SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Management Engineering Course
Dr. Nabil Dmaidi
1
2
IMPORTANCE OF
MANAGEMENT
Some organizations have begun to ask their
contractors to provide only project managers
who have been certified as professionals by
The Project Management Institute.
3
WHAT IS A PROJECT?
• “A project is a problem scheduled for
solution.” This definition forces us to
recognize that projects are aimed at solving
problems and that failure to define the
problem properly is what sometimes gets us
into trouble.
4
What is the problem?
• A desired objective is not a problem by itself. The
key to a problem is that there is an obstacle that
prevents you from closing the gap.
• A problem is a gap(achieving your objective)
between where you are and where you want
to be, with an obstacle that prevents easy
movement to close the gap.
• Problem solving consists of finding ways of
overcoming or getting around obstacles.
5
WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
• Project management is the planning, scheduling,
and controlling of project activities to meet
project objectives.
• The major objectives that must be met include
performance, cost, and time goals, while at the
same time you control or maintain the scope of the
project at the correct level.
6
The scope of project
• The scope of a project should remain constant
throughout the life of the job.
• Unforeseen problems or an inadequately defined
problem the most common reason for scope
changes is that something is forgotten.
• In most cases the magnitude (scope) of the work
increases, as a result of overlooked details.
Continue to see more…
7
…The scope of project
• Scope generally increases.
The only time project scope decreases is when the
budget is cut, and some of the originally planned
work is put on hold.
• The problem with scope changes is that they tend
to be small and incremental, if a number of them
occur, the project budget or schedule may suffer.
This is a fairly common cause of project failures.
8
Project Manager & The Scope
• A project manager has a responsibility to
keep stakeholders informed about the impact
of scope changes on the project, protecting
them from surprises at the end of the job and
protecting the project manager from being
evaluated on original targets rather than on
revised ones.
9
The Four Project Objectives are…
• Performance
• scope
• Cost
• Time
Continue…There are more!
10
Performance, scope, Cost& Time
• Performance: The quality of the work being
done.
• Scope: The magnitude of the work to be
performed.
• Cost: The cost of project work, directly
related to the human and physical resources
applied.
• Time: The schedule that must be met.
11
The relation between the four project
objectives:
12
Cost=f(P,T,S)
To understand this eq. go on…
Continue…What did the equation say?
• cost is a function ( f ) of performance (P), time (T), and
scope (S). As P and S increase, cost generally
increases.
• The relationship between time and cost, however, is
not linear. As a rule, cost increases as the time to do
the project decreases below a certain optimum time.
• If the duration is shortened, it is often necessary to
pay premium labor rates as a consequence. Further,
worker errors often increase, resulting in costs for
corrections, and productivity often declines. Move…
13
Comment:
• Enough people are thrown at a project, it can be
completed in whatever time is desired. This is simply
not true. but the idea is the cause of many project
fiascos.
14
THE HUMAN SIDE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT
• Factors(components)affect the success of a project:
• The Right People
• The Right Type of Management
• One of the key ingredients is having the right people on the
job and managing them appropriately.
15
STEPS IN MANAGING A PROJECT
• Define the problem
• Develop solution options
• Plan the project
• Execute the plan
• Monitor and control progress
• Close the project.
To see more about them the…↓
16
Define the problem
• What client need is being satisfied by the
project?
• It helps to visualize the desired end result.
17
Develop solution options
• How many different ways might you go about
solving the problem?
• Brainstorm solution alternatives (you can do
this alone or as a group).
• Is it more or less costly than other suitable
choices?
18
Plan the project
• Planning is answering questions—what must
be done, by whom, for how much, how,
when, and so on.
19
Execute the plan
• Once the plan is drafted, it must be
implemented. Interestingly, people
sometimes go to great effort to put together
a plan, then fail to follow it. If a plan is not
followed, there is not much point in planning,
is there?
20
Monitor and control progress
• Unless progress is monitored, you cannot be
sure you will succeed. It would be like using a
roadmap to reach a destination.
• Control: What are you expected to do as a manager?
If a deviation from the plan is discovered, you
must ask what must be done to get back on
track, or—if that seems impossible—how the
plan should be modified to reflect new
realities.
21
Strategy vs. Tactics
• Strategy: The approach being used to do
the project.
• Tactics: The steps taken to implement
the strategy or approach chosen.
22
Close the project.
• The project is finished, but there is a final
step that should be taken.
• The point is to learn something from what
you just did.
• What was done well? What should be
improved? What else did we learn? We can
always improve on what we have done.
23
The Project Management System
• In order to manage projects successfully, it is
necessary to have a system. A full project
management system consists of seven
components.
• If any one of the seven components is not in
place or does not function satisfactorily, then
you will have some difficulty managing
projects.
24
The seven components are…
• Human Factors.
• Method.
• Culture.
• Organization.
• Planning.
• Information.
• Control. Continue…
25
Human Factors
A project manager must be able to deal effectively
with all of the parts of this subsystem in order to
be successful.
• Leadership.
• Negotiation.
• Team building.
• Motivation.
• Communication.
• Decision making.
26
Continue..The seven components
• Methods refer to the tools of your trade.
• The culture of an organization affects
everything you do.
• Organization:Every organization must deal with
the assignment and definition of each person’s
authority, responsibility, and accountability.
• Planning: Every organization needs a good
methodology for planning projects if it is to be
successful.
27
Continue… Information & Control
• Good historical data are needed for planning
projects.
• The control subsystem is supported by the
planning and information subsystems.
28
As a Summary… Key Points to Remember
• A project is a problem scheduled for solution.
• If the problem is not defined correctly, you may
find the right solution to the wrong problem!
• Focus on desired outcomes. How will you know
when you achieve them?
• Try to learn from every project by doing a final
audit.
• If you have no plan, you have no control.
29
Continue…Key Points to Remember
• The people who must execute the plan should
participate in preparing it.
• Keep all project documentation in a project
notebook, but back it up with an electronic
database if possible.
• Require signatures for changes in scope in order to
alert everyone as to the impact of the change on
project costs, deadlines, etc.
• Risk analysis is part of planning. For every risk
identified, develop a contingency plan, when
possible.
30
To see more about this subject…you can take
the book whose name is the Fundamentals of
Project Management{Actually, you have it!}.
we are sure, it is rich by information!
31

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Presentation_about_Fundamentals_Of_Project_Management.ppt

  • 2. 2
  • 3. IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT Some organizations have begun to ask their contractors to provide only project managers who have been certified as professionals by The Project Management Institute. 3
  • 4. WHAT IS A PROJECT? • “A project is a problem scheduled for solution.” This definition forces us to recognize that projects are aimed at solving problems and that failure to define the problem properly is what sometimes gets us into trouble. 4
  • 5. What is the problem? • A desired objective is not a problem by itself. The key to a problem is that there is an obstacle that prevents you from closing the gap. • A problem is a gap(achieving your objective) between where you are and where you want to be, with an obstacle that prevents easy movement to close the gap. • Problem solving consists of finding ways of overcoming or getting around obstacles. 5
  • 6. WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT? • Project management is the planning, scheduling, and controlling of project activities to meet project objectives. • The major objectives that must be met include performance, cost, and time goals, while at the same time you control or maintain the scope of the project at the correct level. 6
  • 7. The scope of project • The scope of a project should remain constant throughout the life of the job. • Unforeseen problems or an inadequately defined problem the most common reason for scope changes is that something is forgotten. • In most cases the magnitude (scope) of the work increases, as a result of overlooked details. Continue to see more… 7
  • 8. …The scope of project • Scope generally increases. The only time project scope decreases is when the budget is cut, and some of the originally planned work is put on hold. • The problem with scope changes is that they tend to be small and incremental, if a number of them occur, the project budget or schedule may suffer. This is a fairly common cause of project failures. 8
  • 9. Project Manager & The Scope • A project manager has a responsibility to keep stakeholders informed about the impact of scope changes on the project, protecting them from surprises at the end of the job and protecting the project manager from being evaluated on original targets rather than on revised ones. 9
  • 10. The Four Project Objectives are… • Performance • scope • Cost • Time Continue…There are more! 10
  • 11. Performance, scope, Cost& Time • Performance: The quality of the work being done. • Scope: The magnitude of the work to be performed. • Cost: The cost of project work, directly related to the human and physical resources applied. • Time: The schedule that must be met. 11
  • 12. The relation between the four project objectives: 12 Cost=f(P,T,S) To understand this eq. go on…
  • 13. Continue…What did the equation say? • cost is a function ( f ) of performance (P), time (T), and scope (S). As P and S increase, cost generally increases. • The relationship between time and cost, however, is not linear. As a rule, cost increases as the time to do the project decreases below a certain optimum time. • If the duration is shortened, it is often necessary to pay premium labor rates as a consequence. Further, worker errors often increase, resulting in costs for corrections, and productivity often declines. Move… 13
  • 14. Comment: • Enough people are thrown at a project, it can be completed in whatever time is desired. This is simply not true. but the idea is the cause of many project fiascos. 14
  • 15. THE HUMAN SIDE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT • Factors(components)affect the success of a project: • The Right People • The Right Type of Management • One of the key ingredients is having the right people on the job and managing them appropriately. 15
  • 16. STEPS IN MANAGING A PROJECT • Define the problem • Develop solution options • Plan the project • Execute the plan • Monitor and control progress • Close the project. To see more about them the…↓ 16
  • 17. Define the problem • What client need is being satisfied by the project? • It helps to visualize the desired end result. 17
  • 18. Develop solution options • How many different ways might you go about solving the problem? • Brainstorm solution alternatives (you can do this alone or as a group). • Is it more or less costly than other suitable choices? 18
  • 19. Plan the project • Planning is answering questions—what must be done, by whom, for how much, how, when, and so on. 19
  • 20. Execute the plan • Once the plan is drafted, it must be implemented. Interestingly, people sometimes go to great effort to put together a plan, then fail to follow it. If a plan is not followed, there is not much point in planning, is there? 20
  • 21. Monitor and control progress • Unless progress is monitored, you cannot be sure you will succeed. It would be like using a roadmap to reach a destination. • Control: What are you expected to do as a manager? If a deviation from the plan is discovered, you must ask what must be done to get back on track, or—if that seems impossible—how the plan should be modified to reflect new realities. 21
  • 22. Strategy vs. Tactics • Strategy: The approach being used to do the project. • Tactics: The steps taken to implement the strategy or approach chosen. 22
  • 23. Close the project. • The project is finished, but there is a final step that should be taken. • The point is to learn something from what you just did. • What was done well? What should be improved? What else did we learn? We can always improve on what we have done. 23
  • 24. The Project Management System • In order to manage projects successfully, it is necessary to have a system. A full project management system consists of seven components. • If any one of the seven components is not in place or does not function satisfactorily, then you will have some difficulty managing projects. 24
  • 25. The seven components are… • Human Factors. • Method. • Culture. • Organization. • Planning. • Information. • Control. Continue… 25
  • 26. Human Factors A project manager must be able to deal effectively with all of the parts of this subsystem in order to be successful. • Leadership. • Negotiation. • Team building. • Motivation. • Communication. • Decision making. 26
  • 27. Continue..The seven components • Methods refer to the tools of your trade. • The culture of an organization affects everything you do. • Organization:Every organization must deal with the assignment and definition of each person’s authority, responsibility, and accountability. • Planning: Every organization needs a good methodology for planning projects if it is to be successful. 27
  • 28. Continue… Information & Control • Good historical data are needed for planning projects. • The control subsystem is supported by the planning and information subsystems. 28
  • 29. As a Summary… Key Points to Remember • A project is a problem scheduled for solution. • If the problem is not defined correctly, you may find the right solution to the wrong problem! • Focus on desired outcomes. How will you know when you achieve them? • Try to learn from every project by doing a final audit. • If you have no plan, you have no control. 29
  • 30. Continue…Key Points to Remember • The people who must execute the plan should participate in preparing it. • Keep all project documentation in a project notebook, but back it up with an electronic database if possible. • Require signatures for changes in scope in order to alert everyone as to the impact of the change on project costs, deadlines, etc. • Risk analysis is part of planning. For every risk identified, develop a contingency plan, when possible. 30
  • 31. To see more about this subject…you can take the book whose name is the Fundamentals of Project Management{Actually, you have it!}. we are sure, it is rich by information! 31

Editor's Notes

  1. Jameel Hamadneh