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PROBLEM
SOLVING
DIBAWAKAN PADA KEGIATAN
UP GRADING PENGURUS BEM STIA AL-GAZALI BARRU
(Sabtu, 18 Mei 2019)
ARDI SUSANTO
MARI BER-ETIMOLOGY
APA ITU PROBLEM ?
DAN APA ITU SOLVING ?
BRAIN STORMING
Jika Saya Memiliki Gelas yang kemudian anda pinjam, saat anda gunakan kemudian Gelas
itu Jatuh dan Pecah, Apakah itu sudah menjadi sebuah
MASALAH ?






Konsep dan pentingnya Metode Problem Solving.
Langkah-langkah dalam proses Problem Solving.
Bagaimana mendefenisikan dan
menganalisa suatu masalah.
Cara Menggunakan perangkat analisa
masalah.
Bagaimana cara kreatif dan inovatif dalam
teknik berfikir menyelesaikan masalah.
Bagaimana menemukan pilihan solusi
terbaik.
MARI KITA KAJI BERSAMA...!!!
THE PROBLEM SOLVING
METHOD
WHAT IS A PROBLEM?
Kepner Tregoe’s:
A deviation from an expected standard
of performance.
MacCrimmon and Taylor:
A gap between a current and a desired state of
affairs – i.e. a gap between where you are and
where you would like to be.
 Current problem (Masalah saat ini)
 Inherited problem (Warisan masalah)
 Stumbled problem (Tersandung masalah)
 Hidden problem (Masalah yang muncul
kembali)
 Stated or implied problem (dinyatakan atau
tersirat sebagai masalah)
JENIS-JENIS MASALAH?
 something that shouldn’t have
happened but had happened
(tidak sesuai harapan sebab masih ada yang
lebih baik)
 something that should have
happened but did not happen
(yang diharap terjadi tapi tidak terjadi)
 something that had happened but
did not fulfill the goals / needs
(yang terjadi berbeda dari tujuan/yang diperlukan)
WHAT IS A PROBLEM ?
Step 1: Presenting Problems
Step 2: Restructure the problem
Step 3: Identify causes to the problem
Step 4: Developing alternative solution
Step 5: Assessing choice of the solution
Step 6: Implementing and evaluating the solution
K.A.I
• Know the problem (1 & 2)
• Analyze the problem (3,4 & 5)
• Implement the solution (6)
THE 6 CREATIVE THINKING
STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING
CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVINGPROCESS
PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS
Construct Overall
Project Plan
Define Process
Define Problem
List Causes
Find Root Causes
Actn. Res. Date
~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~
~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~
~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~
N
Y
Manpower:
Machinery:
Methods:
Materials:
Measurements:
What
When
Where
How much
Brainstorm For
Solutions
Choose Best Solution
& Justify
Trial Implementation
€ • ~~~~~~~~
Plan Implementation
Force Field Analysis
Implement
Monitor
Present Plan
Actn. Res. Date
~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~
~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~
~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~
PROBLEM DEFINITION
- Clarify the Situation
- Challenge assumptions about the Problem
- Determine possible reasons and evidence
- Explore different perspective concerning the
problem
- Ask more about the original question
DETERMINE WHERE THE PROBLEM
ORIGINATED
Present State
- Write a statement of the situation as it curently
exists
Desired State
- Should include concrete details, contain any
information about possible causes or solutions
DEFINING THE PRESENT STATE
AND THE DESIRED STATE
Q
U
A
L
I
T
Y
TIME
Performance
Gap
A
B
Highest
Performanc
Ae
B
A need or discrepancy between should be condition and
actual situation
DEFINING THE PRESENT STATE
AND THE DESIRED STATE
27
Utilize kipling Tools
5W 1H i.e who, what, where, when, why and
How
ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
ANALYZE SITUATIONS &
RESOLVE PROBLEMS CREATIVELY
CREATIVE : Having the ability to produce new ideas
CRITICAL : Careful attention and judgment
THINKING : A process that acts upon intelligence
INNOVATION : Doing something with the ideas
thatWhat are the internal and external changes
contribute to the particular problem?
Who is most involved in this problem?
Do they have the perspective in solving this problem?
Why does this problem exist?
IDENTIFY CAUSES TO THE PROBLEM
What are the possible sources of the problem?
ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
IDENTIFY CAUSES TO THE PROBLEM
Three sub-steps:
Step A : Identify Potential Causes
Step B : Determine the Most Likely Causes
Step C : Identify the True Root Causes
ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
STEP A : Identify PotentialCauses
EFFECT
cause
cause
cause
cause
cause
cause
cause
cause
ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM
Main
cause 1
Main
cause 2
Main
cause 3
Main
cause 4
ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
5 accident
cases at the
worksite
No safety features
careless
No proper skills
No safety procedure
cause
cause
cause
Safety not functioning
ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM
Machine Man
Method
STEP A : Identify Potential Causes (Example)
Material
ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
PARETO
CHART
STEP B : Determine the most likely causes
ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
WHY-WHY DIAGRA M
Effect of the
Problem
Why?
Why?
Why?
LEVEL 1
LEVEL 2
LEVEL 3
STEP C : Identify the
true root causes
ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
WHY-WHY DIAGRAM
Careless
Sleepy
Sleep
Late
Part
Time
Job
LEVEL 1
LEVEL 2
LEVEL 3
STEP C : Identify the
true root causes
ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
TOOLS / TECHNIQUES TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
ACTIVITY TOOLS
Identify problem Brainstorming, Pareto
Select problem Filtering, Matrix DecisionMaking
Define problem 5W 2H concept
Analyses problem (find & verify thesource) Fishbone diagram, linkage diagram, matrix
verification
Fixa target SMARTERconcept
Intervention suggestion Brainstorming, focus group
WRITING A PROBLEM STATEMENT
Who - Who does the problem affect?
What - What is the issue? - What is the impact of the
issue?
When - When does the issue occur? - When does it need
to be fixed?
Where - Where is the issue occurring?
Good Problem
Statement
1. Written
2. Objective
3. Simple
4. No implied causes
5. No implied solutions
WRITING A PROBLEM STATEMENT
Problem
Statement must
be SMART!
MAJOR
TERM
MINOR TERMS
S Specific Significant, Stretching, Simple
M Measurable Meaningful, Motivational,
Manageable
A Achievable Agreed, Attainable, Assignable,
Appropriate, Actionable, Action-
oriented
R Relevant Realistic, Results/Results-
focused/Results-oriented,
Resourced, Rewarding
T Time-bound Time framed, Timed, Time-based,
Time-boxed, Timely, Time-bound,
Time-Specific, Timetabled,Traceable
E Exciting, Evaluated
R Recorded, Rewarding, Reviewed
WRITING A PROBLEM STATEMENT
GENERATING
SOLUTIONS
WHEN TO USE BRAINSTORMING ?
1. Identify problem in your workplace
2. Analyze a problem
3. Find the probable cause to the problem
4. Find solution to the problem
THE SIX THINKING HATS
(Edward De Bono)
Facts & information
Feelings & emotions
Being cautious Being positive &
optimistic
The Big picture
Blue Hat
Yellow Hat
Red Hat
Green Hat
New ideas
White Hat
Black Hat
ANALYZNG AND
SELECTING
SOLUTIONS
DEVELOPING CRITERIA
Consider the following:
Ask question: What if…
Think about what you want the solution to do or not do.
Think about what values should be considered
The criteria for an effective solution, among others
Timing – urgent ? If delay?
Trend – What direction is the problem solving
Impaact – Is the problem serious?
ANALYSING WANTS AND NEEDS
Wants and Needs seem like a fundamental aspect
of defining the problem.
Needs are items the potential solution absolutely
must meet.
Wants are nice to have items. Provide a weight to
each item to indicate its importance.
USING COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS
Cost-Benefit Analysis is a method of assigning a
monetery value to the potential benefits of a solution
and weighing those against the costs of
implementing that solution.
STEP 4 : DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE
SOLUTION
a. Generate a list of possible solutions
b. Determine the best solutions
PROBLEM STRATEGIC
SOLUTION
TREE DIAGRAM IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS
BRAINSTORMING &
THINK
OUTSIDE THE
BOX
Good impact desired
TARGET
PROBLEM
STRATEGIC
SOLUTION
EXAMPLE : TREE DIAGRAM IN SOLUTION FINDING
A Restaurant Owner Finding How To SatisfyCustomers
Good impact desired
TARGET
EXAMPLE : USING TREE DIAGRAM OF PROPOSED SOLUTIONS
TO REDUCE FILTER FAN USAGE BY 30% IN 4Q ‘09
TO REDUCE
FILTER FAN
USAGE BY
30%
IN 4Q ‘09
PURPOSE
(WHY)
METHOD
MATERIAL
MAN
FREQUENT
USAGE
HIGH WEAR
AND TEAR
STANDARD
USAGE NOT
ALLOWED
IMPLEMENT
STANDARD
USAGE
CHEAP
QUALITY
FACTORS
(WHERE)
COUNTER
MEASURES
(HOW)
CHANGE TO
THICKER AND
HARDER
MATERIAL
RESP
(WHO)
PERIOD
(WHEN)
NO PERSONAL
STORAGE
REUSE
FILTER FAN
CHECK STORAGE
LEVEL
ROKIAH
JASMINE
AUG WK2
TO WK4
FRANCISCA
JASMINE
AUG WK2
AZLINA
AUG WK3
TO WK4
FRANCISCA
ROKIAH
AUG WK3
AUG WK3
WK4
ROKIAH
FARIDAH
Bad impact
CAUSES
(WHAT)
Major Causes
Impact ofthe
causes
Proposed solution
Expected good
impact
How to
implement?
Estimated
cost
Resources
required
Time to
complete
Example : Solution Template
Factors in selecting :-
 Quantity and quality of information
 Implementation cost (time & RM)
 Easy implementation
 Probability of success if proceed
 Effectiveness of solution
DOING A FINALANALYSIS
ASSESSING THE CHOICE OF THE SOLUTIONS
Three steps:-
 Develop and assign weights to criteria
 Apply the criteria
 Choose the best solution (s)
DOING A FINALANALYSIS
Objective: To reduce headache
Scale: Very Negative 1 2 3 4 5 6 Very Positive
Overall
RatingEffectiveness Efficiency Cost
Panadol 5 5 4 14
3 2 9Take a break 4
Ginseng 4 3 3 10
Sleep 5 2 6 13
SELECT THE BEST SOLUTIONS
MATRIX DIAGRAM
PLANNING YOUR NEXT
STEPS
STEPS :
 What to do (the activity)?
 When to do (start and finish)?
 Who to do?
 What are the resources required?
PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP
PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP
-
IDENTIFYING TASKS
Brainstorm with people involved with the problem to
determine the specific steps necessary to make the
solution becomes reality.
- Identify any task that are critical to the timing of the
solution implementation. Critical tasks are items that will
delay the entire implementation schedule if not completed
on time. Non critical tasks are items that can be done as
time and resources permit.
PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP
IDENTIFYING RESOURCES
Time to think about the resources for making the solution
become reality. The resources are as below:
- Time : How to schedule the project.
- Personnel : Who will complete the identified task.
- Equipment : Any special equipment needed?
- Money : How much will the solution cost
- Information : any additional information required?
PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP
IMPLEMENTING, EVALUATINGAND
ADAPTING
Now is the time to use the Project Management skills to
keep the implementation on track.
During implementation, continue to evaluate the solutions.
ACTIVITY PLAN SEP- 06 OCT-06 NOV-06
W1 W
2
W
3
W
4
W
1
W
2
W
3
W
4
W
1
W
2
W
3
W4
P
Data grouping
1. 5S Awareness Motivation class
2. Use PA system for announcement
3. Announcement made during morning assembly
Management performance unit assembly
D 1. Make all members attend 5S practice motivationclass
GROUP A,B,C, and D
C 1. Check with audit
2. Used check sheet every week
A
1. Monitoring – monthly checking from project leaders
2. Understand the marking
3. Audit by the management with standard
IDENTIFYING TASKS
PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP
KEY:
PLAN ACTUAL - INCHARGE - ASSIST
STEP
P
ACTIVITIES
Project area
Theme selection
Data Collection
Data Analysis
APR-06 MAY-06 JUN-06 JUL-06 AUG-056 PROCEEDING
W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 ADALI K’RUL YATI S’MAN FIDA SCH ZUL LAILI MGT SHAM
Solution Evaluation
D
C
Implementation
Monitoring result
A Standardization
Follow-up Result
Future Plan
PROBLEM RESOLUTION
IMPLEMENTATION
ACTIVITY PLANNING
a. Divide solution into sequential tasks
ACTION PLAN
Action Step
Task/Activity
Responsible
Person /Group
Begin Date End Date Estimated
Hours
Cost
SOLUTIONA
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 3
Activity 4
SOLUTION B
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 3
IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
A - Divide solution into sequential tasks
To Complete the Job on Time
Action Step
Task/Activity
Responsible
Person /Group
Begin Date End Date Estimated
Hours
Budget
1. Buy a new
PC
Set the
specs
Abu 12.8.01 15.8.01 3 days RM0
Get the
quotation
Abu
16.8.01 20.8.01 4 days RM0
Select
vendor Abu 21.8.01 22.8.01 2 days RM0
Purchase Abu 22.8.01 25.8.01 4 days RM5,000
2. Trainthe
Staff
Training
Manual
Ahmad 13.9.01 20..9.01 7 days RM100
Organise Ahmad 13.9.01 30.9.01 17 days RM2000
Conduct
Training Ahmad 1.10.01 2.10.01 2 days RM2000
IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
b. Develop Contigency Plans
Action Step
from Action Plan
Sub-Step Sub-Step Sub-Step
? ?? ? ? ?
? ?What will
we do?
What could
go wrong
IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
 Make sure everyone participate
 Build a commitment to action into decision
 Create extensive involvement of those affected
 Build a feedback loop into the process
IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
EVALUATE THE SOLUTIONS
Considerations:-
 Has the desired state achieved?
 Is the process going on smoothly to make sure
no recurrence to problem?
Materi ini sebagian besar disadur
dan diolah dari Powerpoint
H Mohammad Idrakisyah
(Doctoral Candidate at City University of Malaysia and a
Mentor. Consulting and head office at Shah Alam Selangor
Malaysia --- Data Linked in--- )
berjudul “Critical Thinking and
Creative Problem Solving Skill)
TERIMA KASIH ATAS
PERHATIANNYA
Love You Full
BIODATA PEMATERI
Nama : ARDI SUSANTO, SH
NIP : 19831210 200604 1 009
Jabatan : Kasubag Perundang-Undangan Bagian Hukum, Setda Barru
Alamat : Siru, Kel. Palanro, Kec. Mallusetasi
Pendidikan :
1995 SD Inpres Maruala, Tanete Riaja
1998 SMP Neg.1, Ralla, Tanete Riaja
2001 SMU Neg. 1, Tanete Rilau
2005 Fakultas Hukum Universitas Hasanuddin
Hp. 081 355 555 453
Facebook Ardi Drafter

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Problem Solving Skill

  • 1. PROBLEM SOLVING DIBAWAKAN PADA KEGIATAN UP GRADING PENGURUS BEM STIA AL-GAZALI BARRU (Sabtu, 18 Mei 2019) ARDI SUSANTO
  • 2. MARI BER-ETIMOLOGY APA ITU PROBLEM ? DAN APA ITU SOLVING ?
  • 3. BRAIN STORMING Jika Saya Memiliki Gelas yang kemudian anda pinjam, saat anda gunakan kemudian Gelas itu Jatuh dan Pecah, Apakah itu sudah menjadi sebuah MASALAH ?
  • 4.       Konsep dan pentingnya Metode Problem Solving. Langkah-langkah dalam proses Problem Solving. Bagaimana mendefenisikan dan menganalisa suatu masalah. Cara Menggunakan perangkat analisa masalah. Bagaimana cara kreatif dan inovatif dalam teknik berfikir menyelesaikan masalah. Bagaimana menemukan pilihan solusi terbaik. MARI KITA KAJI BERSAMA...!!!
  • 6. WHAT IS A PROBLEM? Kepner Tregoe’s: A deviation from an expected standard of performance. MacCrimmon and Taylor: A gap between a current and a desired state of affairs – i.e. a gap between where you are and where you would like to be.
  • 7.  Current problem (Masalah saat ini)  Inherited problem (Warisan masalah)  Stumbled problem (Tersandung masalah)  Hidden problem (Masalah yang muncul kembali)  Stated or implied problem (dinyatakan atau tersirat sebagai masalah) JENIS-JENIS MASALAH?
  • 8.  something that shouldn’t have happened but had happened (tidak sesuai harapan sebab masih ada yang lebih baik)  something that should have happened but did not happen (yang diharap terjadi tapi tidak terjadi)  something that had happened but did not fulfill the goals / needs (yang terjadi berbeda dari tujuan/yang diperlukan) WHAT IS A PROBLEM ?
  • 9. Step 1: Presenting Problems Step 2: Restructure the problem Step 3: Identify causes to the problem Step 4: Developing alternative solution Step 5: Assessing choice of the solution Step 6: Implementing and evaluating the solution K.A.I • Know the problem (1 & 2) • Analyze the problem (3,4 & 5) • Implement the solution (6) THE 6 CREATIVE THINKING STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING
  • 11. PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS Construct Overall Project Plan Define Process Define Problem List Causes Find Root Causes Actn. Res. Date ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~ N Y Manpower: Machinery: Methods: Materials: Measurements: What When Where How much Brainstorm For Solutions Choose Best Solution & Justify Trial Implementation € • ~~~~~~~~ Plan Implementation Force Field Analysis Implement Monitor Present Plan Actn. Res. Date ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~/~/~
  • 13. - Clarify the Situation - Challenge assumptions about the Problem - Determine possible reasons and evidence - Explore different perspective concerning the problem - Ask more about the original question DETERMINE WHERE THE PROBLEM ORIGINATED
  • 14. Present State - Write a statement of the situation as it curently exists Desired State - Should include concrete details, contain any information about possible causes or solutions DEFINING THE PRESENT STATE AND THE DESIRED STATE
  • 15. Q U A L I T Y TIME Performance Gap A B Highest Performanc Ae B A need or discrepancy between should be condition and actual situation DEFINING THE PRESENT STATE AND THE DESIRED STATE
  • 16. 27 Utilize kipling Tools 5W 1H i.e who, what, where, when, why and How ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
  • 17. ANALYZE SITUATIONS & RESOLVE PROBLEMS CREATIVELY CREATIVE : Having the ability to produce new ideas CRITICAL : Careful attention and judgment THINKING : A process that acts upon intelligence INNOVATION : Doing something with the ideas
  • 18. thatWhat are the internal and external changes contribute to the particular problem? Who is most involved in this problem? Do they have the perspective in solving this problem? Why does this problem exist? IDENTIFY CAUSES TO THE PROBLEM What are the possible sources of the problem? ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
  • 19. IDENTIFY CAUSES TO THE PROBLEM Three sub-steps: Step A : Identify Potential Causes Step B : Determine the Most Likely Causes Step C : Identify the True Root Causes ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
  • 20. STEP A : Identify PotentialCauses EFFECT cause cause cause cause cause cause cause cause ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM Main cause 1 Main cause 2 Main cause 3 Main cause 4 ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
  • 21. 5 accident cases at the worksite No safety features careless No proper skills No safety procedure cause cause cause Safety not functioning ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM Machine Man Method STEP A : Identify Potential Causes (Example) Material ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
  • 22. PARETO CHART STEP B : Determine the most likely causes ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
  • 23. WHY-WHY DIAGRA M Effect of the Problem Why? Why? Why? LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 STEP C : Identify the true root causes ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
  • 24. WHY-WHY DIAGRAM Careless Sleepy Sleep Late Part Time Job LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 STEP C : Identify the true root causes ANALYZING THE PROBLEM
  • 25. TOOLS / TECHNIQUES TO SOLVE PROBLEMS ACTIVITY TOOLS Identify problem Brainstorming, Pareto Select problem Filtering, Matrix DecisionMaking Define problem 5W 2H concept Analyses problem (find & verify thesource) Fishbone diagram, linkage diagram, matrix verification Fixa target SMARTERconcept Intervention suggestion Brainstorming, focus group
  • 26. WRITING A PROBLEM STATEMENT Who - Who does the problem affect? What - What is the issue? - What is the impact of the issue? When - When does the issue occur? - When does it need to be fixed? Where - Where is the issue occurring?
  • 27. Good Problem Statement 1. Written 2. Objective 3. Simple 4. No implied causes 5. No implied solutions WRITING A PROBLEM STATEMENT
  • 28. Problem Statement must be SMART! MAJOR TERM MINOR TERMS S Specific Significant, Stretching, Simple M Measurable Meaningful, Motivational, Manageable A Achievable Agreed, Attainable, Assignable, Appropriate, Actionable, Action- oriented R Relevant Realistic, Results/Results- focused/Results-oriented, Resourced, Rewarding T Time-bound Time framed, Timed, Time-based, Time-boxed, Timely, Time-bound, Time-Specific, Timetabled,Traceable E Exciting, Evaluated R Recorded, Rewarding, Reviewed WRITING A PROBLEM STATEMENT
  • 30. WHEN TO USE BRAINSTORMING ? 1. Identify problem in your workplace 2. Analyze a problem 3. Find the probable cause to the problem 4. Find solution to the problem
  • 31. THE SIX THINKING HATS (Edward De Bono) Facts & information Feelings & emotions Being cautious Being positive & optimistic The Big picture Blue Hat Yellow Hat Red Hat Green Hat New ideas White Hat Black Hat
  • 33. DEVELOPING CRITERIA Consider the following: Ask question: What if… Think about what you want the solution to do or not do. Think about what values should be considered The criteria for an effective solution, among others Timing – urgent ? If delay? Trend – What direction is the problem solving Impaact – Is the problem serious?
  • 34. ANALYSING WANTS AND NEEDS Wants and Needs seem like a fundamental aspect of defining the problem. Needs are items the potential solution absolutely must meet. Wants are nice to have items. Provide a weight to each item to indicate its importance.
  • 35. USING COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS Cost-Benefit Analysis is a method of assigning a monetery value to the potential benefits of a solution and weighing those against the costs of implementing that solution.
  • 36. STEP 4 : DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION a. Generate a list of possible solutions b. Determine the best solutions
  • 37. PROBLEM STRATEGIC SOLUTION TREE DIAGRAM IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS BRAINSTORMING & THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX Good impact desired TARGET
  • 38. PROBLEM STRATEGIC SOLUTION EXAMPLE : TREE DIAGRAM IN SOLUTION FINDING A Restaurant Owner Finding How To SatisfyCustomers Good impact desired TARGET
  • 39. EXAMPLE : USING TREE DIAGRAM OF PROPOSED SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE FILTER FAN USAGE BY 30% IN 4Q ‘09 TO REDUCE FILTER FAN USAGE BY 30% IN 4Q ‘09 PURPOSE (WHY) METHOD MATERIAL MAN FREQUENT USAGE HIGH WEAR AND TEAR STANDARD USAGE NOT ALLOWED IMPLEMENT STANDARD USAGE CHEAP QUALITY FACTORS (WHERE) COUNTER MEASURES (HOW) CHANGE TO THICKER AND HARDER MATERIAL RESP (WHO) PERIOD (WHEN) NO PERSONAL STORAGE REUSE FILTER FAN CHECK STORAGE LEVEL ROKIAH JASMINE AUG WK2 TO WK4 FRANCISCA JASMINE AUG WK2 AZLINA AUG WK3 TO WK4 FRANCISCA ROKIAH AUG WK3 AUG WK3 WK4 ROKIAH FARIDAH Bad impact CAUSES (WHAT)
  • 40. Major Causes Impact ofthe causes Proposed solution Expected good impact How to implement? Estimated cost Resources required Time to complete Example : Solution Template
  • 41. Factors in selecting :-  Quantity and quality of information  Implementation cost (time & RM)  Easy implementation  Probability of success if proceed  Effectiveness of solution DOING A FINALANALYSIS
  • 42. ASSESSING THE CHOICE OF THE SOLUTIONS Three steps:-  Develop and assign weights to criteria  Apply the criteria  Choose the best solution (s) DOING A FINALANALYSIS
  • 43. Objective: To reduce headache Scale: Very Negative 1 2 3 4 5 6 Very Positive Overall RatingEffectiveness Efficiency Cost Panadol 5 5 4 14 3 2 9Take a break 4 Ginseng 4 3 3 10 Sleep 5 2 6 13 SELECT THE BEST SOLUTIONS MATRIX DIAGRAM
  • 45. STEPS :  What to do (the activity)?  When to do (start and finish)?  Who to do?  What are the resources required? PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP
  • 46. PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP - IDENTIFYING TASKS Brainstorm with people involved with the problem to determine the specific steps necessary to make the solution becomes reality. - Identify any task that are critical to the timing of the solution implementation. Critical tasks are items that will delay the entire implementation schedule if not completed on time. Non critical tasks are items that can be done as time and resources permit.
  • 47. PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP IDENTIFYING RESOURCES Time to think about the resources for making the solution become reality. The resources are as below: - Time : How to schedule the project. - Personnel : Who will complete the identified task. - Equipment : Any special equipment needed? - Money : How much will the solution cost - Information : any additional information required?
  • 48. PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP IMPLEMENTING, EVALUATINGAND ADAPTING Now is the time to use the Project Management skills to keep the implementation on track. During implementation, continue to evaluate the solutions.
  • 49. ACTIVITY PLAN SEP- 06 OCT-06 NOV-06 W1 W 2 W 3 W 4 W 1 W 2 W 3 W 4 W 1 W 2 W 3 W4 P Data grouping 1. 5S Awareness Motivation class 2. Use PA system for announcement 3. Announcement made during morning assembly Management performance unit assembly D 1. Make all members attend 5S practice motivationclass GROUP A,B,C, and D C 1. Check with audit 2. Used check sheet every week A 1. Monitoring – monthly checking from project leaders 2. Understand the marking 3. Audit by the management with standard IDENTIFYING TASKS PLANNING YOUR NEXT STEP
  • 50. KEY: PLAN ACTUAL - INCHARGE - ASSIST STEP P ACTIVITIES Project area Theme selection Data Collection Data Analysis APR-06 MAY-06 JUN-06 JUL-06 AUG-056 PROCEEDING W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 W1 W2 W3 W4 ADALI K’RUL YATI S’MAN FIDA SCH ZUL LAILI MGT SHAM Solution Evaluation D C Implementation Monitoring result A Standardization Follow-up Result Future Plan PROBLEM RESOLUTION IMPLEMENTATION ACTIVITY PLANNING
  • 51. a. Divide solution into sequential tasks ACTION PLAN Action Step Task/Activity Responsible Person /Group Begin Date End Date Estimated Hours Cost SOLUTIONA Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 SOLUTION B Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
  • 52. A - Divide solution into sequential tasks To Complete the Job on Time Action Step Task/Activity Responsible Person /Group Begin Date End Date Estimated Hours Budget 1. Buy a new PC Set the specs Abu 12.8.01 15.8.01 3 days RM0 Get the quotation Abu 16.8.01 20.8.01 4 days RM0 Select vendor Abu 21.8.01 22.8.01 2 days RM0 Purchase Abu 22.8.01 25.8.01 4 days RM5,000 2. Trainthe Staff Training Manual Ahmad 13.9.01 20..9.01 7 days RM100 Organise Ahmad 13.9.01 30.9.01 17 days RM2000 Conduct Training Ahmad 1.10.01 2.10.01 2 days RM2000 IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
  • 53. b. Develop Contigency Plans Action Step from Action Plan Sub-Step Sub-Step Sub-Step ? ?? ? ? ? ? ?What will we do? What could go wrong IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
  • 54.  Make sure everyone participate  Build a commitment to action into decision  Create extensive involvement of those affected  Build a feedback loop into the process IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
  • 55. EVALUATE THE SOLUTIONS Considerations:-  Has the desired state achieved?  Is the process going on smoothly to make sure no recurrence to problem?
  • 56. Materi ini sebagian besar disadur dan diolah dari Powerpoint H Mohammad Idrakisyah (Doctoral Candidate at City University of Malaysia and a Mentor. Consulting and head office at Shah Alam Selangor Malaysia --- Data Linked in--- ) berjudul “Critical Thinking and Creative Problem Solving Skill)
  • 58. BIODATA PEMATERI Nama : ARDI SUSANTO, SH NIP : 19831210 200604 1 009 Jabatan : Kasubag Perundang-Undangan Bagian Hukum, Setda Barru Alamat : Siru, Kel. Palanro, Kec. Mallusetasi Pendidikan : 1995 SD Inpres Maruala, Tanete Riaja 1998 SMP Neg.1, Ralla, Tanete Riaja 2001 SMU Neg. 1, Tanete Rilau 2005 Fakultas Hukum Universitas Hasanuddin Hp. 081 355 555 453 Facebook Ardi Drafter