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Principles of Transmission  applied to the EU transmission network Silvester van Koten Jean-Monnet Fellow at the Florence School of Regulation
Transmission Principles of Transmission, applied to the EU transmission network ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
 
Electricity is an essential part of our lives
Power plants
Distributors
Transmission
Huge blackout cripples Italy!  September 28 th , 2003
Rome’s “white night”
Rome’s “white night” 110 trains stopped Thousands of people stuck
 
Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 “ Cross-border transmission lines” “ Interconnectors” Tree flashover!
Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 Tree flashover!
Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 03:01-03.16
03:11 The Swiss TSO operator asks the Italian TSO for countermeasures
Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:21 Italy reduces import by  -300 MW 03:25 Tree flashover!
Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:25 Tree flashover!
03:26 All interconnectors are automatically disconnected
 
 
1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch 3. Frequency and synchronicity 4. The future of the EU transmission network
[object Object]
Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 Tree flashover! Transmission lines limits
3 risk factors for flashover Factor 1: High voltage Transmission lines limits
 
High voltage Dramatically lowers losses to resistance 1 KV-> 10KV Loss falls to 1% Factor 100 Transmission lines limits
1 KV-> 100KV Loss falls to 0.01% Factor 10.000 Transmission lines limits
3 risk factors for flashover Factor 1: High voltage Factor 2: High load Transmission lines limits
Sagging of the line Transmission lines limits
3 risk factors for flashover Factor 1: High voltage Factor 3: Proximity to trees Factor 2: High load Transmission lines limits
Clearance: Trees below transmission lines must be kept short enough Transmission lines limits
Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza After the blackout incident, the Swiss authorities revised their policy of clearance.  Transmission lines limits
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Transmission lines limits
1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch
Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 Dispatch
? A B Injection: 100MW Injection: 20MW Withdrawal: 50MW Withdrawal: 70MW Net Injection: 50MW Net Withdrawal: 50MW Dispatch
Physical flow: 50MW A B Net Injection: 50MW Net Withdrawal: 50MW Dispatch
Net Withdrawal: 50MW Physical flow: 50MW A B Net Injection: 50MW ∆   -10MW 40MW ∆ -10MW 40MW ∆   -10MW 40MW Dispatch
Physical flow: 40MW A B Net Injection: 40MW Net Withdrawal: 40MW Electricity cannot just be “send” somewhere Any flow is the RESULT of the injection and withdrawals  Dispatch
03:11 The Swiss TSO operator asks the Italian TSO for countermeasures
Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:21 Italy reduces import by  -300 MW 03:25 Dispatch
1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch 3. Frequency and synchronicity
Frequency and Synchronicity Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC)
Frequency and Synchronicity Alternating Current (AC) 50 Hertz
Does a lamp in your house receive zero energy 100 times a second and is thus blinking? Raise your hand if you think that this is indeed the case. Frequency and Synchronicity
50 Herz is the frequency in Europe Frequency and Synchronicity
A shortage of generation makes the frequency fall Slight shortage Frequency and Synchronicity
A surplus of generation makes the frequency rise Slight surplus Frequency and Synchronicity
[object Object],Frequency and Synchronicity
All generators are synchronized UCTE =  Continental Synchronous Area
UCTE =  Continental Synchronous Area
03:26 All interconnectors are automatically disconnected Frequency and Synchronicity
Mini circuit breakers Frequency and Synchronicity
High voltage circuit breakers Frequency and Synchronicity
1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch 3. Frequency and synchronicity 4. The future of the EU transmission network.
03:26 Interconnectors very high loaded at night! The future of the EU transmission network
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The future of the EU transmission network
Internal EU market induces increase in cross-border trading The future of the EU transmission network
Greenhouse-effect undisputed The future of the EU transmission network
2020 Targets: 20% decarbonization 2050 Targets: 80% decarbonization The future of the EU transmission network
Massive deployment of wind and solar energy The future of the EU transmission network
ENTSOE Ten-year  network development plan 2015-2020  Increase from 300.000 KM to 340.000KM The future of the EU transmission network Increase of 14%
European Climate Foundation Increase of almost 400% The future of the EU transmission network 2050  Increase from  34 GW to 127 GW
 
 
References ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
THANK YOU! Principles of Transmission  applied to the EU transmission network Silvester van Koten Jean-Monnet Fellow at EUI, FSR [email_address]

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