 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Hauterivian NA NA NA 0.262 NA NA NA 0.63 NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.245
Valanginian NA NA NA 0.262 0.125 NA NA 1.32 NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.245
Berriasian NA NA NA 0.55 0.818 NA NA NA NA 1.204 NA NA NA 2.11 0.958
Tithonian NA NA NA 0.956 1.378 1.404 1.731 NA 3.268 2.015 NA 0.724 NA 2.62 2.855
Kimmeridgian NA NA NA 0.262 0.307 0.305 0.345 0.63 0.56 0.511 NA NA NA 1.01 NA
Oxfordian NA NA NA NA 0.125 0.305 0.633 NA NA 0.511 0.875 NA NA NA NA
Callovian NA NA NA NA 0.125 NA NA NA NA 0.511 NA NA NA NA 0.552
Bathonian NA NA NA NA 0.125 NA NA NA 0.56 0.511 NA NA NA NA NA
Bajocian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Aalenian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Toarcian NA NA NA NA NA 0.999 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Pliensbachian NA NA NA NA NA 0.999 0.345 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Sinemurian NA NA NA NA NA 0.305 1.038 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Hettangian NA NA NA NA NA 0.711 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
3T origination rates
Jon Tennant Results
Stage Aves Chel Chor
Crocs (non-
marine)
Crocs
(marine)
Ichthy Lepid Liss Mamm Ornith Plesio Ptero Sauro Test Thero
Maastrichtian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Campanian 1.792 NA NA NA NA NA 1.038 3.231 1.658 3.114 2.955 1.705 NA NA 2.056
Santonian NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.038 NA NA 1.609 NA 1.299 NA 1.705 NA
Coniacian NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.345 NA NA 0.511 0.875 1.012 1.322 NA NA
Turonian 1.386 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.204 2.955 NA NA NA NA
Cenomanian NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.443 NA NA NA 1.569 NA 1.727 NA 1.245
Albian NA NA NA 0.668 NA 0.999 0.345 2.238 0.56 1.204 NA NA 3.268 NA 1.399
Aptian NA NA NA 1.649 NA 0.305 1.731 NA 1.658 NA NA NA NA NA 2.344
Barremian NA NA NA 0.262 NA 0.305 0.345 1.034 1.253 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Hauterivian NA NA NA 0.262 NA NA NA 1.322 NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.552
Valanginian NA NA NA 0.262 0.125 NA NA 0.629 NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.552
Berriasian NA NA NA 0.262 0.125 NA NA NA NA 0.511 NA NA NA 1.012 1.245
Tithonian NA NA NA 0.55 0.125 0.999 0.345 NA 0.56 0.511 NA 0.318 NA 2.11 1.651
Kimmeridgian NA NA NA 2.054 0.462 0.711 0.633 2.42 2.575 2.708 NA NA NA 2.621 NA
Oxfordian NA NA NA NA 0.818 0.305 0.345 NA NA 0.511 0.875 NA NA NA NA
Callovian NA NA NA NA 0.531 NA NA NA NA 0.511 NA NA NA NA 0.552
Bathonian NA NA NA NA 0.818 NA NA NA 0.56 0.511 NA NA NA NA NA
Bajocian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Aalenian NA NA NA NA NA 0.305 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Toarcian NA NA NA NA NA 0.999 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Pliensbachian NA NA NA NA NA 0.305 0.345 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Sinemurian NA NA NA NA NA 0.305 0.345 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Hettangian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Regional sampling structure (N. America)
Jon Tennant Results
Regional sampling structure (Europe)
Jon Tennant Results
Is global subsampled diversity biased?
Jon Tennant Results
Group
Non-marine
rho p-value
Adjusted
p-value
r p-value
Adjusted
p-value
Aves 0.321 0.498 0.988 -0.174 0.708 0.865
Choristoderes -0.500 1.000 1.000 -0.509 0.660 0.865
Crocodyliformes 0.273 0.448 0.988 0.015 0.967 0.967
Lepidosauromorphs 0.050 0.912 1.000 0.317 0.406 0.757
Lissamphibians 0.000 1.000 1.000 -0.340 0.371 0.757
Mammaliaformes 0.079 0.838 1.000 -0.292 0.413 0.757
Ornithischians 0.209 0.539 0.988 0.424 0.539 0.847
Pterosaurs 0.521 0.123 0.451 0.309 0.387 0.757
Sauropodomorphs 0.736 0.024 0.264 0.733 0.031 0.171
Testudines -0.117 0.776 1.000 -0.094 0.810 0.891
Theropods 0.531 0.079 0.435 0.790 0.004 0.044
Marine
Chelonioides -0.500 1.000 1.000 -0.474 0.686 0.842
Crocodyliformes 0.690 0.069 0.138 0.740 0.036 0.144
Ichthyopterygians 0.612 0.060 0.138 0.479 0.166 0.332
Sauropterygians 0.335 0.263 0.351 0.061 0.842 0.842
Spearman's rank Pearson's PMCC
Tetrapod-bearing
Collections
Same pattern with
Formations
What controls regional subsampled diversity?
(Europe)
Jon Tennant Results
rho p-value
Adjusted
p-value
r p-value
Adjusted
p-value
Raw richness 0.671 0.006 0.034 0.513 0.042 0.167
Collections 0.468 0.070 0.140 0.474 0.064 0.167
Occurrences 0.512 0.045 0.135 0.446 0.084 0.167
Good's u -0.147 0.616 0.660 -0.348 0.223 0.267
Formations 0.326 0.173 0.259 0.328 0.171 0.256
Global sea-level -0.115 0.660 0.660 -0.153 0.557 0.557
Subsampled richness
Crocodyliformes 0.036 0.964 0.964 0.381 0.400 0.599
Lepidosauromorpha 0.657 0.175 0.525 0.449 0.372 0.599
Ornithischia 0.091 0.811 0.964 0.323 0.363 0.599
Pterosauria -0.107 0.840 0.964 0.277 0.547 0.657
Testudines -0.257 0.658 0.964 0.034 0.949 0.949
Theropoda 0.527 0.123 0.525 0.605 0.064 0.383
Europe
Pearson's PMCCSpearman's rank
rho p-value
Adjusted
p-value
r p-value
Adjusted
p-value
Raw richness -0.217 0.318 0.547 -0.141 0.521 0.625
Collections -0.164 0.456 0.547 -0.173 0.430 0.625
Occurrences -0.228 0.293 0.547 -0.180 0.411 0.625
Good's u -0.547 0.046 0.275 -0.429 0.126 0.625
Formations 0.179 0.438 0.547 0.174 0.451 0.625
Global sea-level -0.069 0.795 0.795 -0.018 0.945 0.945
Subsampled richness
Crocodyliformes 0.143 0.752 0.759 0.239 0.569 0.569
Ichthyopterygia 0.115 0.759 0.759 -0.309 0.385 0.569
Sauropterygia 0.321 0.368 0.759 0.347 0.325 0.569
Spearman's rank Pearson's PMCC
Europe
Non-marine Marine
What controls regional subsampled diversity? (N.
America)
Jon Tennant Results
rho p-value
Adjusted
p-value
r p-value
Adjusted
p-value
Raw richness 0.346 0.206 0.309 0.278 0.315 0.464
Collections 0.446 0.097 0.292 0.561 0.030 0.089
Occurrences 0.386 0.157 0.309 0.388 0.153 0.305
Good's u -0.073 0.839 0.965 -0.290 0.387 0.464
Formations -0.012 0.965 0.965 -0.146 0.589 0.589
Global sea-level 0.581 0.016 0.098 0.630 0.007 0.040
Subsampled richness
Ornithischia 0.150 0.708 0.708 0.268 0.485 0.485
Theropoda -0.452 0.268 0.536 -0.404 0.321 0.485
North America
Pearson's PMCCSpearman's rank
rho p-value
Adjusted
p-value
r p-value
Adjusted
p-value
Raw richness 0.429 0.113 0.332 0.509 0.053 0.133
Collections 0.154 0.584 0.683 0.454 0.089 0.133
Occurrences 0.146 0.602 0.683 0.474 0.074 0.133
Good's u 0.300 0.683 0.683 0.298 0.626 0.626
Formations 0.479 0.166 0.332 0.457 0.185 0.221
Global sea-level 0.463 0.063 0.332 0.702 0.002 0.010
North America
Spearman's rank Pearson's PMCC
Non-marine Marine
Environmental factors governing diversity
Jon Tennant Results
Likelihood Weight rho
adjusted
p-value
r
adjusted
p-value
Crocodyliformes (marine) Palaeotemp. 22.741 0.237 -0.524 0.634 -0.522 0.678
Crocodyliformes (non-marine) Sea level 26.285 0.969 0.750 0.175 0.846 0.028
Lissamphibia Palaeotemp. 38.260 0.796 0.700 0.301 0.742 0.154
Mammaliaformes Sea level 51.394 0.931 -0.450 0.537 -0.666 0.301
Ornithischia Sea level 60.106 0.391 0.200 0.681 0.047 0.898
Pterosauria Sea level 33.261 0.872 0.714 0.406 0.647 0.581
Sauropodomorpha Sea level 41.191 0.501 0.310 0.810 0.457 0.564
Sauropterygia Sea level 41.820 0.409 0.055 0.906 0.065 0.985
Testudines Palaeotemp. 50.648 0.258 0.343 0.880 0.462 0.891
Theropoda Sea level 72.931 0.534 -0.018 0.968 0.037 0.954
AICc Pearson's PMCCSpearman's rank
Group Parameter
Conclusions I
• Faunal turnover in both marine and non-marine realms
• Tempo, mode and magnitude of decline highly variable
• Evidence for an ‘extinction wave’ and ecological reorganisation
• Primary driver was eustatic sea level
• Also impacted the marine realm:
• Low-latitude shelf-dwelling faunas primarily affected
• Marine revolution in micro-organism communities
Jon Tennant Conclusions
Conclusions II
• Cannot rule out
singular catastrophic
events

More Related Content

Recently uploaded

LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratoryLOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
JCKH
 
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
James AH Campbell
 
El Nuevo Cohete Ariane de la Agencia Espacial Europea-6_Media-Kit_english.pdf
El Nuevo Cohete Ariane de la Agencia Espacial Europea-6_Media-Kit_english.pdfEl Nuevo Cohete Ariane de la Agencia Espacial Europea-6_Media-Kit_english.pdf
El Nuevo Cohete Ariane de la Agencia Espacial Europea-6_Media-Kit_english.pdf
Champs Elysee Roldan
 
The cryptoterrestrial hypothesis: A case for scientific openness to a conceal...
The cryptoterrestrial hypothesis: A case for scientific openness to a conceal...The cryptoterrestrial hypothesis: A case for scientific openness to a conceal...
The cryptoterrestrial hypothesis: A case for scientific openness to a conceal...
Sérgio Sacani
 
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
Sharon Liu
 
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Hossein Fani
 
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
Dr. sreeremya S
 
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpectiveGasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Recupera
 
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
Sérgio Sacani
 
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - ArtemisLunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Sérgio Sacani
 
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptxAN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
kalpnayadav03021986
 
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdfGametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
SELF-EXPLANATORY
 
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDEANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
RanjithaSL
 
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptxpoikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
muralinath2
 
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
University of Maribor
 
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptxAnatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
karthiksaran8
 
HAZARDOUS ENERGIES -LOTO Training Program.pptx
HAZARDOUS ENERGIES -LOTO Training Program.pptxHAZARDOUS ENERGIES -LOTO Training Program.pptx
HAZARDOUS ENERGIES -LOTO Training Program.pptx
ArfanSubhani
 
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Sérgio Sacani
 

Recently uploaded (20)

LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratoryLOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory
 
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...
 
El Nuevo Cohete Ariane de la Agencia Espacial Europea-6_Media-Kit_english.pdf
El Nuevo Cohete Ariane de la Agencia Espacial Europea-6_Media-Kit_english.pdfEl Nuevo Cohete Ariane de la Agencia Espacial Europea-6_Media-Kit_english.pdf
El Nuevo Cohete Ariane de la Agencia Espacial Europea-6_Media-Kit_english.pdf
 
The cryptoterrestrial hypothesis: A case for scientific openness to a conceal...
The cryptoterrestrial hypothesis: A case for scientific openness to a conceal...The cryptoterrestrial hypothesis: A case for scientific openness to a conceal...
The cryptoterrestrial hypothesis: A case for scientific openness to a conceal...
 
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
 
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
 
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
 
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpectiveGasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
 
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
 
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - ArtemisLunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
 
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptxAN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
 
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdfGametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
 
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDEANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
ANTIGENS_.pptx ( Ranjitha SL) PRESENTATION SLIDE
 
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptxpoikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
 
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
 
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
 
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptxAnatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
 
HAZARDOUS ENERGIES -LOTO Training Program.pptx
HAZARDOUS ENERGIES -LOTO Training Program.pptxHAZARDOUS ENERGIES -LOTO Training Program.pptx
HAZARDOUS ENERGIES -LOTO Training Program.pptx
 
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
 
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
Detection of the elusive dangling OH ice features at ~2.7 μm in Chamaeleon I ...
 

Featured

2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
Search Engine Journal
 
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design ProcessStorytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
Chiara Aliotta
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
SocialHRCamp
 
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
Marius Sescu
 
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPTEverything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Expeed Software
 
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage EngineeringsProduct Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Pixeldarts
 
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental HealthHow Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
ThinkNow
 
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdfAI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
marketingartwork
 
Skeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Culture CodeSkeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Technologies
 
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
Neil Kimberley
 
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
contently
 
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
Albert Qian
 
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie InsightsSocial Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Kurio // The Social Media Age(ncy)
 
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Search Engine Journal
 
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
SpeakerHub
 
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
Clark Boyd
 
Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next
Tessa Mero
 
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search IntentGoogle's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Lily Ray
 
How to have difficult conversations
How to have difficult conversations How to have difficult conversations
How to have difficult conversations
Rajiv Jayarajah, MAppComm, ACC
 

Featured (20)

2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
 
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design ProcessStorytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
 
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
 
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
 
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPTEverything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
 
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage EngineeringsProduct Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
 
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental HealthHow Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
 
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdfAI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
 
Skeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Culture CodeSkeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Culture Code
 
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
 
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
 
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
 
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie InsightsSocial Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
 
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
 
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
 
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
 
Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next
 
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search IntentGoogle's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
 
How to have difficult conversations
How to have difficult conversations How to have difficult conversations
How to have difficult conversations
 

Progressive Palaeontology 2016 presentation

  • 1. A moderately interesting event at the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary Jon Tennant Images from Phylopic
  • 2. Thanks! • NERC • PALASS • SVP
  • 3. History of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary • Pioneering work by Newell, Raup, Sepkoski • Originally considered to be a ‘major extinction’ • The ‘Sepkoski Compendium’ • Understood general controls on the fossil record • Evaluations at a very coarse level Jon Tennant Background Raup (1976) Raup and Sepkoski (1982)
  • 4. History of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary • Taxonomic selectivity • Geographic constraints • Not a mass extinction • Changes caused by regional facies shifts Jon Tennant Background Hallam (1986)
  • 5. The era of not much happening Jon Tennant Background Bambach (2006)
  • 6. The structure of the fossil record Jon Tennant Sampling issues Smith and McGowan (2011)
  • 7. The structure of the fossil record Jon Tennant Sampling issues Smith and McGowan (2007)
  • 8. Evidence for a faunal turnover on land? Jon Tennant Current understanding Zanno and Makovicky (2013) Bronzati et al. (2015) Newham et al. (2014)
  • 9. Evidence for a faunal turnover in the oceans? Jon Tennant Current understanding Benson and Butler (2011) Nicholson et al. (2015)
  • 10. What do we want to know? •Can we quantify changes in tetrapod diversity over the J/K transition? •What is the spatial structure of these changes? •What external environmental parameters were responsible for mediating diversity? Jon Tennant Methods
  • 11. The fully-functional Paleobiology Database • 4907 species • 15,472 occurrences • 7314 references • Split into higher taxonomic clades • Fully aquatic or non-marine • Palaeocontinents • Time binning methods Jon Tennant Methods
  • 12. Methodological approach •Shareholder Quorum Subsampling (SQS) •Model-fitting of environmental parameters •Extinction and origination rates •Regional sampling proxies Jon Tennant Methods
  • 14. Subsampled tetrapod diversity (I) Jon Tennant Results
  • 15. Subsampled tetrapod diversity (II) Jon Tennant Results
  • 16. Subsampled tetrapod diversity (III) Jon Tennant Results
  • 17. Subsampled tetrapod diversity (IV) Jon Tennant Results
  • 18. 3T extinction rates Jon Tennant Results Stage Aves Chel Chor Crocs (non- marine) Crocs (marine) Ichthy Lepid Liss Mamm Ornith Plesio Ptero Sauro Test Thero Maastrichtian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Campanian 0.693 NA NA NA NA NA 1.038 1.03 1.658 0.916 NA 0.452 NA NA 0.84 Santonian NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.345 NA NA 0.511 0.875 0.606 NA 1.01 NA Coniacian NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.345 NA NA 1.897 2.955 0.724 3.519 NA NA Turonian 0.693 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.916 1.569 NA NA NA NA Cenomanian NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.038 NA NA NA 1.569 NA 2.575 NA 1.805 Albian NA NA NA 0.956 NA 0.305 1.038 2.02 1.658 1.427 NA NA 1.322 NA 1.245 Aptian NA NA NA 1.361 NA 0.305 0.345 NA 1.253 NA NA NA NA NA 0.552 Barremian NA NA NA 0.262 NA 0.305 0.345 0.63 0.56 NA NA NA NA NA NA Hauterivian NA NA NA 0.262 NA NA NA 0.63 NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.245 Valanginian NA NA NA 0.262 0.125 NA NA 1.32 NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.245 Berriasian NA NA NA 0.55 0.818 NA NA NA NA 1.204 NA NA NA 2.11 0.958 Tithonian NA NA NA 0.956 1.378 1.404 1.731 NA 3.268 2.015 NA 0.724 NA 2.62 2.855 Kimmeridgian NA NA NA 0.262 0.307 0.305 0.345 0.63 0.56 0.511 NA NA NA 1.01 NA Oxfordian NA NA NA NA 0.125 0.305 0.633 NA NA 0.511 0.875 NA NA NA NA Callovian NA NA NA NA 0.125 NA NA NA NA 0.511 NA NA NA NA 0.552 Bathonian NA NA NA NA 0.125 NA NA NA 0.56 0.511 NA NA NA NA NA Bajocian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Aalenian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Toarcian NA NA NA NA NA 0.999 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Pliensbachian NA NA NA NA NA 0.999 0.345 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Sinemurian NA NA NA NA NA 0.305 1.038 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Hettangian NA NA NA NA NA 0.711 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
  • 19. 3T origination rates Jon Tennant Results Stage Aves Chel Chor Crocs (non- marine) Crocs (marine) Ichthy Lepid Liss Mamm Ornith Plesio Ptero Sauro Test Thero Maastrichtian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Campanian 1.792 NA NA NA NA NA 1.038 3.231 1.658 3.114 2.955 1.705 NA NA 2.056 Santonian NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.038 NA NA 1.609 NA 1.299 NA 1.705 NA Coniacian NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.345 NA NA 0.511 0.875 1.012 1.322 NA NA Turonian 1.386 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.204 2.955 NA NA NA NA Cenomanian NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.443 NA NA NA 1.569 NA 1.727 NA 1.245 Albian NA NA NA 0.668 NA 0.999 0.345 2.238 0.56 1.204 NA NA 3.268 NA 1.399 Aptian NA NA NA 1.649 NA 0.305 1.731 NA 1.658 NA NA NA NA NA 2.344 Barremian NA NA NA 0.262 NA 0.305 0.345 1.034 1.253 NA NA NA NA NA NA Hauterivian NA NA NA 0.262 NA NA NA 1.322 NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.552 Valanginian NA NA NA 0.262 0.125 NA NA 0.629 NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.552 Berriasian NA NA NA 0.262 0.125 NA NA NA NA 0.511 NA NA NA 1.012 1.245 Tithonian NA NA NA 0.55 0.125 0.999 0.345 NA 0.56 0.511 NA 0.318 NA 2.11 1.651 Kimmeridgian NA NA NA 2.054 0.462 0.711 0.633 2.42 2.575 2.708 NA NA NA 2.621 NA Oxfordian NA NA NA NA 0.818 0.305 0.345 NA NA 0.511 0.875 NA NA NA NA Callovian NA NA NA NA 0.531 NA NA NA NA 0.511 NA NA NA NA 0.552 Bathonian NA NA NA NA 0.818 NA NA NA 0.56 0.511 NA NA NA NA NA Bajocian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Aalenian NA NA NA NA NA 0.305 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Toarcian NA NA NA NA NA 0.999 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Pliensbachian NA NA NA NA NA 0.305 0.345 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Sinemurian NA NA NA NA NA 0.305 0.345 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Hettangian NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
  • 20. Regional sampling structure (N. America) Jon Tennant Results
  • 21. Regional sampling structure (Europe) Jon Tennant Results
  • 22. Is global subsampled diversity biased? Jon Tennant Results Group Non-marine rho p-value Adjusted p-value r p-value Adjusted p-value Aves 0.321 0.498 0.988 -0.174 0.708 0.865 Choristoderes -0.500 1.000 1.000 -0.509 0.660 0.865 Crocodyliformes 0.273 0.448 0.988 0.015 0.967 0.967 Lepidosauromorphs 0.050 0.912 1.000 0.317 0.406 0.757 Lissamphibians 0.000 1.000 1.000 -0.340 0.371 0.757 Mammaliaformes 0.079 0.838 1.000 -0.292 0.413 0.757 Ornithischians 0.209 0.539 0.988 0.424 0.539 0.847 Pterosaurs 0.521 0.123 0.451 0.309 0.387 0.757 Sauropodomorphs 0.736 0.024 0.264 0.733 0.031 0.171 Testudines -0.117 0.776 1.000 -0.094 0.810 0.891 Theropods 0.531 0.079 0.435 0.790 0.004 0.044 Marine Chelonioides -0.500 1.000 1.000 -0.474 0.686 0.842 Crocodyliformes 0.690 0.069 0.138 0.740 0.036 0.144 Ichthyopterygians 0.612 0.060 0.138 0.479 0.166 0.332 Sauropterygians 0.335 0.263 0.351 0.061 0.842 0.842 Spearman's rank Pearson's PMCC Tetrapod-bearing Collections Same pattern with Formations
  • 23. What controls regional subsampled diversity? (Europe) Jon Tennant Results rho p-value Adjusted p-value r p-value Adjusted p-value Raw richness 0.671 0.006 0.034 0.513 0.042 0.167 Collections 0.468 0.070 0.140 0.474 0.064 0.167 Occurrences 0.512 0.045 0.135 0.446 0.084 0.167 Good's u -0.147 0.616 0.660 -0.348 0.223 0.267 Formations 0.326 0.173 0.259 0.328 0.171 0.256 Global sea-level -0.115 0.660 0.660 -0.153 0.557 0.557 Subsampled richness Crocodyliformes 0.036 0.964 0.964 0.381 0.400 0.599 Lepidosauromorpha 0.657 0.175 0.525 0.449 0.372 0.599 Ornithischia 0.091 0.811 0.964 0.323 0.363 0.599 Pterosauria -0.107 0.840 0.964 0.277 0.547 0.657 Testudines -0.257 0.658 0.964 0.034 0.949 0.949 Theropoda 0.527 0.123 0.525 0.605 0.064 0.383 Europe Pearson's PMCCSpearman's rank rho p-value Adjusted p-value r p-value Adjusted p-value Raw richness -0.217 0.318 0.547 -0.141 0.521 0.625 Collections -0.164 0.456 0.547 -0.173 0.430 0.625 Occurrences -0.228 0.293 0.547 -0.180 0.411 0.625 Good's u -0.547 0.046 0.275 -0.429 0.126 0.625 Formations 0.179 0.438 0.547 0.174 0.451 0.625 Global sea-level -0.069 0.795 0.795 -0.018 0.945 0.945 Subsampled richness Crocodyliformes 0.143 0.752 0.759 0.239 0.569 0.569 Ichthyopterygia 0.115 0.759 0.759 -0.309 0.385 0.569 Sauropterygia 0.321 0.368 0.759 0.347 0.325 0.569 Spearman's rank Pearson's PMCC Europe Non-marine Marine
  • 24. What controls regional subsampled diversity? (N. America) Jon Tennant Results rho p-value Adjusted p-value r p-value Adjusted p-value Raw richness 0.346 0.206 0.309 0.278 0.315 0.464 Collections 0.446 0.097 0.292 0.561 0.030 0.089 Occurrences 0.386 0.157 0.309 0.388 0.153 0.305 Good's u -0.073 0.839 0.965 -0.290 0.387 0.464 Formations -0.012 0.965 0.965 -0.146 0.589 0.589 Global sea-level 0.581 0.016 0.098 0.630 0.007 0.040 Subsampled richness Ornithischia 0.150 0.708 0.708 0.268 0.485 0.485 Theropoda -0.452 0.268 0.536 -0.404 0.321 0.485 North America Pearson's PMCCSpearman's rank rho p-value Adjusted p-value r p-value Adjusted p-value Raw richness 0.429 0.113 0.332 0.509 0.053 0.133 Collections 0.154 0.584 0.683 0.454 0.089 0.133 Occurrences 0.146 0.602 0.683 0.474 0.074 0.133 Good's u 0.300 0.683 0.683 0.298 0.626 0.626 Formations 0.479 0.166 0.332 0.457 0.185 0.221 Global sea-level 0.463 0.063 0.332 0.702 0.002 0.010 North America Spearman's rank Pearson's PMCC Non-marine Marine
  • 25. Environmental factors governing diversity Jon Tennant Results Likelihood Weight rho adjusted p-value r adjusted p-value Crocodyliformes (marine) Palaeotemp. 22.741 0.237 -0.524 0.634 -0.522 0.678 Crocodyliformes (non-marine) Sea level 26.285 0.969 0.750 0.175 0.846 0.028 Lissamphibia Palaeotemp. 38.260 0.796 0.700 0.301 0.742 0.154 Mammaliaformes Sea level 51.394 0.931 -0.450 0.537 -0.666 0.301 Ornithischia Sea level 60.106 0.391 0.200 0.681 0.047 0.898 Pterosauria Sea level 33.261 0.872 0.714 0.406 0.647 0.581 Sauropodomorpha Sea level 41.191 0.501 0.310 0.810 0.457 0.564 Sauropterygia Sea level 41.820 0.409 0.055 0.906 0.065 0.985 Testudines Palaeotemp. 50.648 0.258 0.343 0.880 0.462 0.891 Theropoda Sea level 72.931 0.534 -0.018 0.968 0.037 0.954 AICc Pearson's PMCCSpearman's rank Group Parameter
  • 26. Conclusions I • Faunal turnover in both marine and non-marine realms • Tempo, mode and magnitude of decline highly variable • Evidence for an ‘extinction wave’ and ecological reorganisation • Primary driver was eustatic sea level • Also impacted the marine realm: • Low-latitude shelf-dwelling faunas primarily affected • Marine revolution in micro-organism communities Jon Tennant Conclusions
  • 27. Conclusions II • Cannot rule out singular catastrophic events