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Presentation on dns
   Introduction ...........................................................
   The Structure of a Domain Name System (DNS) ..........
   Domain Name Space................................................
   Zones .................................................................
   Resource Records (RRs) ........................................
   Name Servers .........................................................
   Primary Name Servers ..........................................
   Secondary Name Servers ......................................
   Dynamic DNS (DDNS)...........................................
   Domain Name Resolution..........................................
   Resolvers ............................................................
   Domain Name Resolution Process ...........................
   Caching ..............................................................
   Conclusion..............................................................
   The “Domain Name System”
    › Created in 1983 by Paul Mockapetris (RFCs
     1034 and 1035), modified, updated, and
     enhanced by a myriad of subsequent RFCs
 What Internet users use to reference
  anything by name on the Internet
 The mechanism by which Internet
  software translates names to addresses
  and vice versa
   An address is how you get to an
    endpoint
    › Typically, hierarchical (for scaling):
       950 Charter Street, Redwood City CA, 94063
       204.152.187.11, +1-650-381-6003
   A “name” is how an endpoint is
    referenced
    › Typically, no structurally significant hierarchy
       “David”, “Tokyo”, “itu.int”
 lookup   mechanism

 globally   distributed,

   loosely coherent,

 scalable, reliable, & dynamic
    database
›A “name space”
›Servers
›Resolvers (clients)
The root node
                                                ""



             top-level node               top-level node                 top-level node



second-level node    second-level node   second-level node   second-level node   second-level node



 third-level node                third-level node third-level node
""




                    com                          edu              gov   int     m il   net   org




         nom inum         m etainfo   berkeley         nwu              nato   arm y   uu




west       east           ww w




dakota   tornado
nominum.com
                                                                   domain

                                             ""
                                                                            nominum.com
                                                                                zone

                            .a rpa          .com              .edu
                                                                             ams.nominum.
rwc.nominum.c                                                                 com zone
   om zone             a cm e bw        n o m in um          n e tsol



                     rw c            ww w             ftp             ams



        m o lo kai           skye                           g ou da     ch e dd ar
   Two main types of servers
    › Authoritative – maintains the data
       Master – where the data is edited
       Slave – where data is replicated to
    › Caching – stores data obtained from an
      authoritative server
    › The most common name server implementation
      (BIND) combines these two into a single process
 Other types exist…
 No special hardware necessary
Name, type fields
         for a query

      RRs in response
              to query

         records for
authoritative servers

   additional “helpful”
info that may be used
 Name   resolution is the process by
  which resolvers and name servers
  cooperate to find data in the name
  space
 To find information anywhere in the
  name space, a name server only
  needs the names and IP addresses of
  the name servers for the root zone
  (the “root name servers”)
Presentation on dns

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Presentation on dns

  • 2. Introduction ...........................................................  The Structure of a Domain Name System (DNS) ..........  Domain Name Space................................................  Zones .................................................................  Resource Records (RRs) ........................................  Name Servers .........................................................  Primary Name Servers ..........................................  Secondary Name Servers ......................................  Dynamic DNS (DDNS)...........................................  Domain Name Resolution..........................................  Resolvers ............................................................  Domain Name Resolution Process ...........................  Caching ..............................................................  Conclusion..............................................................
  • 3. The “Domain Name System” › Created in 1983 by Paul Mockapetris (RFCs 1034 and 1035), modified, updated, and enhanced by a myriad of subsequent RFCs  What Internet users use to reference anything by name on the Internet  The mechanism by which Internet software translates names to addresses and vice versa
  • 4. An address is how you get to an endpoint › Typically, hierarchical (for scaling):  950 Charter Street, Redwood City CA, 94063  204.152.187.11, +1-650-381-6003  A “name” is how an endpoint is referenced › Typically, no structurally significant hierarchy  “David”, “Tokyo”, “itu.int”
  • 5.  lookup mechanism  globally distributed,  loosely coherent,  scalable, reliable, & dynamic database
  • 7. The root node "" top-level node top-level node top-level node second-level node second-level node second-level node second-level node second-level node third-level node third-level node third-level node
  • 8. "" com edu gov int m il net org nom inum m etainfo berkeley nwu nato arm y uu west east ww w dakota tornado
  • 9. nominum.com domain "" nominum.com zone .a rpa .com .edu ams.nominum. rwc.nominum.c com zone om zone a cm e bw n o m in um n e tsol rw c ww w ftp ams m o lo kai skye g ou da ch e dd ar
  • 10. Two main types of servers › Authoritative – maintains the data  Master – where the data is edited  Slave – where data is replicated to › Caching – stores data obtained from an authoritative server › The most common name server implementation (BIND) combines these two into a single process  Other types exist…  No special hardware necessary
  • 11. Name, type fields for a query RRs in response to query records for authoritative servers additional “helpful” info that may be used
  • 12.  Name resolution is the process by which resolvers and name servers cooperate to find data in the name space  To find information anywhere in the name space, a name server only needs the names and IP addresses of the name servers for the root zone (the “root name servers”)