SlideShare a Scribd company logo
A preliminary assessment of the
financial feasibility of basic income
in Belgium
Master’s thesis
Emily Van de Walle
Overview
1.
Basic
income
3.
Conclusion
2.
Financial
feasibility
1
Basic income
“A basic income is an income unconditionally granted to all
on an individual basis, without means test or work requirement” (BIEN, n.d. a).
Conventional
minimum
income schemes
Conditionality
Dependent on the
household situation
With means test or
work requirement
Basic income
Unconditionality
Individuality
Without means test
or work requirement
Opposing characteristics
Financial feasibility
Research questions
(1) Cost of basic income
(2) Financing basic income
2
Research questions
How much would a scheme of basic income cost?1
2
How much are the cost savings that are realized
by basic income replacing social benefits?
?
Belgium, 2010
Cost of basic income
Addressing the first research question
“How much would a scheme of basic income cost?”
2.1
Basic income proposals
Characteristics
shared by every
basic income
proposal
Unconditionality
Individuality
Without means test
or work requirement
Diverging
specifications
Level of basic income
Target audience of
basic income
Complementary or
substitutionary to the
social protection
system
…
Case-by-case
assessment
Basic income placed between 2 extremes
Basic-income-purely
-as-a-complement
High-cost benchmark
Basic-income-to
-substitute-everything
Low-cost benchmark
Cost estimations
3 (5) basic income proposals with levels revised for Belgium, 2010
Static cost estimation (ceteris paribus assumption)
Basic
income
(1) The B.U.B. proposal
= Basic-income-to-substitute-everything
Basic income to every adult
Complete abolishment of the social protection system
(1) The B.U.B. proposal
Scheme Monthly cash grant (€)
Adults / Minors
Yearly expenditures
(million €)
Cost comparison
(BI scheme as % of present
social protection
expenditures)
Social
integration
income
(2010)
730.63 / 0 75,627 80.24
Breakeven
(2010)
910.52 / 0 94,247 100
Equality v.s. equity
Healthy
Disabled
Healthy
Disabled
Basic-income-to
-substitute-everything
Social protection system
Trade-off between financial feasibility
& social desirability
Social
desirability
Financial
feasibility
Moving away from ‘basic-income-to-substitute-everything’
(2) The Vivant proposal
(3) The proposal by Defeyt
(4) The proposal by Raventos, Arcarons, and Torrens
Moving closer to ‘basic-income-purely-as-a-complement’
Diversified basic income scheme
Social integration income (SI) and poverty threshold (PT)
Social benefits partially retained & health care entirely retained
Minor
Adult
Social
benefits
(4) The proposal by Raventos et al.
Social
benefits
“1. Basic income replaces any existing public cash benefit of a lesser quantity.
2. When the public cash benefit is of a greater amount, the basic income must be
topped up to an equal quantity.”
(Arcarons, Raventos Panella & Torrens Mèlich, 2014, p. 80)
(4) The proposal by Raventos et al.
Complete replacement
Comparing the level of social benefits to the level of basic income
Average
level of
social
benefit
Level of
basic
income
<
(4) The proposal by Raventos et al.
Average
level of
social
benefit
Partial replacement
Comparing the level of social benefits to the level of basic income
Level of
basic
income
>
Table E1: Regular recurring social benefits, comparison on a monthly basis, in euro, Belgium, 2010
Social benefits (SB) Average
monthly
benefit
SI
730.63
(146.13*)
PT
972.20
(194.64*)
Family benefits* 150.82 O* / X X* / X
Benefits for primal incapacity 1071.80 O O
Benefits for invalidity 1140.89 O O
Benefits for disability 910.75 O X
Benefits for temporary incapacity
to work due to an occupational
disease
1429.58 O O
Full-time early retirement
pension
1100.33 O O
Part-time early retirement
pension
371.79 X X
Early retirement pensions for
seafarers
958.33 O X
Tide-over benefits for seafarers 1547.91 O O
Compensated unemployment
benefits
1078.76 O O
Temporary unemployment
benefits
1725 O O
Bankruptcy insurance for the self-
employed
968.38 O X
Social integration income 540.18 X X
Social assistance (financial aid) 1059.21 O O
Retirement pensions 1248.56 O O
Income guarantee for the elderly 348.90 X X
Survivor’s pensions 1005.51 O O
(4) The proposal by Raventos et al.
Yearly cost per beneficiary (SB+BI)
= (Monthly level of retained social benefit * Months of social benefit)
+ (Monthly level of basic income * Months of basic income)
(4) The proposal by Raventos et al.
Social integration income (2010)
Scheme Monthly cash grant (€)
Adults / Minors
Yearly expenditures
(million €)
Cost comparison
(As % of present social
protection expenditures)
Unconditional basic
income (social
integration income)
730.63 / 146.13 79,509 84.36
Social benefits N/A 20,537 21.79
Health care N/A 22,827 24.22
Total cost N/A 122,873 130.37
(4) The proposal by Raventos et al.
Poverty threshold (2010)
Scheme Monthly cash grant (€)
Adults / Minors
Yearly expenditures
(million €)
Cost comparison
(As % of present social
protection expenditures)
Unconditional basic
income (poverty
threshold)
973.20 / 194.64 105,907 112.37
Social benefits N/A 11,414 12.11
Health care N/A 22,827 24.22
Total cost N/A 140,147 148.70
Trade-off between financial feasibility
& social desirability
Social
desirability
Financial
feasibility
(5) The modified proposal by Raventos et al.
Scheme Monthly cash grant (€)
Adults / Minors
Yearly expenditures
(million €)
Cost comparison
(As % of present social
protection
expenditures)
Unconditional
basic income
600 / 150 66,091 70.13
Social benefits N/A 25,323 26.87
Health care N/A 22,827 24.22
Total cost N/A 114,241 120.21
Financial feasibility ↑
Overview of the basic income proposals (in million euro, Belgium, 2010)
B.U.B. (SI)
0 / 731
B.U.B. (PT)
0 / 973
Vivant
163 / 482
651 / 964
Defeyt
271 / 542
Raventos
et al. (SI)
146 / 731
Raventos
et al. (PT)
195 / 973
Raventos
et al.
Modified
150 / 600
SPS
Health care 0 0 22,827 22,827 22,827 22,827
Social benefits 0 0 0 30,000 20,537 11,414 25,323
UBI Adults 75,627 100,735 72,454 56,109 75,627 100,735 62,105
UBI Minors 0 0 4,322 7,202 3,883 5,172 3,986
In % of SPS 94,247
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
140000
160000
Millioneuro
UBI Minors UBI Adults Social benefits Health care
80.24% 106.88% 105.68% 99% 130.37% 148.70% 120.21% 100%
75,627
100,735 99,603
93,311
122,872
140,147
114,241
94,247
Financing basic income
Addressing the second research question
“How much are the cost savings that are realized
by basic income replacing social benefits?”
2.2
Financing basic income
€
Cost savings Tax reforms
(1) Cost savings
€
Basic
income
Modified basic income proposal by Raventos et al.
Health care completely retained & social benefits partially retained
Health care
Social benefits
The proposal by Raventos et al.
Complete replacement
Average level of social benefit < Level of basic income
Partial replacement
Average level of social benefit > Level of basic income
Comparing the level of social benefits to the level of basic income
Average
level of
social
benefit
Level of
basic
income
Modified basic income proposal by Raventos et al.
In million euro, Belgium, 2010
€
0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000
Modified basic income proposal by
Raventos et al.
Cost savings
Modified basic income proposal by
Raventos et al.
Cost savings
UBI Minors 3,986
UBI Adults 62,105
Social benefits 30,304
Remaining cost gap 35,787
(2) Financing the remaining cost gap
€
Extra government revenues generated by tax reforms
(1) Sustainability
(2) Behavioral effects
(3) Implications on inequality, progressivity, and redistribution…
Conclusion
3
The finishing line
Conclusion
“How much would a scheme of basic income cost?”
Basic
income
Dependent on the specific characteristics of each basic income proposal.
ComplementSubstitute
Conclusion
“How much are the cost savings that are realized
by basic income replacing social benefits?”
Dependent on the specific characteristics of each basic income proposal.
Basic
income
Criterion by Raventos et al. : Significant in magnitude
OF BASIC INCOME STEP
FINANCIAL THE
FEASIBIBLITY NEXT
Thank you for your attention.
Any questions or remarks?
?
?
Bibliography & Credits
Credits concerning the presentation
◈ Presentation template and icons by SlidesCarnival
◈ Photographs by Benedikt Geyer
◈ Other images obtained from:
- Icon of a hand holding money retrieved from http://image.flaticon.com/icons/png/512/49/49232.png
- Map of Europe by Allstrak [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
- Map of Belgium by PavelD [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
- Image of ‘Equity versus equality’ retrieved from https://fyi.uwex.edu/cfsi/files/2016/03/large-uncredited-
equity-v-equality-apple-tree.png
- Icon of a medical bag retrieved from http://www.iconarchive.com/show/windows-8-icons-by-
icons8/Healthcare-Doctor-Suitecase-icon.html
- Icon of a price tag (in euro) retrieved from http://www.iconarchive.com/show/windows-8-icons-by-
icons8/Ecommerce-Price-Tag-Euro-icon.html
- Icon of increasing stack of coins made by Freepik from http://www.flaticon.com/free-icon/increasing-stacks-of-
dollar-coins_21268
- Icon of a scale retrieved from http://www.freeiconspng.com/uploads/scales-icon--icon-search-engine-2.png
- Cost savings icon retrieved from http://www.hydro66.com/assets/images/icons/fallingdollar-512.png
- Tax icon retrieved from http://www.freeiconspng.com/free-images/tax-icon-15124
Bibliography per slide
Main Dataset
• FOD Sociale Zekerheid. (2011). De sociale zekerheid in een oogopslag. Kerncijfers 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from
http://socialsecurity.belgium.be/sites/default/files/kerncijfers-2010-nl.pdf
• FOD Sociale Zekerheid. (2012). De sociale zekerheid in een oogopslag. Kerncijfers 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from
http://socialsecurity.belgium.be/sites/default/files/kerncijfers-2011-nl.pdf
• FOD Sociale Zekerheid. (2013). De sociale uitgaven in België. Kerncijfers 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from
http://socialsecurity.belgium.be/sites/default/files/kerncijfers-2012-nl.pdf
Slide 3
• BIEN. (n.d. a). About basic income. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.basicincome.org/basic-income/
Slide 4
• Peña-Miguel, N., De la Peña Esteban, J.I.,& Fernandez-Sainz, A. (2014). A first approach to the cost of a basic social
benefit. Basic Income Studies, 9(1-2), 95-118. Doi: 10.1515/bis-2014-0008
Slide 8, Slide 9
• Melzochová, J., & Špecián, P. (2015). An Estimate of the Basic Income Costs: Case of Czech Republic. Procedia
Economics and Finance, 30, 550 – 557. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01267-8
Bibliography per slide
Slide 11,12, 27
• B.U.B. (2016). Belgische Unie – Union Belge – Programma 2016. Retrieved July 20, 2016, from
http://www.unionbelge.be/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PROGRAMMA-PROGRAMME-2016.pdf
Slide 13
• Odekon, M. (Ed.) (2015). The SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty (2nd ed.). California: SAGE Publications.
• Van Parijs, P. (2004). Introductory chapter: A basic income for all: A brief defence to secure real freedom, grant
everyone a subsistence income. In L.F.M. Groot (Ed.), Basic Income, Unemployment and Compensatory Justice. (p. 11-
23). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Slide 15, 27
• Defeyt, P. (2016). Un revenue de base pour chacun, plus d’autonomie pour tous. Retrieved August 11, 2016, from
https://www.financialforum.be/sites/financialforum.be/files/media/1700b.pdf
• Vivant. (n.d.). Het Vivant Programma. Retrieved July 21, 2016, from http://www.Vivant.org/files/programma.pdf
Slide 16,17,18,19, 23, 24, 26, 27, 31, 32
• Arcarons, J., Raventos Pañella, D., & Torrens Mèlich, L. (2014). Feasibility of financing a basic income. Basic Income
Studies, 9 (1-2), 79-93.
• Raventos, D. (2007). Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom. London: Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press. Retrieved
August 02, 2016, from http://uberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Daniel_Raventos_Basic_Income.pdf
Bibliography per slide
Slide 29
• Monnier, J.M., & Vercellone, C. (2014). The Foundations and Funding of Basic Income as Primary Income. Basic
Income Studies, 9 (1-2), 59-77.
Slide 30
• Monnier, J.M., & Vercellone, C. (2014). The Foundations and Funding of Basic Income as Primary Income. Basic
Income Studies, 9 (1-2), 59-77.
• Melzochová, J., & Špecián, P. (2015). An Estimate of the Basic Income Costs: Case of Czech Republic. Procedia
Economics and Finance, 30, 550 – 557. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01267-8
• Arcarons, J., Raventos Pañella, D., & Torrens Mèlich, L. (2014). Feasibility of financing a basic income. Basic Income
Studies, 9 (1-2), 79-93.
• Raventos, D. (2007). Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom. London: Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press. Retrieved
August 02, 2016, from http://uberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Daniel_Raventos_Basic_Income.pdf
Slide 33
• Van Parijs, P. (1995). Real freedom for all. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
• Arcarons, J., Raventos Pañella, D., & Torrens Mèlich, L. (2014). Feasibility of financing a basic income. Basic Income
Studies, 9 (1-2), 79-93.
• Raventos, D. (2007). Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom. London: Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press. Retrieved
August 02, 2016, from http://uberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Daniel_Raventos_Basic_Income.pdf
Bibliography per slide
Slide 35
• Melzochová, J., & Špecián, P. (2015). An Estimate of the Basic Income Costs: Case of Czech Republic. Procedia
Economics and Finance, 30, 550 – 557. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01267-8
Slide 36
• Arcarons, J., Raventos Pañella, D., & Torrens Mèlich, L. (2014). Feasibility of financing a basic income. Basic Income
Studies, 9 (1-2), 79-93.
• Raventos, D. (2007). Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom. London: Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press. Retrieved
August 02, 2016, from http://uberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Daniel_Raventos_Basic_Income.pdf

More Related Content

Viewers also liked

Experimenting with basic income in finland
Experimenting with basic income in finlandExperimenting with basic income in finland
Experimenting with basic income in finland
Dylan Matthews
 
Perspectives on a Universal Basic Income
Perspectives on a Universal Basic IncomePerspectives on a Universal Basic Income
Perspectives on a Universal Basic Income
Steve Waldman
 
Universal basic income
Universal basic incomeUniversal basic income
Universal basic income
Gerald Huff
 
Real Estate Development Financial Feasibility
Real Estate Development Financial FeasibilityReal Estate Development Financial Feasibility
Real Estate Development Financial Feasibility
Ploutus Advisors
 
How the basic income experiment works in practice
How the basic income experiment works in practiceHow the basic income experiment works in practice
How the basic income experiment works in practice
Kelan tutkimus / Research at Kela
 
Experimental study on a universal basic income in Finland
Experimental study on a universal basic income in FinlandExperimental study on a universal basic income in Finland
Experimental study on a universal basic income in Finland
Kelan tutkimus / Research at Kela
 
4. technical feasibility
4. technical feasibility4. technical feasibility
4. technical feasibility
Rudy Flores
 
Feasibility Study (Veggie Bread)
Feasibility Study (Veggie Bread)Feasibility Study (Veggie Bread)
Feasibility Study (Veggie Bread)
Bryan Agustin Oculam
 
Feasibility study(technical aspect)
Feasibility study(technical aspect)Feasibility study(technical aspect)
Feasibility study(technical aspect)
Gerryl Therese Gepolio
 
Marketing aspects of Feasibility Study
Marketing aspects of Feasibility StudyMarketing aspects of Feasibility Study
Marketing aspects of Feasibility Study
Jeziel Camarillo
 
Feasibility Study: Marketing , Technical and Management Aspect
Feasibility Study: Marketing , Technical and Management AspectFeasibility Study: Marketing , Technical and Management Aspect
Feasibility Study: Marketing , Technical and Management Aspect
Lena Argosino
 
Project planning and feasibility study
Project planning and feasibility studyProject planning and feasibility study
Project planning and feasibility study
Mars Mfyam
 

Viewers also liked (12)

Experimenting with basic income in finland
Experimenting with basic income in finlandExperimenting with basic income in finland
Experimenting with basic income in finland
 
Perspectives on a Universal Basic Income
Perspectives on a Universal Basic IncomePerspectives on a Universal Basic Income
Perspectives on a Universal Basic Income
 
Universal basic income
Universal basic incomeUniversal basic income
Universal basic income
 
Real Estate Development Financial Feasibility
Real Estate Development Financial FeasibilityReal Estate Development Financial Feasibility
Real Estate Development Financial Feasibility
 
How the basic income experiment works in practice
How the basic income experiment works in practiceHow the basic income experiment works in practice
How the basic income experiment works in practice
 
Experimental study on a universal basic income in Finland
Experimental study on a universal basic income in FinlandExperimental study on a universal basic income in Finland
Experimental study on a universal basic income in Finland
 
4. technical feasibility
4. technical feasibility4. technical feasibility
4. technical feasibility
 
Feasibility Study (Veggie Bread)
Feasibility Study (Veggie Bread)Feasibility Study (Veggie Bread)
Feasibility Study (Veggie Bread)
 
Feasibility study(technical aspect)
Feasibility study(technical aspect)Feasibility study(technical aspect)
Feasibility study(technical aspect)
 
Marketing aspects of Feasibility Study
Marketing aspects of Feasibility StudyMarketing aspects of Feasibility Study
Marketing aspects of Feasibility Study
 
Feasibility Study: Marketing , Technical and Management Aspect
Feasibility Study: Marketing , Technical and Management AspectFeasibility Study: Marketing , Technical and Management Aspect
Feasibility Study: Marketing , Technical and Management Aspect
 
Project planning and feasibility study
Project planning and feasibility studyProject planning and feasibility study
Project planning and feasibility study
 

Similar to Ppt: The financial feasibility of basic income in Belgium

Key findings from the 2016 OECD Pensions Outlook
Key findings from the 2016 OECD Pensions OutlookKey findings from the 2016 OECD Pensions Outlook
Key findings from the 2016 OECD Pensions Outlook
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Future Funding & Commissioning Arrangements (for housing related support serv...
Future Funding & Commissioning Arrangements (for housing related support serv...Future Funding & Commissioning Arrangements (for housing related support serv...
Future Funding & Commissioning Arrangements (for housing related support serv...
Support Solutions & Invest In Prevention
 
Neri post budget reflections sinead pembroke 17 oct 18
Neri  post budget reflections sinead pembroke 17 oct 18Neri  post budget reflections sinead pembroke 17 oct 18
Neri post budget reflections sinead pembroke 17 oct 18
NevinInstitute
 
Patrick ten Brink Presentation on Environmental Harmful Subsidies EHS 7 Septe...
Patrick ten Brink Presentation on Environmental Harmful Subsidies EHS 7 Septe...Patrick ten Brink Presentation on Environmental Harmful Subsidies EHS 7 Septe...
Patrick ten Brink Presentation on Environmental Harmful Subsidies EHS 7 Septe...
Institute for European Environmental Policy IEEP
 
Plenary session 3 2 peter
Plenary session 3 2 peter Plenary session 3 2 peter
Plenary session 3 2 peter
IARIW 2014
 
A preliminary assessment of the financial feasibility of basic income emily...
A preliminary assessment of the financial feasibility of basic income   emily...A preliminary assessment of the financial feasibility of basic income   emily...
A preliminary assessment of the financial feasibility of basic income emily...
Emily Van de Walle
 
From idea to experiment - Notes on the Finnish basic income experiment study
From idea to experiment - Notes on the Finnish basic income experiment studyFrom idea to experiment - Notes on the Finnish basic income experiment study
From idea to experiment - Notes on the Finnish basic income experiment study
Kelan tutkimus / Research at Kela
 
Slides NERI Seminar - PGK & TH - 12 Sept 18
Slides NERI Seminar - PGK & TH - 12 Sept 18Slides NERI Seminar - PGK & TH - 12 Sept 18
Slides NERI Seminar - PGK & TH - 12 Sept 18
NevinInstitute
 
Economic & fiscal return from social investment
Economic & fiscal return from social investmentEconomic & fiscal return from social investment
Economic & fiscal return from social investment
European Economic and Social Committee - SOC Section
 
Poverty and a 21st Century Welfare System
Poverty and a 21st Century Welfare SystemPoverty and a 21st Century Welfare System
Poverty and a 21st Century Welfare System
Social Policy and Social Work, University of York
 
Universal Health Coverage: The Holy Grail?
Universal Health Coverage: The Holy Grail?Universal Health Coverage: The Holy Grail?
Universal Health Coverage: The Holy Grail?
Office of Health Economics
 
Tax-welfare churning
Tax-welfare churningTax-welfare churning
Tax-welfare churning
saunderspeter
 
Agenda for Later Life 2011 - Andrew Dilnot
Agenda for Later Life 2011 - Andrew DilnotAgenda for Later Life 2011 - Andrew Dilnot
Agenda for Later Life 2011 - Andrew Dilnot
Age UK
 
The institutional context in health - Patrick Jeurissen, Netherlands
The institutional context in health - Patrick Jeurissen, NetherlandsThe institutional context in health - Patrick Jeurissen, Netherlands
The institutional context in health - Patrick Jeurissen, Netherlands
OECD Governance
 
Uleac non contributory pension for the elderly in lebanon part 3
Uleac non contributory pension for the elderly in lebanon part 3Uleac non contributory pension for the elderly in lebanon part 3
Uleac non contributory pension for the elderly in lebanon part 3
Lebanese Economic Association
 
Vasco Da Gama 2015 Dublin The Effect of the Economic Crisis on the Irish Heal...
Vasco Da Gama 2015 Dublin The Effect of the Economic Crisis on the Irish Heal...Vasco Da Gama 2015 Dublin The Effect of the Economic Crisis on the Irish Heal...
Vasco Da Gama 2015 Dublin The Effect of the Economic Crisis on the Irish Heal...
DrWilliamBehan
 
Fiscal incentives to pension savings -- are they efficient?
Fiscal incentives to pension savings -- are they efficient?Fiscal incentives to pension savings -- are they efficient?
Fiscal incentives to pension savings -- are they efficient?
GRAPE
 
Plenary_Talk_1_Meyer
Plenary_Talk_1_MeyerPlenary_Talk_1_Meyer
Plenary_Talk_1_Meyer
CSS-Institute
 
Can the treasury combine deficit reduction and reform of care funding
Can the treasury combine deficit reduction and reform of care fundingCan the treasury combine deficit reduction and reform of care funding
Can the treasury combine deficit reduction and reform of care funding
Strategic Society Centre
 
Minimum income protection in the EU: policy developments
Minimum income protection in the EU: policy developmentsMinimum income protection in the EU: policy developments
Minimum income protection in the EU: policy developments
European Economic and Social Committee - SOC Section
 

Similar to Ppt: The financial feasibility of basic income in Belgium (20)

Key findings from the 2016 OECD Pensions Outlook
Key findings from the 2016 OECD Pensions OutlookKey findings from the 2016 OECD Pensions Outlook
Key findings from the 2016 OECD Pensions Outlook
 
Future Funding & Commissioning Arrangements (for housing related support serv...
Future Funding & Commissioning Arrangements (for housing related support serv...Future Funding & Commissioning Arrangements (for housing related support serv...
Future Funding & Commissioning Arrangements (for housing related support serv...
 
Neri post budget reflections sinead pembroke 17 oct 18
Neri  post budget reflections sinead pembroke 17 oct 18Neri  post budget reflections sinead pembroke 17 oct 18
Neri post budget reflections sinead pembroke 17 oct 18
 
Patrick ten Brink Presentation on Environmental Harmful Subsidies EHS 7 Septe...
Patrick ten Brink Presentation on Environmental Harmful Subsidies EHS 7 Septe...Patrick ten Brink Presentation on Environmental Harmful Subsidies EHS 7 Septe...
Patrick ten Brink Presentation on Environmental Harmful Subsidies EHS 7 Septe...
 
Plenary session 3 2 peter
Plenary session 3 2 peter Plenary session 3 2 peter
Plenary session 3 2 peter
 
A preliminary assessment of the financial feasibility of basic income emily...
A preliminary assessment of the financial feasibility of basic income   emily...A preliminary assessment of the financial feasibility of basic income   emily...
A preliminary assessment of the financial feasibility of basic income emily...
 
From idea to experiment - Notes on the Finnish basic income experiment study
From idea to experiment - Notes on the Finnish basic income experiment studyFrom idea to experiment - Notes on the Finnish basic income experiment study
From idea to experiment - Notes on the Finnish basic income experiment study
 
Slides NERI Seminar - PGK & TH - 12 Sept 18
Slides NERI Seminar - PGK & TH - 12 Sept 18Slides NERI Seminar - PGK & TH - 12 Sept 18
Slides NERI Seminar - PGK & TH - 12 Sept 18
 
Economic & fiscal return from social investment
Economic & fiscal return from social investmentEconomic & fiscal return from social investment
Economic & fiscal return from social investment
 
Poverty and a 21st Century Welfare System
Poverty and a 21st Century Welfare SystemPoverty and a 21st Century Welfare System
Poverty and a 21st Century Welfare System
 
Universal Health Coverage: The Holy Grail?
Universal Health Coverage: The Holy Grail?Universal Health Coverage: The Holy Grail?
Universal Health Coverage: The Holy Grail?
 
Tax-welfare churning
Tax-welfare churningTax-welfare churning
Tax-welfare churning
 
Agenda for Later Life 2011 - Andrew Dilnot
Agenda for Later Life 2011 - Andrew DilnotAgenda for Later Life 2011 - Andrew Dilnot
Agenda for Later Life 2011 - Andrew Dilnot
 
The institutional context in health - Patrick Jeurissen, Netherlands
The institutional context in health - Patrick Jeurissen, NetherlandsThe institutional context in health - Patrick Jeurissen, Netherlands
The institutional context in health - Patrick Jeurissen, Netherlands
 
Uleac non contributory pension for the elderly in lebanon part 3
Uleac non contributory pension for the elderly in lebanon part 3Uleac non contributory pension for the elderly in lebanon part 3
Uleac non contributory pension for the elderly in lebanon part 3
 
Vasco Da Gama 2015 Dublin The Effect of the Economic Crisis on the Irish Heal...
Vasco Da Gama 2015 Dublin The Effect of the Economic Crisis on the Irish Heal...Vasco Da Gama 2015 Dublin The Effect of the Economic Crisis on the Irish Heal...
Vasco Da Gama 2015 Dublin The Effect of the Economic Crisis on the Irish Heal...
 
Fiscal incentives to pension savings -- are they efficient?
Fiscal incentives to pension savings -- are they efficient?Fiscal incentives to pension savings -- are they efficient?
Fiscal incentives to pension savings -- are they efficient?
 
Plenary_Talk_1_Meyer
Plenary_Talk_1_MeyerPlenary_Talk_1_Meyer
Plenary_Talk_1_Meyer
 
Can the treasury combine deficit reduction and reform of care funding
Can the treasury combine deficit reduction and reform of care fundingCan the treasury combine deficit reduction and reform of care funding
Can the treasury combine deficit reduction and reform of care funding
 
Minimum income protection in the EU: policy developments
Minimum income protection in the EU: policy developmentsMinimum income protection in the EU: policy developments
Minimum income protection in the EU: policy developments
 

Recently uploaded

高仿英国伦敦艺术大学毕业证(ual毕业证书)文凭证书原版一模一样
高仿英国伦敦艺术大学毕业证(ual毕业证书)文凭证书原版一模一样高仿英国伦敦艺术大学毕业证(ual毕业证书)文凭证书原版一模一样
高仿英国伦敦艺术大学毕业证(ual毕业证书)文凭证书原版一模一样
234knry
 
Initial Public Offering (IPO) Process.ppt
Initial Public Offering (IPO) Process.pptInitial Public Offering (IPO) Process.ppt
Initial Public Offering (IPO) Process.ppt
ribhi87
 
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptxBudgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
Godwin Emmanuel Oyedokun MBA MSc PhD FCA FCTI FCNA CFE FFAR
 
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdfSeven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
FinTech Belgium
 
Fabular Frames and the Four Ratio Problem
Fabular Frames and the Four Ratio ProblemFabular Frames and the Four Ratio Problem
Fabular Frames and the Four Ratio Problem
Majid Iqbal
 
Chapter 25: Economic Growth Summary from Samuelson and Nordhaus
Chapter 25: Economic Growth Summary from Samuelson and NordhausChapter 25: Economic Growth Summary from Samuelson and Nordhaus
Chapter 25: Economic Growth Summary from Samuelson and Nordhaus
iraangeles4
 
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
Yashwanth Rm
 
The state of welfare Resolution Foundation Event
The state of welfare Resolution Foundation EventThe state of welfare Resolution Foundation Event
The state of welfare Resolution Foundation Event
ResolutionFoundation
 
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
asukqco
 
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
ILC- UK
 
China's Investment Leader - Dr. Alyce SU
China's Investment Leader - Dr. Alyce SUChina's Investment Leader - Dr. Alyce SU
China's Investment Leader - Dr. Alyce SU
msthrill
 
1比1复刻(ksu毕业证书)美国堪萨斯州立大学毕业证本科文凭证书原版一模一样
1比1复刻(ksu毕业证书)美国堪萨斯州立大学毕业证本科文凭证书原版一模一样1比1复刻(ksu毕业证书)美国堪萨斯州立大学毕业证本科文凭证书原版一模一样
1比1复刻(ksu毕业证书)美国堪萨斯州立大学毕业证本科文凭证书原版一模一样
28xo7hf
 
Ending stagnation: How to boost prosperity across Scotland
Ending stagnation: How to boost prosperity across ScotlandEnding stagnation: How to boost prosperity across Scotland
Ending stagnation: How to boost prosperity across Scotland
ResolutionFoundation
 
Singapore 2024 Sustainability Reporting and Accountancy Education Slides
Singapore 2024 Sustainability Reporting and Accountancy Education SlidesSingapore 2024 Sustainability Reporting and Accountancy Education Slides
Singapore 2024 Sustainability Reporting and Accountancy Education Slides
International Federation of Accountants
 
Tdasx: Interpreting the 2024 Cryptocurrency Market Funding Trends and Technol...
Tdasx: Interpreting the 2024 Cryptocurrency Market Funding Trends and Technol...Tdasx: Interpreting the 2024 Cryptocurrency Market Funding Trends and Technol...
Tdasx: Interpreting the 2024 Cryptocurrency Market Funding Trends and Technol...
nimaruinazawa258
 
Dr. Alyce Su Cover Story - China's Investment Leader
Dr. Alyce Su Cover Story - China's Investment LeaderDr. Alyce Su Cover Story - China's Investment Leader
Dr. Alyce Su Cover Story - China's Investment Leader
msthrill
 
Calculation of compliance cost: Veterinary and sanitary control of aquatic bi...
Calculation of compliance cost: Veterinary and sanitary control of aquatic bi...Calculation of compliance cost: Veterinary and sanitary control of aquatic bi...
Calculation of compliance cost: Veterinary and sanitary control of aquatic bi...
Alexander Belyaev
 
Singapore Event 2024 IPSASB Update Slides
Singapore Event 2024 IPSASB Update SlidesSingapore Event 2024 IPSASB Update Slides
Singapore Event 2024 IPSASB Update Slides
International Federation of Accountants
 
What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
Newman Leech
 
PM pre reads for the product manager framework
PM pre reads for the product manager frameworkPM pre reads for the product manager framework
PM pre reads for the product manager framework
KishoreKatta6
 

Recently uploaded (20)

高仿英国伦敦艺术大学毕业证(ual毕业证书)文凭证书原版一模一样
高仿英国伦敦艺术大学毕业证(ual毕业证书)文凭证书原版一模一样高仿英国伦敦艺术大学毕业证(ual毕业证书)文凭证书原版一模一样
高仿英国伦敦艺术大学毕业证(ual毕业证书)文凭证书原版一模一样
 
Initial Public Offering (IPO) Process.ppt
Initial Public Offering (IPO) Process.pptInitial Public Offering (IPO) Process.ppt
Initial Public Offering (IPO) Process.ppt
 
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptxBudgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
 
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdfSeven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
 
Fabular Frames and the Four Ratio Problem
Fabular Frames and the Four Ratio ProblemFabular Frames and the Four Ratio Problem
Fabular Frames and the Four Ratio Problem
 
Chapter 25: Economic Growth Summary from Samuelson and Nordhaus
Chapter 25: Economic Growth Summary from Samuelson and NordhausChapter 25: Economic Growth Summary from Samuelson and Nordhaus
Chapter 25: Economic Growth Summary from Samuelson and Nordhaus
 
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
 
The state of welfare Resolution Foundation Event
The state of welfare Resolution Foundation EventThe state of welfare Resolution Foundation Event
The state of welfare Resolution Foundation Event
 
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
 
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
 
China's Investment Leader - Dr. Alyce SU
China's Investment Leader - Dr. Alyce SUChina's Investment Leader - Dr. Alyce SU
China's Investment Leader - Dr. Alyce SU
 
1比1复刻(ksu毕业证书)美国堪萨斯州立大学毕业证本科文凭证书原版一模一样
1比1复刻(ksu毕业证书)美国堪萨斯州立大学毕业证本科文凭证书原版一模一样1比1复刻(ksu毕业证书)美国堪萨斯州立大学毕业证本科文凭证书原版一模一样
1比1复刻(ksu毕业证书)美国堪萨斯州立大学毕业证本科文凭证书原版一模一样
 
Ending stagnation: How to boost prosperity across Scotland
Ending stagnation: How to boost prosperity across ScotlandEnding stagnation: How to boost prosperity across Scotland
Ending stagnation: How to boost prosperity across Scotland
 
Singapore 2024 Sustainability Reporting and Accountancy Education Slides
Singapore 2024 Sustainability Reporting and Accountancy Education SlidesSingapore 2024 Sustainability Reporting and Accountancy Education Slides
Singapore 2024 Sustainability Reporting and Accountancy Education Slides
 
Tdasx: Interpreting the 2024 Cryptocurrency Market Funding Trends and Technol...
Tdasx: Interpreting the 2024 Cryptocurrency Market Funding Trends and Technol...Tdasx: Interpreting the 2024 Cryptocurrency Market Funding Trends and Technol...
Tdasx: Interpreting the 2024 Cryptocurrency Market Funding Trends and Technol...
 
Dr. Alyce Su Cover Story - China's Investment Leader
Dr. Alyce Su Cover Story - China's Investment LeaderDr. Alyce Su Cover Story - China's Investment Leader
Dr. Alyce Su Cover Story - China's Investment Leader
 
Calculation of compliance cost: Veterinary and sanitary control of aquatic bi...
Calculation of compliance cost: Veterinary and sanitary control of aquatic bi...Calculation of compliance cost: Veterinary and sanitary control of aquatic bi...
Calculation of compliance cost: Veterinary and sanitary control of aquatic bi...
 
Singapore Event 2024 IPSASB Update Slides
Singapore Event 2024 IPSASB Update SlidesSingapore Event 2024 IPSASB Update Slides
Singapore Event 2024 IPSASB Update Slides
 
What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
 
PM pre reads for the product manager framework
PM pre reads for the product manager frameworkPM pre reads for the product manager framework
PM pre reads for the product manager framework
 

Ppt: The financial feasibility of basic income in Belgium

  • 1. A preliminary assessment of the financial feasibility of basic income in Belgium Master’s thesis Emily Van de Walle
  • 3. 1 Basic income “A basic income is an income unconditionally granted to all on an individual basis, without means test or work requirement” (BIEN, n.d. a).
  • 4. Conventional minimum income schemes Conditionality Dependent on the household situation With means test or work requirement Basic income Unconditionality Individuality Without means test or work requirement Opposing characteristics
  • 5. Financial feasibility Research questions (1) Cost of basic income (2) Financing basic income 2
  • 6. Research questions How much would a scheme of basic income cost?1 2 How much are the cost savings that are realized by basic income replacing social benefits? ? Belgium, 2010
  • 7. Cost of basic income Addressing the first research question “How much would a scheme of basic income cost?” 2.1
  • 8. Basic income proposals Characteristics shared by every basic income proposal Unconditionality Individuality Without means test or work requirement Diverging specifications Level of basic income Target audience of basic income Complementary or substitutionary to the social protection system … Case-by-case assessment
  • 9. Basic income placed between 2 extremes Basic-income-purely -as-a-complement High-cost benchmark Basic-income-to -substitute-everything Low-cost benchmark
  • 10. Cost estimations 3 (5) basic income proposals with levels revised for Belgium, 2010 Static cost estimation (ceteris paribus assumption) Basic income
  • 11. (1) The B.U.B. proposal = Basic-income-to-substitute-everything Basic income to every adult Complete abolishment of the social protection system
  • 12. (1) The B.U.B. proposal Scheme Monthly cash grant (€) Adults / Minors Yearly expenditures (million €) Cost comparison (BI scheme as % of present social protection expenditures) Social integration income (2010) 730.63 / 0 75,627 80.24 Breakeven (2010) 910.52 / 0 94,247 100
  • 14. Trade-off between financial feasibility & social desirability Social desirability Financial feasibility
  • 15. Moving away from ‘basic-income-to-substitute-everything’ (2) The Vivant proposal (3) The proposal by Defeyt
  • 16. (4) The proposal by Raventos, Arcarons, and Torrens Moving closer to ‘basic-income-purely-as-a-complement’ Diversified basic income scheme Social integration income (SI) and poverty threshold (PT) Social benefits partially retained & health care entirely retained Minor Adult Social benefits
  • 17. (4) The proposal by Raventos et al. Social benefits “1. Basic income replaces any existing public cash benefit of a lesser quantity. 2. When the public cash benefit is of a greater amount, the basic income must be topped up to an equal quantity.” (Arcarons, Raventos Panella & Torrens Mèlich, 2014, p. 80)
  • 18. (4) The proposal by Raventos et al. Complete replacement Comparing the level of social benefits to the level of basic income Average level of social benefit Level of basic income <
  • 19. (4) The proposal by Raventos et al. Average level of social benefit Partial replacement Comparing the level of social benefits to the level of basic income Level of basic income >
  • 20. Table E1: Regular recurring social benefits, comparison on a monthly basis, in euro, Belgium, 2010 Social benefits (SB) Average monthly benefit SI 730.63 (146.13*) PT 972.20 (194.64*) Family benefits* 150.82 O* / X X* / X Benefits for primal incapacity 1071.80 O O Benefits for invalidity 1140.89 O O Benefits for disability 910.75 O X Benefits for temporary incapacity to work due to an occupational disease 1429.58 O O Full-time early retirement pension 1100.33 O O Part-time early retirement pension 371.79 X X Early retirement pensions for seafarers 958.33 O X Tide-over benefits for seafarers 1547.91 O O Compensated unemployment benefits 1078.76 O O Temporary unemployment benefits 1725 O O Bankruptcy insurance for the self- employed 968.38 O X Social integration income 540.18 X X Social assistance (financial aid) 1059.21 O O Retirement pensions 1248.56 O O Income guarantee for the elderly 348.90 X X Survivor’s pensions 1005.51 O O
  • 21. (4) The proposal by Raventos et al. Yearly cost per beneficiary (SB+BI) = (Monthly level of retained social benefit * Months of social benefit) + (Monthly level of basic income * Months of basic income)
  • 22.
  • 23. (4) The proposal by Raventos et al. Social integration income (2010) Scheme Monthly cash grant (€) Adults / Minors Yearly expenditures (million €) Cost comparison (As % of present social protection expenditures) Unconditional basic income (social integration income) 730.63 / 146.13 79,509 84.36 Social benefits N/A 20,537 21.79 Health care N/A 22,827 24.22 Total cost N/A 122,873 130.37
  • 24. (4) The proposal by Raventos et al. Poverty threshold (2010) Scheme Monthly cash grant (€) Adults / Minors Yearly expenditures (million €) Cost comparison (As % of present social protection expenditures) Unconditional basic income (poverty threshold) 973.20 / 194.64 105,907 112.37 Social benefits N/A 11,414 12.11 Health care N/A 22,827 24.22 Total cost N/A 140,147 148.70
  • 25. Trade-off between financial feasibility & social desirability Social desirability Financial feasibility
  • 26. (5) The modified proposal by Raventos et al. Scheme Monthly cash grant (€) Adults / Minors Yearly expenditures (million €) Cost comparison (As % of present social protection expenditures) Unconditional basic income 600 / 150 66,091 70.13 Social benefits N/A 25,323 26.87 Health care N/A 22,827 24.22 Total cost N/A 114,241 120.21 Financial feasibility ↑
  • 27. Overview of the basic income proposals (in million euro, Belgium, 2010) B.U.B. (SI) 0 / 731 B.U.B. (PT) 0 / 973 Vivant 163 / 482 651 / 964 Defeyt 271 / 542 Raventos et al. (SI) 146 / 731 Raventos et al. (PT) 195 / 973 Raventos et al. Modified 150 / 600 SPS Health care 0 0 22,827 22,827 22,827 22,827 Social benefits 0 0 0 30,000 20,537 11,414 25,323 UBI Adults 75,627 100,735 72,454 56,109 75,627 100,735 62,105 UBI Minors 0 0 4,322 7,202 3,883 5,172 3,986 In % of SPS 94,247 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 Millioneuro UBI Minors UBI Adults Social benefits Health care 80.24% 106.88% 105.68% 99% 130.37% 148.70% 120.21% 100% 75,627 100,735 99,603 93,311 122,872 140,147 114,241 94,247
  • 28. Financing basic income Addressing the second research question “How much are the cost savings that are realized by basic income replacing social benefits?” 2.2
  • 29. Financing basic income € Cost savings Tax reforms
  • 30. (1) Cost savings € Basic income Modified basic income proposal by Raventos et al. Health care completely retained & social benefits partially retained Health care Social benefits
  • 31. The proposal by Raventos et al. Complete replacement Average level of social benefit < Level of basic income Partial replacement Average level of social benefit > Level of basic income Comparing the level of social benefits to the level of basic income Average level of social benefit Level of basic income
  • 32. Modified basic income proposal by Raventos et al. In million euro, Belgium, 2010 € 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 Modified basic income proposal by Raventos et al. Cost savings Modified basic income proposal by Raventos et al. Cost savings UBI Minors 3,986 UBI Adults 62,105 Social benefits 30,304 Remaining cost gap 35,787
  • 33. (2) Financing the remaining cost gap € Extra government revenues generated by tax reforms (1) Sustainability (2) Behavioral effects (3) Implications on inequality, progressivity, and redistribution…
  • 35. Conclusion “How much would a scheme of basic income cost?” Basic income Dependent on the specific characteristics of each basic income proposal. ComplementSubstitute
  • 36. Conclusion “How much are the cost savings that are realized by basic income replacing social benefits?” Dependent on the specific characteristics of each basic income proposal. Basic income Criterion by Raventos et al. : Significant in magnitude
  • 37. OF BASIC INCOME STEP FINANCIAL THE FEASIBIBLITY NEXT
  • 38. Thank you for your attention. Any questions or remarks? ? ?
  • 40. Credits concerning the presentation ◈ Presentation template and icons by SlidesCarnival ◈ Photographs by Benedikt Geyer ◈ Other images obtained from: - Icon of a hand holding money retrieved from http://image.flaticon.com/icons/png/512/49/49232.png - Map of Europe by Allstrak [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons - Map of Belgium by PavelD [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons - Image of ‘Equity versus equality’ retrieved from https://fyi.uwex.edu/cfsi/files/2016/03/large-uncredited- equity-v-equality-apple-tree.png - Icon of a medical bag retrieved from http://www.iconarchive.com/show/windows-8-icons-by- icons8/Healthcare-Doctor-Suitecase-icon.html - Icon of a price tag (in euro) retrieved from http://www.iconarchive.com/show/windows-8-icons-by- icons8/Ecommerce-Price-Tag-Euro-icon.html - Icon of increasing stack of coins made by Freepik from http://www.flaticon.com/free-icon/increasing-stacks-of- dollar-coins_21268 - Icon of a scale retrieved from http://www.freeiconspng.com/uploads/scales-icon--icon-search-engine-2.png - Cost savings icon retrieved from http://www.hydro66.com/assets/images/icons/fallingdollar-512.png - Tax icon retrieved from http://www.freeiconspng.com/free-images/tax-icon-15124
  • 41. Bibliography per slide Main Dataset • FOD Sociale Zekerheid. (2011). De sociale zekerheid in een oogopslag. Kerncijfers 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from http://socialsecurity.belgium.be/sites/default/files/kerncijfers-2010-nl.pdf • FOD Sociale Zekerheid. (2012). De sociale zekerheid in een oogopslag. Kerncijfers 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from http://socialsecurity.belgium.be/sites/default/files/kerncijfers-2011-nl.pdf • FOD Sociale Zekerheid. (2013). De sociale uitgaven in België. Kerncijfers 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from http://socialsecurity.belgium.be/sites/default/files/kerncijfers-2012-nl.pdf Slide 3 • BIEN. (n.d. a). About basic income. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.basicincome.org/basic-income/ Slide 4 • Peña-Miguel, N., De la Peña Esteban, J.I.,& Fernandez-Sainz, A. (2014). A first approach to the cost of a basic social benefit. Basic Income Studies, 9(1-2), 95-118. Doi: 10.1515/bis-2014-0008 Slide 8, Slide 9 • Melzochová, J., & Špecián, P. (2015). An Estimate of the Basic Income Costs: Case of Czech Republic. Procedia Economics and Finance, 30, 550 – 557. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01267-8
  • 42. Bibliography per slide Slide 11,12, 27 • B.U.B. (2016). Belgische Unie – Union Belge – Programma 2016. Retrieved July 20, 2016, from http://www.unionbelge.be/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PROGRAMMA-PROGRAMME-2016.pdf Slide 13 • Odekon, M. (Ed.) (2015). The SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty (2nd ed.). California: SAGE Publications. • Van Parijs, P. (2004). Introductory chapter: A basic income for all: A brief defence to secure real freedom, grant everyone a subsistence income. In L.F.M. Groot (Ed.), Basic Income, Unemployment and Compensatory Justice. (p. 11- 23). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Slide 15, 27 • Defeyt, P. (2016). Un revenue de base pour chacun, plus d’autonomie pour tous. Retrieved August 11, 2016, from https://www.financialforum.be/sites/financialforum.be/files/media/1700b.pdf • Vivant. (n.d.). Het Vivant Programma. Retrieved July 21, 2016, from http://www.Vivant.org/files/programma.pdf Slide 16,17,18,19, 23, 24, 26, 27, 31, 32 • Arcarons, J., Raventos Pañella, D., & Torrens Mèlich, L. (2014). Feasibility of financing a basic income. Basic Income Studies, 9 (1-2), 79-93. • Raventos, D. (2007). Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom. London: Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press. Retrieved August 02, 2016, from http://uberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Daniel_Raventos_Basic_Income.pdf
  • 43. Bibliography per slide Slide 29 • Monnier, J.M., & Vercellone, C. (2014). The Foundations and Funding of Basic Income as Primary Income. Basic Income Studies, 9 (1-2), 59-77. Slide 30 • Monnier, J.M., & Vercellone, C. (2014). The Foundations and Funding of Basic Income as Primary Income. Basic Income Studies, 9 (1-2), 59-77. • Melzochová, J., & Špecián, P. (2015). An Estimate of the Basic Income Costs: Case of Czech Republic. Procedia Economics and Finance, 30, 550 – 557. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01267-8 • Arcarons, J., Raventos Pañella, D., & Torrens Mèlich, L. (2014). Feasibility of financing a basic income. Basic Income Studies, 9 (1-2), 79-93. • Raventos, D. (2007). Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom. London: Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press. Retrieved August 02, 2016, from http://uberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Daniel_Raventos_Basic_Income.pdf Slide 33 • Van Parijs, P. (1995). Real freedom for all. Oxford: Clarendon Press. • Arcarons, J., Raventos Pañella, D., & Torrens Mèlich, L. (2014). Feasibility of financing a basic income. Basic Income Studies, 9 (1-2), 79-93. • Raventos, D. (2007). Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom. London: Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press. Retrieved August 02, 2016, from http://uberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Daniel_Raventos_Basic_Income.pdf
  • 44. Bibliography per slide Slide 35 • Melzochová, J., & Špecián, P. (2015). An Estimate of the Basic Income Costs: Case of Czech Republic. Procedia Economics and Finance, 30, 550 – 557. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01267-8 Slide 36 • Arcarons, J., Raventos Pañella, D., & Torrens Mèlich, L. (2014). Feasibility of financing a basic income. Basic Income Studies, 9 (1-2), 79-93. • Raventos, D. (2007). Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom. London: Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press. Retrieved August 02, 2016, from http://uberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Daniel_Raventos_Basic_Income.pdf