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Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
ProblemSolvingStepsProblemSolvingSteps
Plan
Do
Action
Check
Sample Test/
Trial & Error test
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Identify ProblemsIdentify Problems
 Identify the problems of workplace
 Check each process of work
Many problems in the
workplace
Starting point for KAIZEN
KAIZEN targets for 3Ms for improvement.
Ms stand for (a) Muda (b) Muri (c) Mura
Muda- Wastage (Avoid all wastages)
Muri – Strain (causing inefficiency-
Avoid strain, work smarter)
Mura – Errors/Discrepancies
(Avoid errors)
(1) Improve customer service
(2) Ensure safety
(3) Keep deadlines, secure production quantity
(4) Improve the work environment
(5) Improve morale
(6) Reduce cost
Brainstorming
Flow Chart
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Choose a ThemeChoose a Theme
 State the theme specifically: what will be improved to
whatTheme Selection
Customer focus
Look for problems in own workplace
Prioritize/Categorize/Sort problems
Evaluate and shortlist problems
Consult with boss/Top management
Select a theme
Sort problems
How to prioritize?
Use ‘Matrix’ or
‘Pareto Diagram’.
Importance
Impact
Feasibility
etc.
Cost
How to State a Theme
Use expression: what and how much and by when ?
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Problem Statement Should be Specific so thatProblem Statement Should be Specific so that
Improvement is Well FocusedImprovement is Well Focused
Examples below show, how the problem statement may be reformulated
Poor Problem
Statement
Weakness in Problem
Statement
Correct Problem Statement
Problem 1:
We do not have the
equipment
Problem statement
contains a cause.
While all tests are to be done using
equipment, at present 60 percent of
cases are being tested using equipment.
Problem 2:
We need more staff
Prob. Stat. contains
a premature solution.
Clients arriving at the counter are to
wait for a long time to receive service.
Problem 3:
We do not work as
a team.
Problem statement is
too vague for
concrete action.
Team members do not plan and schedule
their work together.
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Check
Sheet
Know the Current Status & Set GoalsKnow the Current Status & Set Goals
 Analyze the current status using facts/data
 Determine the targets and deadlines
 Collect the current data and grasp situation
 Recognize the desirable situation
 Set a goal
 State the goal in numbers as much as you can.
 A goal must be S-M-A-R-T
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is SMART?What is SMART?
 S
 M
 A
 R
 T
PECIFIC
EASURABLE
CHIEVEABLE
EALISTIC
IME Bound
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Analyze Cause and FactorsAnalyze Cause and Factors
 Identify causes of the problems
 Factors affecting the issue
Cause-Effect
Diagram
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Develop Measures for ImprovementDevelop Measures for Improvement
 List improvement ideas
 Study improvement ideas
 Think the specifics of the improvement ideas
Use members’ knowledge and experience fully
Use techniques
Incorporate ideas of the experienced
Obtain advice and approval from the supervisor.
5 W 1H
Technique
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Develop an Activity PlanDevelop an Activity Plan
 Why an activity plan?
 To determine the schedule and members’ roles
 To demonstrate “What steps to be
completed by when”.
Gantt Chart
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Implement MeasuresImplement Measures
 Act and implement improvement measures
 Allocate resources, make person(s)
responsible and implement activities as
per schedule
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Check the EffectCheck the Effect
 Collect data after implementation
Use the same data sets as the current status analysis for
clear comparison
 Analyze data
Compare with targets
Know the level of impact of the measures
 Compare with targets
Evaluate intangible and ripple effects
Evaluate the problem-solving process
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Prevent Recurrence/StandardizePrevent Recurrence/Standardize
(1) Based on the results of the measures, implement the preventive
measure(s).
• Standardize the measures that were effective
• Train personnel on the standardized processes to maintain the effect
• Check if the effect is maintained
(2) Reflect on the activity.
• Review the results and activity process, and identify good points and the
points that need to be improved
• List remaining issues
(3) Discuss a future plan.
• Find a place where the feedback can be utilized
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Some Problem Solving ToolsSome Problem Solving Tools
 Brain Storming
 Flow Chart
 Matrix
 Check Sheet
 Pareto Diagram
 Cause & Effect Diagram
 5W 1H Questioning Technique
 Gantt Chart
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Brain StormingBrain Storming
 Alex Osborne introduced it as a way of encouraging
groups to be more creative in their ideas
 Brainstorming is the method for generating a lot of
ideas by a group of person is a short span of time
 Brainstorming is used in problem identification,
problem analysis and problem solution stages by the
Quality Control Circle members
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Rules of Brain StormingRules of Brain Storming
 Rule 1: No critism
 Rule 2: Freewheeling
 Rule 3: Generate as many ideas as possible
 Rule 4: Record/ Note down every ideas
 Rule 5: Incubate the ideas
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Steps in Brain StormingSteps in Brain Storming
 Step 1: Restate/ Write-up the rules
 Step 2: Write-up the subject to be Brain Stormed
 Step 3: Start the ideas coming
 Step 4: Say “Pass” if one have no idea
 Step 5: Record the ideas
 Step 6: Incubate the ideas
 Step 7: Evaluation
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Brain StormingBrain Storming
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Flow Chart/ DiagramFlow Chart/ Diagram
 Flow diagram/chart is a graphical / pictorial
way to depict a process easily
 It can show the process sequence
 It helps one to understand the process clearly
 It can be used for better understanding and
analyzing the process for re-planning or
making change
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Symbols Used in Flow Chart/DiagramSymbols Used in Flow Chart/Diagram
Terminal
(Start/End)
Decision
Document
Delay
Movement
/Transportation
Storage
Connector
Operation (Process,
activity)
Inspection/Check
(Counting, quality, quantity)
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
MatrixMatrix
Item No Cost Feasibility Importance Total Priority
A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
B _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Etc.
1 2 3 4 5
Costly Moderate Cost No cost
Team Can’t solve Moderate Feasible within team
Unimportant Moderate important Urgent/Important
U
W
X
Y
Z
3rd
5th
1st
4th
2nd
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Check SheetCheck Sheet
 It is “a sheet pre-designed to easily collect
and sort out data.”
 We can collect necessary information, and
check those in a rational order without
omission
 Using a Check Sheet, we can sort out the data
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Steps of Check SheetSteps of Check Sheet
Item/ Fault
Type
Frequency/Check Sub Total Total Data
A
_ _ _ _
B
C
D
C DB AC
New
Item
New Item
C ACC
U
W
X
Y
Z
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Pareto DiagramPareto Diagram
 Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, who
observed in 1906 that 80% of the land in
Italy was owned by 20% of the population
 Vilfredo Pareto developed the principle by
observing that 20% of the pea pods in his
garden contained 80% of the peas
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Pareto DiagramPareto Diagram
 The Pareto principle states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes
 It is also known as the 80–20 rule, the law of
the vital few, and the principle of factor
sparsity
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
ExamplesExamples
 80% of your sales come from 20% of your clients
 80% of a company's complaints come from 20% of its customers
 Microsoft noted that by fixing the top 20% most reported bugs, 80% of the errors and crashes would be eliminated
 20% of the hazards will account for 80% of
the injuries
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Drawing Pareto DiagramDrawing Pareto Diagram
 Step 1: Decide the kind of problem you want to investigate
 Step 2: Decide what data will be necessary and how to classify them
 Step 3: Determine the method of collecting data and period during
which it is to be collected (use check sheets)
 Step 4: Design a data tally sheet to record data with space to put
their total
 Step 5: Collect data and calculate total
 Step 6: Make a Pareto diagram data sheet and fill out the data sheet
in order of quantity, in descending order
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Data Collection (step 5)Data Collection (step 5)
Type of Defect Tally/ Frequency Sub Total
Crack |||| |||| 10
Scratch |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||||
|||| ||
42
Stain |||| | 6
Strain |||| |||| |||| |||| ………….. ||||
|||| ||||
104
Gap |||| 4
Pinhole |||| |||| |||| |||| 20
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Pareto Diagram Data SheetPareto Diagram Data Sheet (Step 6)(Step 6)
Type of
Defect
Number of
Defects
Cumulative
Sum
Percentage of
overall Total
Cumulative
Percentage (%)
Strain 104 104 52 52
Scratch 42 146 21 73
Pinhole 20 166 10 83
Crack 10 176 5 88
Stain 6 182 3 91
Gap 4 186 2 93
Others 14 200 7 100
Total 200 100
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Drawing Pareto DiagramDrawing Pareto Diagram
 Step 7: Draw two vertical axes and one horizontal axis
 Step 8: Construct a bar diagram
 Step 9: Draw the cumulative curve
( Pareto curve)
 Step10:Write necessary items
on the diagram
Draw Pareto Chart in MS Excel easily; check the link for instructions
http://www.excel-easy.com/examples/pareto-chart.html
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Pareto DiagramPareto Diagram
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Cause & Effect DiagramCause & Effect Diagram
 Proposed by Kaoru Ishikawa, Professor of the
University of Tokyo (1968), that shows the
causes of a specific event
 Also known as Fishbone Diagrams, Herringbone
Diagrams & Ishikawa Diagram
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Cause & Effect DiagramCause & Effect Diagram
 Cause-and-effect diagram is a method of mapping
out all the probable causes influencing the effect
 It is difficult to solve complicated problems without
considering the cause & effect relation
 Cause-and-effect Diagram is a diagram which shows
the relation between a quality characteristic and
factors
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Cause & Effect DiagramCause & Effect Diagram
 Step 1: Determine the quality characteristic & write
it on the right-hard side of a sheet of paper
 Step 2: Draw in the backbone from left to right, and
enclose the characteristic in a box
 Step 3: Next, write the primary causes which affect the
quality characteristic as big bones also enclosed
by boxes
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Cause & Effect DiagramCause & Effect Diagram
 Step 4:Write the causes (secondary causes) which
affect the big bones (primary causes) as medium-
sized bones, and write the causes (tertiary causes)
which affect the medium-sized bones as small bones
 Step 5: Assign an importance to each factor and
mark the particularly important factors that seem to
have a significant effect on the quality characteristic
 Step 6: Record any necessary information
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Lack of
Skill in
Spoken
English
Students
Teachers
Environment Management
Lack of
Opportunity
Lack of time
of guidance
Lack of time
of practice
Lacking
Fear of
making
mistakes
Fear of being
ridiculed
Fear of being
isolated
Fear
Medium of
instruction isn’t
English
Medium of
teaching isn’t
English
Inside
Class
Not being
strict
Not speaking in
English with
Students
Outside
Class
Lack of interest in
extra curricular
activitiesLack of
seriousness
Lack of
encouragement
Lacking
Not
being
strict
Speaking English
isn’t encouraged
Less emphasis on
teaching English
Education
System
Home
Environment
Lack of
Encouragement
Hardly English is
spoken at homes
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Cause & Effect DiagramCause & Effect Diagram
 It will be easy if you mark the big bones (primary
causes) with 6M’s
 It’s better if you could avoid the 6th
M : Money
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Another exampleAnother example
MachineManSupplier
MaterialManagementEnvironment
Quality
Problem
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
5W 1H Questioning Technique5W 1H Questioning Technique
 The questioning technique is the means by
which the critical examination is conducted
in order to make improvement
 Each activity being subjected in turn to
systematic and progressive series of
questions
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
5W 1H5W 1H
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
5W 1H Questioning Technique5W 1H Questioning Technique
 WHERE = Where ( in which department ) is the problem located
 WHY = Ask why at least three times to find the root cause of the problem
 WHAT = Once you understand the source of the problem, what corrective action is necessary and what standard
(measurement) will you use to measure your performance
 WHO = Identify by name who will be responsible for
implementing the corrective action (department level)
 WHEN = Period of implementation
 HOW = Considering the cost-benefit, is there a savings based on
the QCD Function (quality, cost, delivery)
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
5W 1H Questioning Technique5W 1H Questioning Technique
Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3
WHERE is the problem
located?
WHY, WHY, WHY is it a
problem?
WHAT needs to be done?
Action and measurement
WHO is responsible for the
action?
By WHEN will you take
corrective action?
HOW much will it cost or
save?
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Gantt ChartGantt Chart
 Developed by Henry Gantt, an American
mechanical engineer and management consultant in
the 1910s
 A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule
 The chart shows the actions to be implemented with
temporal milestone settings
 The vertical bars represent scheduled and
implemented timings of each action
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Gantt ChartGantt Chart
Sl. No. Activity Jun’13 July’13 Aug’13 Sep.’13 Oct’13 Nov’13 Dec’13 Jan’14
1 U
2 V
3 W
4 X
5 Y
6 Z
Plan
Implemented/Actual
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com

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Problem Solving Tools

  • 1.
  • 2. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
  • 3. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com ProblemSolvingStepsProblemSolvingSteps Plan Do Action Check Sample Test/ Trial & Error test
  • 4. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Identify ProblemsIdentify Problems  Identify the problems of workplace  Check each process of work Many problems in the workplace Starting point for KAIZEN KAIZEN targets for 3Ms for improvement. Ms stand for (a) Muda (b) Muri (c) Mura Muda- Wastage (Avoid all wastages) Muri – Strain (causing inefficiency- Avoid strain, work smarter) Mura – Errors/Discrepancies (Avoid errors) (1) Improve customer service (2) Ensure safety (3) Keep deadlines, secure production quantity (4) Improve the work environment (5) Improve morale (6) Reduce cost Brainstorming Flow Chart
  • 5. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Choose a ThemeChoose a Theme  State the theme specifically: what will be improved to whatTheme Selection Customer focus Look for problems in own workplace Prioritize/Categorize/Sort problems Evaluate and shortlist problems Consult with boss/Top management Select a theme Sort problems How to prioritize? Use ‘Matrix’ or ‘Pareto Diagram’. Importance Impact Feasibility etc. Cost How to State a Theme Use expression: what and how much and by when ?
  • 6. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Problem Statement Should be Specific so thatProblem Statement Should be Specific so that Improvement is Well FocusedImprovement is Well Focused Examples below show, how the problem statement may be reformulated Poor Problem Statement Weakness in Problem Statement Correct Problem Statement Problem 1: We do not have the equipment Problem statement contains a cause. While all tests are to be done using equipment, at present 60 percent of cases are being tested using equipment. Problem 2: We need more staff Prob. Stat. contains a premature solution. Clients arriving at the counter are to wait for a long time to receive service. Problem 3: We do not work as a team. Problem statement is too vague for concrete action. Team members do not plan and schedule their work together.
  • 7. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Check Sheet Know the Current Status & Set GoalsKnow the Current Status & Set Goals  Analyze the current status using facts/data  Determine the targets and deadlines  Collect the current data and grasp situation  Recognize the desirable situation  Set a goal  State the goal in numbers as much as you can.  A goal must be S-M-A-R-T
  • 8. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is SMART?What is SMART?  S  M  A  R  T PECIFIC EASURABLE CHIEVEABLE EALISTIC IME Bound
  • 9. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Analyze Cause and FactorsAnalyze Cause and Factors  Identify causes of the problems  Factors affecting the issue Cause-Effect Diagram
  • 10. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Develop Measures for ImprovementDevelop Measures for Improvement  List improvement ideas  Study improvement ideas  Think the specifics of the improvement ideas Use members’ knowledge and experience fully Use techniques Incorporate ideas of the experienced Obtain advice and approval from the supervisor. 5 W 1H Technique
  • 11. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Develop an Activity PlanDevelop an Activity Plan  Why an activity plan?  To determine the schedule and members’ roles  To demonstrate “What steps to be completed by when”. Gantt Chart
  • 12. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Implement MeasuresImplement Measures  Act and implement improvement measures  Allocate resources, make person(s) responsible and implement activities as per schedule
  • 13. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Check the EffectCheck the Effect  Collect data after implementation Use the same data sets as the current status analysis for clear comparison  Analyze data Compare with targets Know the level of impact of the measures  Compare with targets Evaluate intangible and ripple effects Evaluate the problem-solving process
  • 14. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Prevent Recurrence/StandardizePrevent Recurrence/Standardize (1) Based on the results of the measures, implement the preventive measure(s). • Standardize the measures that were effective • Train personnel on the standardized processes to maintain the effect • Check if the effect is maintained (2) Reflect on the activity. • Review the results and activity process, and identify good points and the points that need to be improved • List remaining issues (3) Discuss a future plan. • Find a place where the feedback can be utilized
  • 15. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
  • 16. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Some Problem Solving ToolsSome Problem Solving Tools  Brain Storming  Flow Chart  Matrix  Check Sheet  Pareto Diagram  Cause & Effect Diagram  5W 1H Questioning Technique  Gantt Chart
  • 17. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Brain StormingBrain Storming  Alex Osborne introduced it as a way of encouraging groups to be more creative in their ideas  Brainstorming is the method for generating a lot of ideas by a group of person is a short span of time  Brainstorming is used in problem identification, problem analysis and problem solution stages by the Quality Control Circle members
  • 18. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Rules of Brain StormingRules of Brain Storming  Rule 1: No critism  Rule 2: Freewheeling  Rule 3: Generate as many ideas as possible  Rule 4: Record/ Note down every ideas  Rule 5: Incubate the ideas
  • 19. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Steps in Brain StormingSteps in Brain Storming  Step 1: Restate/ Write-up the rules  Step 2: Write-up the subject to be Brain Stormed  Step 3: Start the ideas coming  Step 4: Say “Pass” if one have no idea  Step 5: Record the ideas  Step 6: Incubate the ideas  Step 7: Evaluation
  • 20. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Brain StormingBrain Storming
  • 21. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Flow Chart/ DiagramFlow Chart/ Diagram  Flow diagram/chart is a graphical / pictorial way to depict a process easily  It can show the process sequence  It helps one to understand the process clearly  It can be used for better understanding and analyzing the process for re-planning or making change
  • 22. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Symbols Used in Flow Chart/DiagramSymbols Used in Flow Chart/Diagram Terminal (Start/End) Decision Document Delay Movement /Transportation Storage Connector Operation (Process, activity) Inspection/Check (Counting, quality, quantity)
  • 23. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com MatrixMatrix Item No Cost Feasibility Importance Total Priority A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ D _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Etc. 1 2 3 4 5 Costly Moderate Cost No cost Team Can’t solve Moderate Feasible within team Unimportant Moderate important Urgent/Important U W X Y Z 3rd 5th 1st 4th 2nd
  • 24. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Check SheetCheck Sheet  It is “a sheet pre-designed to easily collect and sort out data.”  We can collect necessary information, and check those in a rational order without omission  Using a Check Sheet, we can sort out the data
  • 25. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Steps of Check SheetSteps of Check Sheet Item/ Fault Type Frequency/Check Sub Total Total Data A _ _ _ _ B C D C DB AC New Item New Item C ACC U W X Y Z
  • 26. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Pareto DiagramPareto Diagram  Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, who observed in 1906 that 80% of the land in Italy was owned by 20% of the population  Vilfredo Pareto developed the principle by observing that 20% of the pea pods in his garden contained 80% of the peas
  • 27. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Pareto DiagramPareto Diagram  The Pareto principle states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes  It is also known as the 80–20 rule, the law of the vital few, and the principle of factor sparsity
  • 28. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com ExamplesExamples  80% of your sales come from 20% of your clients  80% of a company's complaints come from 20% of its customers  Microsoft noted that by fixing the top 20% most reported bugs, 80% of the errors and crashes would be eliminated  20% of the hazards will account for 80% of the injuries
  • 29. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Drawing Pareto DiagramDrawing Pareto Diagram  Step 1: Decide the kind of problem you want to investigate  Step 2: Decide what data will be necessary and how to classify them  Step 3: Determine the method of collecting data and period during which it is to be collected (use check sheets)  Step 4: Design a data tally sheet to record data with space to put their total  Step 5: Collect data and calculate total  Step 6: Make a Pareto diagram data sheet and fill out the data sheet in order of quantity, in descending order
  • 30. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Data Collection (step 5)Data Collection (step 5) Type of Defect Tally/ Frequency Sub Total Crack |||| |||| 10 Scratch |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| || 42 Stain |||| | 6 Strain |||| |||| |||| |||| ………….. |||| |||| |||| 104 Gap |||| 4 Pinhole |||| |||| |||| |||| 20
  • 31. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Pareto Diagram Data SheetPareto Diagram Data Sheet (Step 6)(Step 6) Type of Defect Number of Defects Cumulative Sum Percentage of overall Total Cumulative Percentage (%) Strain 104 104 52 52 Scratch 42 146 21 73 Pinhole 20 166 10 83 Crack 10 176 5 88 Stain 6 182 3 91 Gap 4 186 2 93 Others 14 200 7 100 Total 200 100
  • 32. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Drawing Pareto DiagramDrawing Pareto Diagram  Step 7: Draw two vertical axes and one horizontal axis  Step 8: Construct a bar diagram  Step 9: Draw the cumulative curve ( Pareto curve)  Step10:Write necessary items on the diagram Draw Pareto Chart in MS Excel easily; check the link for instructions http://www.excel-easy.com/examples/pareto-chart.html
  • 33. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Pareto DiagramPareto Diagram
  • 34. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Cause & Effect DiagramCause & Effect Diagram  Proposed by Kaoru Ishikawa, Professor of the University of Tokyo (1968), that shows the causes of a specific event  Also known as Fishbone Diagrams, Herringbone Diagrams & Ishikawa Diagram
  • 35. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Cause & Effect DiagramCause & Effect Diagram  Cause-and-effect diagram is a method of mapping out all the probable causes influencing the effect  It is difficult to solve complicated problems without considering the cause & effect relation  Cause-and-effect Diagram is a diagram which shows the relation between a quality characteristic and factors
  • 36. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Cause & Effect DiagramCause & Effect Diagram  Step 1: Determine the quality characteristic & write it on the right-hard side of a sheet of paper  Step 2: Draw in the backbone from left to right, and enclose the characteristic in a box  Step 3: Next, write the primary causes which affect the quality characteristic as big bones also enclosed by boxes
  • 37. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Cause & Effect DiagramCause & Effect Diagram  Step 4:Write the causes (secondary causes) which affect the big bones (primary causes) as medium- sized bones, and write the causes (tertiary causes) which affect the medium-sized bones as small bones  Step 5: Assign an importance to each factor and mark the particularly important factors that seem to have a significant effect on the quality characteristic  Step 6: Record any necessary information
  • 38. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Lack of Skill in Spoken English Students Teachers Environment Management Lack of Opportunity Lack of time of guidance Lack of time of practice Lacking Fear of making mistakes Fear of being ridiculed Fear of being isolated Fear Medium of instruction isn’t English Medium of teaching isn’t English Inside Class Not being strict Not speaking in English with Students Outside Class Lack of interest in extra curricular activitiesLack of seriousness Lack of encouragement Lacking Not being strict Speaking English isn’t encouraged Less emphasis on teaching English Education System Home Environment Lack of Encouragement Hardly English is spoken at homes
  • 39. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Cause & Effect DiagramCause & Effect Diagram  It will be easy if you mark the big bones (primary causes) with 6M’s  It’s better if you could avoid the 6th M : Money
  • 40. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Another exampleAnother example MachineManSupplier MaterialManagementEnvironment Quality Problem
  • 41. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com 5W 1H Questioning Technique5W 1H Questioning Technique  The questioning technique is the means by which the critical examination is conducted in order to make improvement  Each activity being subjected in turn to systematic and progressive series of questions
  • 42. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com 5W 1H5W 1H
  • 43. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com 5W 1H Questioning Technique5W 1H Questioning Technique  WHERE = Where ( in which department ) is the problem located  WHY = Ask why at least three times to find the root cause of the problem  WHAT = Once you understand the source of the problem, what corrective action is necessary and what standard (measurement) will you use to measure your performance  WHO = Identify by name who will be responsible for implementing the corrective action (department level)  WHEN = Period of implementation  HOW = Considering the cost-benefit, is there a savings based on the QCD Function (quality, cost, delivery)
  • 44. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com 5W 1H Questioning Technique5W 1H Questioning Technique Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3 WHERE is the problem located? WHY, WHY, WHY is it a problem? WHAT needs to be done? Action and measurement WHO is responsible for the action? By WHEN will you take corrective action? HOW much will it cost or save?
  • 45. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Gantt ChartGantt Chart  Developed by Henry Gantt, an American mechanical engineer and management consultant in the 1910s  A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule  The chart shows the actions to be implemented with temporal milestone settings  The vertical bars represent scheduled and implemented timings of each action
  • 46. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Gantt ChartGantt Chart Sl. No. Activity Jun’13 July’13 Aug’13 Sep.’13 Oct’13 Nov’13 Dec’13 Jan’14 1 U 2 V 3 W 4 X 5 Y 6 Z Plan Implemented/Actual
  • 47. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
  • 48. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com

Editor's Notes

  1. Image Courtesy: Summit Power Ltd. Ullapara Plant
  2. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/80_20_rule , 11 November, 2013
  3. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/80_20_rule , 11 November, 2013
  4. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fishbone_diagram#The_6_Ms_.28used_in_manufacturing_industry.29 12 November, 2013
  5. Source: http://blog.daum.net/prof_jklee/13424169 on 12 November, 2013
  6. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gantt_chart 16 November, 2013