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SUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES FOR
SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHING
AND LEARNING
FIVE PRINCIPLES OF
TEACHING OF EFFECTIVE
TEACHING AND LEARNING
Education for Learners with Special Needs
- Means the special educational arrangements which are in
place for people with disabilities. All children including
children with disabilities and children with special needs.
 Foundations for Effective Instruction
- Treat students with the same respect you expect from them, keep
confidences.
- Get to know your students. Learn their names quickly and recognize
his or her individual qualities..
- Be fair, positive, and consistent. Be the kind of person young people
can like and trust – firm, fair, friendly, courteous, enthusiastic, and
confident. Admit your mistakes and keep your sense of humor..
- Let the students know you care. Determine jointly with the
class what is and isn’t acceptable in terms of behavior and
achievement.
- Begin class on time and in a businesslike manner. Have
routines to follow each day as students enter and leave your
room.
Strategies for Collaboration
- There are three essential strategies for collaboration. They are: focus
on results, shape relationships, and structure for resilience. Use of
these key strategies will enable your collaboration to move quickly and
respond effectively to changing environments. Next, the module will help
you examine how to apply these key strategies to help your collaboration
make decisions, accomplish tasks, and work through problems.
Results - Many grant programs focus on the results that projects will have
specific to their target population. In AFL grantee’s case those populations are
adolescents and their families, which is undoubtedly very important. However,
if you do not have specific objectives you want to accomplish to help the
system improve, then all you have achieved could be forgotten. Keeping the
larger picture in mind is vital. As you and your partners come together to
discuss desired outcomes, it will become clearer how your collaborative can
actually accomplish your goal. Following are some key components for
determining your desired results and moving your partnership forward.
Relationships - Entering into collaboration also means you are entering
into a relationship with another agency. Some of the ways you can go about
strengthening your relationship is to build trust. To build trust, each agency
will need to discuss their self-interest. What do they want to get out of the
collaboration and what will make the collaboration a success for all
involved? Defining and clarifying roles within the collaboration and building
a communication plan are also important elements to building the
relationship between agencies.
Resilience - Resilience is the capacity to keep on doing
the work throughout the life of the program. Some
people use the word “sustainability”
Written Language
Will be concerned with linguistic, psycholinguistic, educational and
sociolinguistic accounts of the structure and functions of written
language, the processes and acquisition of reading and writing, and the
use and development of literacy in different social and cultural settings.
The journal focuses on scientific reports in areas such as theoretical
linguistics and cognitive models of written language processes, reading
and writing in educational contexts and in literacy campaigns, literacy and
technology, and literacy as a marker relating to gender, ethnicity, and class.
Study Skills
study skills must be practiced in order for you to improve. It is not
enough to simply "think about" studying; you have to actually do it, and in
the process use information from what you do to get better. This is the
central idea of this page. All that follows depends on this single concept.
There is a saying that goes like this: "Practice doesn't make perfect;
perfect practice makes perfect." If you want to be an achiever, take this
saying to heart.
DIRECT
INSTRUCTION
STRATEGIES
Instructional Principle: When teachers explain exactly
what students are expected to learn, and demonstrate the steps
needed to accomplish a particular academic task, students
learn more.
 Direct instruction rejects (or at least sets aside) the assumption
that students will spontaneously develop insights on their own.
Rather, direct instruction takes learners through the steps of learning
systematically, helping them see both the purpose and the result of
each step. The basic components of direct instruction are:
1. Setting clear goals for students and
making sure they understand these
goals.
2. Presenting a sequence of well-
organized assignments.
3. Giving students clear, concise
explanations and illustrations of the
subject matter.
4. Asking frequent questions to see
if the students understand the
work.
5. Giving students frequent
opportunities to practice what they
have learned.
 Direct Instruction
- best to use when teaching knowledge acquisition involving facts, rules, and action
sequences
- teacher-centered (teacher provides information, facts, rules, action sequences)
- teacher is lecturer (most often)
- common form: lecture-recitation with explanations, examples, and opportunities
for practice and feedback
- instructional methods: lecture, collaboration
- uses the first three of Bloom’s taxonomy: Knowledge, Comprehension, and
Application
- largely verbal, lecture and teacher-student question/answer practice for
understanding
- steps: present objectives and goals (may use a set induction), present content
sequentially in small steps (may use a graphic organizer), model skills or
processes with specific and concrete methods (use an advanced organizer to
access prior knowledge), check for understanding before moving from one
point to the next (with corrective feedback), ask students questions and have
them summarize in their own words or re-teach a partner (give period practice
and feedback)
- full-class instruction
- organize learning around questions you pose
- provide detailed and redundant practice
- present material sequentially so students can master a new fact or
rule before moving on
- classroom is formally arranged to facilitate recitation and assessment
during practice
When to use: If there is a workbook and textbook
that help student practice, you would more likely
use direct instruction if the material within
required much breaking down or subdividing the
material. Another reason is to spark student’s
interest (ie if they think the textbook looks boring):
make it relevant to real-life or explain any questions
or misunderstandings they have. In order for
students to master learning they need additional
instruction from the teacher to give clarity to the
information and to ensure their comprehension of
it.
INDIRECT
INSTRUCTION
STRATEGIES
Indirect Instruction
- Indirect means that the learner acquires a behavior
indirectly by transforming, or constructing, the stimulus
material into meaningful response or behavior that
differs from both (1) the content being used to present
the learning and (2) any previous response given by the
student
- best to use when teaching concepts, abstractions, or
patterns
- best to use when the learning process is inquiry-based,
the result is discovery, and the learning context is a
problem
- student-centered (student is an interactive participant)
- teacher is facilitator
- small group instruction
- instructional methods: discovery learning, cooperative learning, all
student-guided
- uses all parts of Bloom’s taxonomy including Analysis, Synthesis,
and Evaluation
- Indirect instruction involves: organizing content, inductive and
deductive reasoning, examples and non-examples, student
experiences, questions, student’s self-evaluation, and group discussion
 When not to use: When objectives other than learning facts, rules,
or behavior sequences are desired, direct instruction would be less
efficient than inquiry or problem-solving strategies. Direct instruction
relates more to lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. Do not use if
students already have a grasp of lower-level learning concepts of the
topic.
OBSERVATIONS
ON INDIRECT
STRATEGIES
 Inductive Instructional Approaches: 1.
Inductive Instructional Approaches the
inductive instructional approaches can be
used to help students inductively process
information. Specific strategies for inductive
approaches include: Concept attainment
Inquiry lessons: project or problem Projects,
reports
Concept Attainment: Concept Attainment Concept
attainment is a process where students are given positive
and negative examples of an issue. Based on the examples,
the students form a hypothesis that names the issue. More
examples of positive and negative are given. Students
eliminate some hypotheses that are not appropriate.
 Inquiry Lessons (problem or
project based learning): Inquiry
Lessons (problem or project based
learning) Students are given a question
or problem to solve. Based on their
prior knowledge and guidance from the
teacher, they form a hypothesis.
Students gather data to prove or
disprove their hypotheses. The data is
analyzed to form a strategy or answer.
 Projects, reports: Projects, reports Provide these guidelines to ensure
student success in giving oral reports: Select a topic Research the topic at the
library and on the internet Decide on a thesis and find evidence to back up
your thesis statement Create a written outline on paper Write notes to yourself
on paper or on index cards on the main points of the report Practice speaking
the report to yourself Practice the oral report in front of a mirror Practice the
oral report in front of a friend or family member Select the appropriate attire
for giving the oral report Give the oral report with your notes in hand.
 Social Instructional Approaches: 2. Social Instructional
Approaches These approaches are interpersonal. They include
strategies such as: Discussions Cooperative Learning Panels
and Debates Role playing Simulations & Games
 Roles within the group help keep students accountable
and on task. : Roles within the group help keep students
accountable and on task. Some roles or jobs can include:
Group facilitator Materials manager Recorder Reporter
Thinking monitor
 Group rules might include: Group rules might include:
You are responsible for your own behavior and your own
work. You must be willing to help any group member who
asks. You may only ask the teacher for help when everyone
else in your group has the same question. (This one helps
students resolve problems and not come to the teacher for
every issue)
 Successful groups include the following
elements: Successful groups include the following elements:
Group goals: the success of the group depends on the efforts of
all the members: promotes a caring environment where students
help another learn. Individual accountability: students are
individually responsible for learning material Equal opportunity:
interpersonal and communication skills that promote successful
group interaction.
 Dryad (paired learning) is a form of cooperative group
learning. : Dryad (paired learning) is a form of cooperative
group learning. Peer tutoring – one classmate tutors another
Cross-age coaching – one student coached by another from a
higher grade level Think-pair-share – two students examine a
new concept about to be studied Team learning –students
study and learn in teams of two
 Flexible Grouping for the delivery of instruction is the
cornerstone of appropriate differentiation for the gifted student
as well as all students. The use of Flexible Grouping assures
Success for Every Student. : Flexible Grouping for the delivery of
instruction is the cornerstone of appropriate differentiation for the
gifted student as well as all students. The use of Flexible Grouping
assures Success for Every Student.
 Panels and Debates: Panels and Debates Panels: In a panel
discussion, a small group acts as experts to answer the questions of
the people in the larger group. In a classroom setting, students are
selected to become experts on a topic and are given at least a day to
prepare for the discussion. Panel discussions can also be held using
outside experts. Debates are arguments carried out according to agree
upon rules and used in the classroom to engage students and help
them make connections to the curriculum. Great Debates
 Role Playing: Role Playing Helps explore and increase
understanding of feelings and/or actions Teacher provides
background information that explains the situation to be role
played, identifies and describes the roles that are needed, and
sets the stage for the role play Set up area and do the role play
Teacher then leads the reflection of the role play
SIMULATIONS & GAMES
Simulations & Games Promote problem
solving and decision making in a
seemingly real-life situation Provide the
opportunity for students to experience
consequences of their choices Can be
purchased: example: www.interact-
simulations.com
 Independent Instructional Approaches: 3. Learning
centers and stations Contracts and independent work,
Independent Instructional Approaches
 Learning centers & stations: Learning centers & stations
Centers can be an excellent method for teaching students
effectively. They: Enhance student response. Provide a less
intimidating environment Allow teacher s to focus on specific
areas of study. Allow students to work independently on a
specific skill can reinforce, a skill introduce new concepts, or
provide motivation. Can be used in any area of study.
KARYLLE
HONEYBEE
UBINA
BEED - 2

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  • 1. SUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES FOR SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • 2. FIVE PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • 3. Education for Learners with Special Needs - Means the special educational arrangements which are in place for people with disabilities. All children including children with disabilities and children with special needs.
  • 4.  Foundations for Effective Instruction - Treat students with the same respect you expect from them, keep confidences. - Get to know your students. Learn their names quickly and recognize his or her individual qualities.. - Be fair, positive, and consistent. Be the kind of person young people can like and trust – firm, fair, friendly, courteous, enthusiastic, and confident. Admit your mistakes and keep your sense of humor..
  • 5. - Let the students know you care. Determine jointly with the class what is and isn’t acceptable in terms of behavior and achievement. - Begin class on time and in a businesslike manner. Have routines to follow each day as students enter and leave your room.
  • 6. Strategies for Collaboration - There are three essential strategies for collaboration. They are: focus on results, shape relationships, and structure for resilience. Use of these key strategies will enable your collaboration to move quickly and respond effectively to changing environments. Next, the module will help you examine how to apply these key strategies to help your collaboration make decisions, accomplish tasks, and work through problems.
  • 7. Results - Many grant programs focus on the results that projects will have specific to their target population. In AFL grantee’s case those populations are adolescents and their families, which is undoubtedly very important. However, if you do not have specific objectives you want to accomplish to help the system improve, then all you have achieved could be forgotten. Keeping the larger picture in mind is vital. As you and your partners come together to discuss desired outcomes, it will become clearer how your collaborative can actually accomplish your goal. Following are some key components for determining your desired results and moving your partnership forward.
  • 8. Relationships - Entering into collaboration also means you are entering into a relationship with another agency. Some of the ways you can go about strengthening your relationship is to build trust. To build trust, each agency will need to discuss their self-interest. What do they want to get out of the collaboration and what will make the collaboration a success for all involved? Defining and clarifying roles within the collaboration and building a communication plan are also important elements to building the relationship between agencies.
  • 9. Resilience - Resilience is the capacity to keep on doing the work throughout the life of the program. Some people use the word “sustainability”
  • 10. Written Language Will be concerned with linguistic, psycholinguistic, educational and sociolinguistic accounts of the structure and functions of written language, the processes and acquisition of reading and writing, and the use and development of literacy in different social and cultural settings. The journal focuses on scientific reports in areas such as theoretical linguistics and cognitive models of written language processes, reading and writing in educational contexts and in literacy campaigns, literacy and technology, and literacy as a marker relating to gender, ethnicity, and class.
  • 11. Study Skills study skills must be practiced in order for you to improve. It is not enough to simply "think about" studying; you have to actually do it, and in the process use information from what you do to get better. This is the central idea of this page. All that follows depends on this single concept. There is a saying that goes like this: "Practice doesn't make perfect; perfect practice makes perfect." If you want to be an achiever, take this saying to heart.
  • 13. Instructional Principle: When teachers explain exactly what students are expected to learn, and demonstrate the steps needed to accomplish a particular academic task, students learn more.
  • 14.  Direct instruction rejects (or at least sets aside) the assumption that students will spontaneously develop insights on their own. Rather, direct instruction takes learners through the steps of learning systematically, helping them see both the purpose and the result of each step. The basic components of direct instruction are:
  • 15. 1. Setting clear goals for students and making sure they understand these goals. 2. Presenting a sequence of well- organized assignments. 3. Giving students clear, concise explanations and illustrations of the subject matter.
  • 16. 4. Asking frequent questions to see if the students understand the work. 5. Giving students frequent opportunities to practice what they have learned.
  • 17.  Direct Instruction - best to use when teaching knowledge acquisition involving facts, rules, and action sequences - teacher-centered (teacher provides information, facts, rules, action sequences) - teacher is lecturer (most often) - common form: lecture-recitation with explanations, examples, and opportunities for practice and feedback - instructional methods: lecture, collaboration - uses the first three of Bloom’s taxonomy: Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application
  • 18. - largely verbal, lecture and teacher-student question/answer practice for understanding - steps: present objectives and goals (may use a set induction), present content sequentially in small steps (may use a graphic organizer), model skills or processes with specific and concrete methods (use an advanced organizer to access prior knowledge), check for understanding before moving from one point to the next (with corrective feedback), ask students questions and have them summarize in their own words or re-teach a partner (give period practice and feedback)
  • 19. - full-class instruction - organize learning around questions you pose - provide detailed and redundant practice - present material sequentially so students can master a new fact or rule before moving on - classroom is formally arranged to facilitate recitation and assessment during practice
  • 20. When to use: If there is a workbook and textbook that help student practice, you would more likely use direct instruction if the material within required much breaking down or subdividing the material. Another reason is to spark student’s interest (ie if they think the textbook looks boring): make it relevant to real-life or explain any questions or misunderstandings they have. In order for students to master learning they need additional instruction from the teacher to give clarity to the information and to ensure their comprehension of it.
  • 22. Indirect Instruction - Indirect means that the learner acquires a behavior indirectly by transforming, or constructing, the stimulus material into meaningful response or behavior that differs from both (1) the content being used to present the learning and (2) any previous response given by the student - best to use when teaching concepts, abstractions, or patterns - best to use when the learning process is inquiry-based, the result is discovery, and the learning context is a problem - student-centered (student is an interactive participant) - teacher is facilitator
  • 23. - small group instruction - instructional methods: discovery learning, cooperative learning, all student-guided - uses all parts of Bloom’s taxonomy including Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation - Indirect instruction involves: organizing content, inductive and deductive reasoning, examples and non-examples, student experiences, questions, student’s self-evaluation, and group discussion
  • 24.  When not to use: When objectives other than learning facts, rules, or behavior sequences are desired, direct instruction would be less efficient than inquiry or problem-solving strategies. Direct instruction relates more to lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. Do not use if students already have a grasp of lower-level learning concepts of the topic.
  • 26.  Inductive Instructional Approaches: 1. Inductive Instructional Approaches the inductive instructional approaches can be used to help students inductively process information. Specific strategies for inductive approaches include: Concept attainment Inquiry lessons: project or problem Projects, reports
  • 27. Concept Attainment: Concept Attainment Concept attainment is a process where students are given positive and negative examples of an issue. Based on the examples, the students form a hypothesis that names the issue. More examples of positive and negative are given. Students eliminate some hypotheses that are not appropriate.
  • 28.  Inquiry Lessons (problem or project based learning): Inquiry Lessons (problem or project based learning) Students are given a question or problem to solve. Based on their prior knowledge and guidance from the teacher, they form a hypothesis. Students gather data to prove or disprove their hypotheses. The data is analyzed to form a strategy or answer.
  • 29.  Projects, reports: Projects, reports Provide these guidelines to ensure student success in giving oral reports: Select a topic Research the topic at the library and on the internet Decide on a thesis and find evidence to back up your thesis statement Create a written outline on paper Write notes to yourself on paper or on index cards on the main points of the report Practice speaking the report to yourself Practice the oral report in front of a mirror Practice the oral report in front of a friend or family member Select the appropriate attire for giving the oral report Give the oral report with your notes in hand.
  • 30.  Social Instructional Approaches: 2. Social Instructional Approaches These approaches are interpersonal. They include strategies such as: Discussions Cooperative Learning Panels and Debates Role playing Simulations & Games
  • 31.  Roles within the group help keep students accountable and on task. : Roles within the group help keep students accountable and on task. Some roles or jobs can include: Group facilitator Materials manager Recorder Reporter Thinking monitor
  • 32.  Group rules might include: Group rules might include: You are responsible for your own behavior and your own work. You must be willing to help any group member who asks. You may only ask the teacher for help when everyone else in your group has the same question. (This one helps students resolve problems and not come to the teacher for every issue)
  • 33.  Successful groups include the following elements: Successful groups include the following elements: Group goals: the success of the group depends on the efforts of all the members: promotes a caring environment where students help another learn. Individual accountability: students are individually responsible for learning material Equal opportunity: interpersonal and communication skills that promote successful group interaction.
  • 34.  Dryad (paired learning) is a form of cooperative group learning. : Dryad (paired learning) is a form of cooperative group learning. Peer tutoring – one classmate tutors another Cross-age coaching – one student coached by another from a higher grade level Think-pair-share – two students examine a new concept about to be studied Team learning –students study and learn in teams of two
  • 35.  Flexible Grouping for the delivery of instruction is the cornerstone of appropriate differentiation for the gifted student as well as all students. The use of Flexible Grouping assures Success for Every Student. : Flexible Grouping for the delivery of instruction is the cornerstone of appropriate differentiation for the gifted student as well as all students. The use of Flexible Grouping assures Success for Every Student.
  • 36.  Panels and Debates: Panels and Debates Panels: In a panel discussion, a small group acts as experts to answer the questions of the people in the larger group. In a classroom setting, students are selected to become experts on a topic and are given at least a day to prepare for the discussion. Panel discussions can also be held using outside experts. Debates are arguments carried out according to agree upon rules and used in the classroom to engage students and help them make connections to the curriculum. Great Debates
  • 37.  Role Playing: Role Playing Helps explore and increase understanding of feelings and/or actions Teacher provides background information that explains the situation to be role played, identifies and describes the roles that are needed, and sets the stage for the role play Set up area and do the role play Teacher then leads the reflection of the role play
  • 38. SIMULATIONS & GAMES Simulations & Games Promote problem solving and decision making in a seemingly real-life situation Provide the opportunity for students to experience consequences of their choices Can be purchased: example: www.interact- simulations.com
  • 39.  Independent Instructional Approaches: 3. Learning centers and stations Contracts and independent work, Independent Instructional Approaches
  • 40.  Learning centers & stations: Learning centers & stations Centers can be an excellent method for teaching students effectively. They: Enhance student response. Provide a less intimidating environment Allow teacher s to focus on specific areas of study. Allow students to work independently on a specific skill can reinforce, a skill introduce new concepts, or provide motivation. Can be used in any area of study.