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CHEM ISTRY
INVESTIGATORY
PROJECT
NAME:-
CLASS:-
Satyam Singh
XII Sci-A
SCHOOL:- P
.p Savani Garden
city,Ankleshwar
SUBJECT:- Chemistry
INDEX
1. CERTIFICATE
2. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
3. AIM
4. INTRODUCTION
5. THEORY
6. APPARATUS REQUIRED
7. PROCEDURE FOLLOWED
8. OBSERVATION
9. RESULT
10. PRECAUTION
11. BIBILOGRAPHY
CERTIFICATE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to our principal, Mr. Subhash
Kumar Nirman as well as to my chemistry teacher Mrs. Shivani Singh who gave
me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic Study of given
sample of Antacids, which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and I came
to know about so many new things. I am really thankful to them.
Secondly I would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot
in finishing this project within the limited time.
Thirdly I also want to thank my chemistry lab assistant Mrs. Suman Singh for
helping me to make this project successful.
Thanks Again ToAll Who Helped Me In Making Of This Project.
AIM
T
o analyze the given
samples of commercial
antacids by determining
the amountof
hydrochloric acid they
can neutralize.
INTRODUCTION
Digestion in stomach results from the action of gastric fluid, which includes secreations of digestive enzymes, mucous,
hydrochloric acid. The acidic environment of the stomach makes it possible for inactive forms of digestive enzymes to be
converted into active forms (i.e. Pepsinogen into pepsin), and acid is also needed to dissolve minerals and kill bacteria that
may enter the stomach along with food.
However, excessive acid production (hyperacidity) results in the unpleasant symptoms of heartburn and may contribute to
ulcer formation in the stomach lining.
Antacids are weak bases (most commonly bicarbonates, hydroxides, and carbonates) that neutralize excess stomach acid and
thus alleviate symptoms of heartburn.
The general neutralization reaction is:
Antacid(weak base)+HCl (stomach acid)  salts+H2O+CO2
The hydrochloric acid solution used in this experiment (0.1 M)approximates the acid conditions of the human stomach, which
is typically0.4 to 0.5% HQ by mass (pH ~ 1). Antacids help people who have or get heartburn. The following information will
help people understand how stomach acid works and what antacid will help those most.
THEORY
1.) Stomach acid
Stomach acid is very dangerous.
Stomach acid is highly acidic and has a p.H of 1.6 .stomach acid is hydrochloric
acid is produced by the stomach . If there Is too much acid it can cause heartburn.
One of the symptoms of heartburn is a burning feeling in the chest or abdomen.
2.)Antacid
An antacid is any substance that can neutralize an acid . All antacids are bases. The
pH of base is 7.1-14 . All antacids have chemical in them called a buffer. When
antacid is mixed with an acid the buffer tries to even out the acidity and that is how
stomach acid gets neutralized.
3.) Some Famous Antacid Brands
• Alka-Seltzer
• Gaviscon
• Maalox(Liquid)
• Milk of Magnesia
• Digene
• Eno
• Gelusil
• Gas-O-Fast
4.)Drug Names
1. Aluminium hydroxide
2. Magnesium hydroxide
3. Calcium Carbonate
4. Sodium bicarbonate
5. Bismuth subsalicylate
6. Ranitidine
5.) Action Mechanism
Antacids perform neutralization reaction, i.e. They buffer gastric acid, raising the pH to reduce acidity in the stomach. When
gastric hydrochloric acid reaches the nerves in gastrointestinal mucosa, they signal pain to the central nervous system. This
happens when these nerves are exposed, as in peptic ulcers. Antacids are commonly used to help neutralize stomach acid. The
action of antacids is based on the fact that a base reacts with acid to form salt and water.
Chemistry of antacids
The chemistry of antacid action is simple-the reduction of hydronium ion concentration by reaction with base
stronger than water.
H₂O + B₁ = HB₁ + H₂O
The extent to which the reaction proceeds is a function of the relative strengths of water as a base and the
antacid as a base but the effect is an increase in pH.
Different antacids react with HCl to form chlorides, water and carbon dioxide, neutralizing HCl by the
following chemical reactions.
Al(OH)3 + 3HC1 =AlCl3 + 3H2O (slow)
Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl = MgCl2 + 2H2O (slow/moderate)
CaCO3 + 2HC1 = CaCl₂+ H₂O CO₂ (fast)
NaHCO3 + HC1 = NaCl + H₂O + CO₂ (fast)
Ideal Antacid
The antacid should not be absorbable or cause systemic alkalosis.
It should not be laxative or cause constipation
It should buffer in the pH 4-6 range
It should be rapidly effective and maintain its effect over a long period of time.
It should probably inhibit pepsin but should not completely inactivate peptic digestion.
It should not produce rebound acidity or excessive eructation
(belching).
It should not cause large evolution of gas by reacting with gastric HC1.
It should not affect the absorption of food, nutrient and vitamin.
It should be non-irritant to stomach, intestine and should not cause diarrhea.
6.) Side Effects
Most people who take an antacid do not have any side- effects. However, side-effects occur in a small number of users. The most common are
diarrhoea, constipation and belching.
•Aluminium hydroxide: may lead to the formation of insoluble aluminium phosphate complexes, hypophosphate and osteomalacia.
Aluminium containing drugs may cause constipation.
•Magnesium hydroxide has a laxative property. Magnesium may accumulate in patients with renal failure leading to hypo magnesemia with
cardiovascular and neurological complications.
•Calcium compounds containing calcium may increase calcium output in the urine, which might be associated to renal stones. Calcium salts
may cause constipation.
•Carbonate: regular high doses may cause alkalosis, which in turn may result in altered excretion of other drugs, and kidney stones.
Apparatus Required
• Burette
• Pipette
• Titration Flask
• Measuring Flask
• Beakers
• Weight Box
• Fractional Weights
Chemicals Required
• Various samples of antacids
• Sodium Hydroxide
• Sodium Carbonate
• Hydrochloric Acid
• Phenolphthalein
Procedure
1Standardization of NaOH- First we will take 20 ml of 0.1m HCl and titrate it with unknown concentration solution of
NaOH to find it's concentration.
2Determine the mass of antacid for analysis- Since maximum of our antacids are tablet, so we will pulverize and/or grind
the antacid tablet with a mortar and pestle. Measure not more than 0.2g of the pulverized commercial antacid tablet in a 250
ml Burette Erlenmeyer flask having a known mass.
3Prepare the antacid for analysis- Pipette 40.0ml of standardize O-1M HCI (stomach acid equivalent) into the flask and
swirl.
4.Prepare the burette for titration- Prepare a clean burette. Rinse the clean burette with two 3 to 5 ml portions of a standard
NaOH solution. Record the actual molar concentration of the NaOH. Fill the burette with the NaOH solution; be sure no air
bubbles are in the burette tip. Wait for 30 seconds and then read its initial volume.
5.Titrate the sample- Once the antacid solution has cooled, titrate the sample with the NaOH solution to a blue end point.
Watch closely, the endpoint may only take a few milliliters, depending on the concentration of the antacid in the sample.
When a single drop of NaOH solution changes the sample solution from yellow to blue, stop. Wait for 30 seconds and then
read the final volume of NaOH solution in the burette.
a) Repeat the titration of the same sample- Refill the burette and repeat the experiment.
b) b.) Analyze another antacid- Perform the experiment, in duplicate, for another antacid Record all data on the report sheet.
OBSERVATION
Table1: Standardizationof NaOH Soln. Using 0.1 M/HCl
S.N
[O]
Pipette
Solution
[ml]
Burette
solution
[ml]
Titrate
Volume
[ml]
Concord at
Value
Initial Final
1. 20 0 11.2 11.2
11.2
2. 20 11.2 22.5 11.3
3. 20 22.5 33.7 11.2
Table 2: Titration of GELUCIL using 0.1 M/HCl
S.N
[O]
Pipette
Solution
(ml)
Burette
Solution
(ml)
Titrate
Volume
(ml)
Concordant
value
Initial Final
1. 40 0 8.1 8.1
8.1
2. 40 8.1 16.3 8.2
3. 40 16.3 24.4 8.1
Table 3: Titration of DIGENE using 0.1 M/HCl
S.N
[O]
Pipette
Solution
(ml)
Burette
Solution
(ml)
Titrat
e
Value
(ml)
Concordant
value
Initial Final
1. 40 0 15.4 15.4
15.4
2. 40 15.4 30.9 15.5
3. 40 30.9 46.3 15.4
Table 4: Titration of ENO using 0.1M/HCl
S.N
[O]
Pipette
Solution
(ml)
Burette
Solution
(ml)
Titrat
e
Value
(ml)
Concordant
volume
Initial Final
1. 40 0 13.3 13.3
13.3
2. 40 13.3 26.7 13.4
3. 40 26.7 40 13.3
Table 5: Titration of OCID 20 using 0.1 M/HCl
S.N
[O]
Pipette
Solution
(ml)
Burette
Solution
(ml)
Titrat
e
value
Concordant
value
Initial Final
1. 40 0 14.6 14.6
14.6
2. 40 14.6 29.3 14.7
3. 40 29.3 43.9 14.6
Table 6: Titration of GAS-O-FAST using 0.1 M/HCl
S.N
[O]
Pipette
Solution
(ml)
Burette
Solution
(ml)
Titrat
e
Value
(ml)
Concordant
value
Initial Final
1. 40 0 15.7 15.7
15.7
2. 40 15.7 31.5 15.8
3. 40 31.5 47.2 15.7
RESULT
Clearly from the graph Gelucil required least amount of NaOH for reaching end point thus it is more effective than other
antacid products used. Arranging in descending order our antacids are order :-
Gelucil > ENO > Ocid 20
>Digene > GAS-O-FAST
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
GELUCIL DIGENE ENO
Series1
OCID 20 GAS-O-FAST
ChartTitle
Precautions
• All apparatus should be clean and washed properly.
• Burette and pipette must be rinsed with the respective solution to
be put in them.
• Air bubbles must be removed from the burette and jet.
• Last drop from the pipette should not be removed by blowing.
• The flask should not be rinsed with any of the solution, which
Care being titrated.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
• https://en.wikipedia.org
• https://www.icbse.com
• https://www.wikipedia.org
• Chemistry practical manual in chemistry for class Xii.
• Pradeep’s New course chemistry .
• Chemistry Ncert class Xii part ii .
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Presentation (5).3b4tb4tbtrgbghrbgvbrgbhrbrebg

  • 1. CHEM ISTRY INVESTIGATORY PROJECT NAME:- CLASS:- Satyam Singh XII Sci-A SCHOOL:- P .p Savani Garden city,Ankleshwar SUBJECT:- Chemistry
  • 2. INDEX 1. CERTIFICATE 2. ACKNOWLEDGMENT 3. AIM 4. INTRODUCTION 5. THEORY 6. APPARATUS REQUIRED 7. PROCEDURE FOLLOWED 8. OBSERVATION 9. RESULT 10. PRECAUTION 11. BIBILOGRAPHY
  • 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to our principal, Mr. Subhash Kumar Nirman as well as to my chemistry teacher Mrs. Shivani Singh who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic Study of given sample of Antacids, which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and I came to know about so many new things. I am really thankful to them. Secondly I would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finishing this project within the limited time. Thirdly I also want to thank my chemistry lab assistant Mrs. Suman Singh for helping me to make this project successful. Thanks Again ToAll Who Helped Me In Making Of This Project.
  • 5. AIM T o analyze the given samples of commercial antacids by determining the amountof hydrochloric acid they can neutralize.
  • 6. INTRODUCTION Digestion in stomach results from the action of gastric fluid, which includes secreations of digestive enzymes, mucous, hydrochloric acid. The acidic environment of the stomach makes it possible for inactive forms of digestive enzymes to be converted into active forms (i.e. Pepsinogen into pepsin), and acid is also needed to dissolve minerals and kill bacteria that may enter the stomach along with food. However, excessive acid production (hyperacidity) results in the unpleasant symptoms of heartburn and may contribute to ulcer formation in the stomach lining. Antacids are weak bases (most commonly bicarbonates, hydroxides, and carbonates) that neutralize excess stomach acid and thus alleviate symptoms of heartburn. The general neutralization reaction is: Antacid(weak base)+HCl (stomach acid)  salts+H2O+CO2 The hydrochloric acid solution used in this experiment (0.1 M)approximates the acid conditions of the human stomach, which is typically0.4 to 0.5% HQ by mass (pH ~ 1). Antacids help people who have or get heartburn. The following information will help people understand how stomach acid works and what antacid will help those most.
  • 7. THEORY 1.) Stomach acid Stomach acid is very dangerous. Stomach acid is highly acidic and has a p.H of 1.6 .stomach acid is hydrochloric acid is produced by the stomach . If there Is too much acid it can cause heartburn. One of the symptoms of heartburn is a burning feeling in the chest or abdomen. 2.)Antacid An antacid is any substance that can neutralize an acid . All antacids are bases. The pH of base is 7.1-14 . All antacids have chemical in them called a buffer. When antacid is mixed with an acid the buffer tries to even out the acidity and that is how stomach acid gets neutralized.
  • 8. 3.) Some Famous Antacid Brands • Alka-Seltzer • Gaviscon • Maalox(Liquid) • Milk of Magnesia • Digene • Eno • Gelusil • Gas-O-Fast 4.)Drug Names 1. Aluminium hydroxide 2. Magnesium hydroxide 3. Calcium Carbonate 4. Sodium bicarbonate 5. Bismuth subsalicylate 6. Ranitidine
  • 9. 5.) Action Mechanism Antacids perform neutralization reaction, i.e. They buffer gastric acid, raising the pH to reduce acidity in the stomach. When gastric hydrochloric acid reaches the nerves in gastrointestinal mucosa, they signal pain to the central nervous system. This happens when these nerves are exposed, as in peptic ulcers. Antacids are commonly used to help neutralize stomach acid. The action of antacids is based on the fact that a base reacts with acid to form salt and water.
  • 10. Chemistry of antacids The chemistry of antacid action is simple-the reduction of hydronium ion concentration by reaction with base stronger than water. H₂O + B₁ = HB₁ + H₂O The extent to which the reaction proceeds is a function of the relative strengths of water as a base and the antacid as a base but the effect is an increase in pH. Different antacids react with HCl to form chlorides, water and carbon dioxide, neutralizing HCl by the following chemical reactions. Al(OH)3 + 3HC1 =AlCl3 + 3H2O (slow) Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl = MgCl2 + 2H2O (slow/moderate) CaCO3 + 2HC1 = CaCl₂+ H₂O CO₂ (fast) NaHCO3 + HC1 = NaCl + H₂O + CO₂ (fast)
  • 11. Ideal Antacid The antacid should not be absorbable or cause systemic alkalosis. It should not be laxative or cause constipation It should buffer in the pH 4-6 range It should be rapidly effective and maintain its effect over a long period of time. It should probably inhibit pepsin but should not completely inactivate peptic digestion. It should not produce rebound acidity or excessive eructation (belching). It should not cause large evolution of gas by reacting with gastric HC1. It should not affect the absorption of food, nutrient and vitamin. It should be non-irritant to stomach, intestine and should not cause diarrhea.
  • 12. 6.) Side Effects Most people who take an antacid do not have any side- effects. However, side-effects occur in a small number of users. The most common are diarrhoea, constipation and belching. •Aluminium hydroxide: may lead to the formation of insoluble aluminium phosphate complexes, hypophosphate and osteomalacia. Aluminium containing drugs may cause constipation. •Magnesium hydroxide has a laxative property. Magnesium may accumulate in patients with renal failure leading to hypo magnesemia with cardiovascular and neurological complications. •Calcium compounds containing calcium may increase calcium output in the urine, which might be associated to renal stones. Calcium salts may cause constipation. •Carbonate: regular high doses may cause alkalosis, which in turn may result in altered excretion of other drugs, and kidney stones.
  • 13. Apparatus Required • Burette • Pipette • Titration Flask • Measuring Flask • Beakers • Weight Box • Fractional Weights Chemicals Required • Various samples of antacids • Sodium Hydroxide • Sodium Carbonate • Hydrochloric Acid • Phenolphthalein
  • 14. Procedure 1Standardization of NaOH- First we will take 20 ml of 0.1m HCl and titrate it with unknown concentration solution of NaOH to find it's concentration. 2Determine the mass of antacid for analysis- Since maximum of our antacids are tablet, so we will pulverize and/or grind the antacid tablet with a mortar and pestle. Measure not more than 0.2g of the pulverized commercial antacid tablet in a 250 ml Burette Erlenmeyer flask having a known mass. 3Prepare the antacid for analysis- Pipette 40.0ml of standardize O-1M HCI (stomach acid equivalent) into the flask and swirl. 4.Prepare the burette for titration- Prepare a clean burette. Rinse the clean burette with two 3 to 5 ml portions of a standard NaOH solution. Record the actual molar concentration of the NaOH. Fill the burette with the NaOH solution; be sure no air bubbles are in the burette tip. Wait for 30 seconds and then read its initial volume. 5.Titrate the sample- Once the antacid solution has cooled, titrate the sample with the NaOH solution to a blue end point. Watch closely, the endpoint may only take a few milliliters, depending on the concentration of the antacid in the sample. When a single drop of NaOH solution changes the sample solution from yellow to blue, stop. Wait for 30 seconds and then read the final volume of NaOH solution in the burette. a) Repeat the titration of the same sample- Refill the burette and repeat the experiment. b) b.) Analyze another antacid- Perform the experiment, in duplicate, for another antacid Record all data on the report sheet.
  • 15. OBSERVATION Table1: Standardizationof NaOH Soln. Using 0.1 M/HCl S.N [O] Pipette Solution [ml] Burette solution [ml] Titrate Volume [ml] Concord at Value Initial Final 1. 20 0 11.2 11.2 11.2 2. 20 11.2 22.5 11.3 3. 20 22.5 33.7 11.2
  • 16. Table 2: Titration of GELUCIL using 0.1 M/HCl S.N [O] Pipette Solution (ml) Burette Solution (ml) Titrate Volume (ml) Concordant value Initial Final 1. 40 0 8.1 8.1 8.1 2. 40 8.1 16.3 8.2 3. 40 16.3 24.4 8.1
  • 17. Table 3: Titration of DIGENE using 0.1 M/HCl S.N [O] Pipette Solution (ml) Burette Solution (ml) Titrat e Value (ml) Concordant value Initial Final 1. 40 0 15.4 15.4 15.4 2. 40 15.4 30.9 15.5 3. 40 30.9 46.3 15.4
  • 18. Table 4: Titration of ENO using 0.1M/HCl S.N [O] Pipette Solution (ml) Burette Solution (ml) Titrat e Value (ml) Concordant volume Initial Final 1. 40 0 13.3 13.3 13.3 2. 40 13.3 26.7 13.4 3. 40 26.7 40 13.3
  • 19. Table 5: Titration of OCID 20 using 0.1 M/HCl S.N [O] Pipette Solution (ml) Burette Solution (ml) Titrat e value Concordant value Initial Final 1. 40 0 14.6 14.6 14.6 2. 40 14.6 29.3 14.7 3. 40 29.3 43.9 14.6
  • 20. Table 6: Titration of GAS-O-FAST using 0.1 M/HCl S.N [O] Pipette Solution (ml) Burette Solution (ml) Titrat e Value (ml) Concordant value Initial Final 1. 40 0 15.7 15.7 15.7 2. 40 15.7 31.5 15.8 3. 40 31.5 47.2 15.7
  • 21. RESULT Clearly from the graph Gelucil required least amount of NaOH for reaching end point thus it is more effective than other antacid products used. Arranging in descending order our antacids are order :- Gelucil > ENO > Ocid 20 >Digene > GAS-O-FAST 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 GELUCIL DIGENE ENO Series1 OCID 20 GAS-O-FAST ChartTitle
  • 22. Precautions • All apparatus should be clean and washed properly. • Burette and pipette must be rinsed with the respective solution to be put in them. • Air bubbles must be removed from the burette and jet. • Last drop from the pipette should not be removed by blowing. • The flask should not be rinsed with any of the solution, which Care being titrated.
  • 23. BIBLIOGRAPHY • https://en.wikipedia.org • https://www.icbse.com • https://www.wikipedia.org • Chemistry practical manual in chemistry for class Xii. • Pradeep’s New course chemistry . • Chemistry Ncert class Xii part ii .