SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Evidence-Based Practice




     Lunchbijeenkomst
      14 maart 2013
Presentation NVAO Evidence Based Practice
Post Grad

HBO   Universiteit   (E)MBA
                     Business
                     Schools
Aanleiding




   1. Wat moet een student in de praktijk straks kunnen:
      - zelf onderzoek doen?
      - onderzoek kunnen beoordelen + toepassen?


   2. Wat betekent dat voor het curriculum?

   3. Wat betekent dat voor de accreditatie?
HBO standaard (2009)

“In onze moderne samenleving is het cruciaal dat hbo-
bachelors over een onderzoekend vermogen beschikken
dat leidt tot reflectie, tot evidence-based practice, en tot
innovatie.”
Evidence-Based
   Practice ?
 Wat is het?

 Waar komt het vandaan?

 Hoe ziet het er uit in een opleiding?

 Hoe zit dat bij 4e jaars studenten?
Evidence based practice:
      Wat is het?
Evidence-based practice


Uitgangspunt bij evidence-based practice is
dat beslissingen gebaseerd dienen te zijn
op een combinatie van wetenschappelijk
denken en de best beschikbare 'evidence'.
Evidence based practice


    Met het begrip 'evidence' wordt niet
    meer bedoeld dan 'informatie'.

    Dit kan informatie zijn afkomstig uit
    wetenschappelijk onderzoek, maar ook
    interne bedrijfsinformatie en zelfs
    persoonlijke ervaring geldt als
    'evidence’.
Evidence based practice


    In principe neemt iedere manager dus
    beslissingen op basis van 'evidence'.

    De meeste managers besteden echter
    nauwelijks aandacht aan de kwaliteit
    van de 'evidence' waarop ze hun
    beslissingen baseren.
Evidence-based practice:

 kritisch en wetenschappelijk denken
 van verschillende informatiebronnen
 gebruik maken

 de beschikbare evidence kritisch tegen het
 licht houden

 denken in termen van waarschijnlijkheid
 in plaats van 'golden bullets'.
Evidence based practice



          Best available                          Professional
       scientific evidence                       expertise and
                                                   judgement



                             Evidence-based
                                 decision




          Best available                         Stakeholders’
          organizational
                                              values and concerns
            evidence
Evidence based practice:
Waar komt het vandaan?
What field is this?


 “there is a large research-user gap”
 “practitioners do not read academic journals”
 “the findings of research into what is an effective intervention
  are not being translated into actual practice”
 “academics not practitioners are driving the research agenda”
 “the relevance, quality and applicability of research is
  questionable”
 “practice is being driven more by fads and fashions than
  research”
 “many practices are doing more harm than good”
Medicine: Founding fathers




   David Sackett                 Gordon Guyatt


      McMaster University Medical School, Canada
How it all started
Problem I: persistent convictions




      if you’re
                        breathe into a bag
    hyperventilating
Problem I: persistent convictions




 elderly people who have      give them a drug that
 an irregular heartbeat are          reduces the
 much more likely to die of           number of
      coronary disease             irregular beats
How 40,000 cardiologists can be wrong


                In the early 1980s newly introduced
                anti-arrhythmic drugs were found to be
                highly successful at suppressing
                arrhythmias.

                Not until a RCT was performed was it
                realized that, although these drugs
                suppressed arrhythmias, they actually
                increased mortality.

                By the time the results of this trial were
                published, at least 100,000 such
                patients had been taking these drugs.
David Sackett
 Half of what you learn in medical school will be
  shown to be either dead wrong or out-of-date
  within 5 years of your graduation; the trouble is that
  nobody can tell you which half.

 The most important thing to learn is how to learn
  on your own: search for the evidence!

 (Remember that your teachers are as full of bullshit
  as your parents)
Problem II: too much information


 More than 1 million articles in 40,000 medical journals per
  year (= 1995; now probably more than 2 million). For a
  specialist to keep up this means reading 25 articles every
  day (for a GP more than 100!)
Problem II: too much information


 HRM: 1,350 articles in 2010 (ABI/INFORM). For an HR
  manager to keep up this means reading 3 to 4 articles
  every day (for a „general‟ manager more than 50!)




 BTW: most of the research is seriously
 flawed or irrelevant for practice
The 5 steps EBP



1. Formulate a focused question (Ask)

2. Search for the best available evidence (Acquire)

3. Critically appraise the evidence (Appraise)

4. Integrate the evidence with your professional
  expertise and apply (Apply)

5. Monitor the outcome (Assess)
Evidence-Based Practice


   1991   Medicine
   1998   Education
   1999   Social care, public policy
   2000   Nursing
   2000   Criminal justice
   ????   Management?
Evidence based practice:
Hoe ziet het er uit in de opleiding?
Evidence-based practice

Fase 1: Het ontwikkelen van kritisch en wetenschappelijk
denken dat leidt tot een professioneel-kritische attitude met
betrekking tot organisatievraagstukken

Fase 2: Het kunnen formuleren van een expliciete vraag en
op basis van deze vraag kunnen zoeken in online databases
naar uitkomst van relevant wetenschappelijk onderzoek.

Fase 3: Het kritisch kunnen beoordelen van
wetenschappelijke en organizational evidence (critical
appraisal)

Fase 4: Uitkomst van wetenschappelijk onderzoek kunnen
toepassen in de eigen beroepspraktijk (application of science)
Evidence based practice



          Best available                          Professional
       scientific evidence                       expertise and
                                                   judgment



                             Evidence-based
                                 decision




          Best available                         Stakeholders’
          organizational
                                              values and concerns
            evidence
Waarom (wetenschappelijk) onderzoek?
Trust me, 20 years of experience
Bounded rationality
Richard Feynman

“The first principle is that you must not fool
yourself - and you are the easiest person to
fool”.
Bounded rationality
Het feilbare brein


                     System 1
                      Snel, actie
                      Intuitief, associatief
                      shortcuts & biasses

                     System 2
                      Langzaam (lui!)
                      Rationeel
                      Nadenken
Systeem 1
Systeem 1: het feilbare brein

   Seeing order in randomness
   Mental corner cutting
   Misinterpretation of incomplete data
   Halo effect
   False consensus effect
   Group think                           Confirmation bias
   Self serving bias                     Authority bias
   Sunk cost fallacy                     Small numbers fallacy
   Cognitive dissonance reduction        In-group bias
                                          Recall bias
                                          Anchoring bias
                                          Inaccurate covariation detection
                                          Distortions due to plausibility
Waarom onderzoek?


                    Het feilbare brein
                    - Meningen
                    - Assumpties (aannames)
                    - Overtuigingen
                                                   BIAS
                    - Persoonlijke ervaringen



                    Wetenschappelijk onderzoek
                    - Feiten
                    - Evidence: bewijs / aanwijzingen
Fase 1: Kritisch & wetenschappelijk denken



  1. Denkfouten

  2. Informatiebronnen

  3. Mythbusting

  4. Assumpties
7 Denkfouten (die u beter aan anderen kunt overlaten)


 1. Seeing order in randomness
 2. Confirmation bias
 3. Small numbers fallacy
 4. Outcome bias
 5. Halo effect
 6. Authority bias
 7. Group think
Seeing order in randomness



 Een Type I fout of een vals positief:
  denken dat er een patroon / verband is
  terwijl dat er in het echt niet is.



 Een Type II fout of een vals negatief:
  denken dat er geen patroon / verband is
  terwijl dat er in het echt wel is
                                                  Dr. Michael Shermer
                                            (Director of the Skeptics Society)
Het feilbare brein: patern recognition



    Een Type I fout of een vals positief: denken dat het
     geritsel in de bosjes een gevaarlijk roofdier is, terwijl
     het gewoon de wind is (goedkoop foutje)
Het feilbare brein: patern recognition




    Een Type II fout of een vals negatief: denken dat het
     geritsel in de bosjes gewoon de wind is, terwijl het een
     gevaarlijk roofdier is (duur foutje)
Het feilbare brein: patern recognition



  Het probleem met patroon herkenning:

  Het kritisch beoordelen of er sprake is van een
  Type I of een Type II fout is best moeilijk, (vooral
  in „split second life and death‟ situaties), dus de
  default positie is om aan te nemen dat alle
  patronen echt zijn.
Het feilbare brein: patern recognition



    Een Type I fout of een vals positief: denken dat het
     geritsel in de bosjes een gevaarlijk roofdier is, terwijl
     het gewoon de wind is (goedkoop foutje)




    Een Type II fout of een vals negatief: denken dat het
     geritsel in de bosjes gewoon de wind is, terwijl het een
     gevaarlijk roofdier is (duur foutje)
Het feilbare brein: patern recognition


   Ook ervaren mensen en experts zien patronen
          en verbanden waar ze niet zijn.




      stress & lifestyle       peptic ulcer
Oct 2005

    Peptic ulcer – an infectious disease!
This year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine goes to Barry Marshall and Robin
Warren, who with tenacity and a prepared mind challenged prevailing dogmas. By
using technologies generally available (fibre endoscopy, silver staining of
histological sections and culture techniques for microaerophilic bacteria), they
made an irrefutable case that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is causing disease.
By culturing the bacteria they made them amenable to scientific study.


 In 1982, when this bacterium was discovered by Marshall and Warren, stress and
 lifestyle were considered the major causes of peptic ulcer disease. It is now
firmly established that Helicobacter pylori
causes more then 90% of duodenal ulcers.
The link between Helicobacter pylori
infection and peptic ulcer disease has been
established through studies of human
volunteers, antibiotic treatment studies and
epidemiological studies.
Het feilbare brein: patern recognition




 Ook slimme mensen houden er verkeerde ideeën op
 na, niet omdat ze dom of eigenwijs zijn, maar omdat het
 de meest logische conclusie is op basis van hun eigen
 ervaringen.



               (systeem 1 doet altijd mee!)
Evidence-based practice

Fase 1: Het ontwikkelen van kritisch en wetenschappelijk
denken dat leidt tot een professioneel-kritische attitude met
betrekking tot organisatievraagstukken

Fase 2: Het kunnen formuleren van een expliciete vraag en
op basis van deze vraag kunnen zoeken in online databases
naar uitkomst van relevant wetenschappelijk onderzoek.

Fase 3: Het kritisch kunnen beoordelen van
wetenschappelijke en organizational evidence (critical
appraisal)

Fase 4: Uitkomst van wetenschappelijk onderzoek kunnen
toepassen in de eigen beroepspraktijk (application of science)
Presentation NVAO Evidence Based Practice
5-step approach


           EBMgt is a 5-step approach

1. Formulate an answerable question (PICOC)

2. Search for the best available evidence

3. Critically appraise the quality of the found evidence

4. Integrate the evidence with managerial expertise
   and organizational concerns and apply

5. Monitor and evaluate the results
Formulate a focused question
Focused question?


 Does team-building work?
 What are the costs and benefits of self-steering teams?
 What are the success factors for culture change?
 Does management development improve the
  performance of managers?

 Does employee participation prevent resistance to
  change?

 How do employees feel about 360 degree feedback?
Foreground question?



  Does team-building work?

     What is a „team‟?
     What kind of teams?
     In what contexts/settings?
     What counts as „team-building‟?
     What does „work‟ mean?
     What outcomes are relevant?
     Over what time periods?
Answerable question: PICOC




   P = Population

   I = Intervention or success factor

   C = Comparison

   O = Outcome

   C = Context
2. Finding the best available evidence
Searching evidence



      What do we search?
What do we search?



            Current Information

            Overview of a subject

            General background

            Academic Information

            Statistical Information

            Theories about a subject

            Company information
Peer reviewed journals
Searching evidence


      Where do we search?
Searching for evidence
Databases


             ABI/INFORM
             Business Source Elite
             PsycINFO
             Web of Knowledge
             ERIC
             Google Scholar
Searching for evidence
Searching evidence



       How do we search?




        Search Strategy
Search strategy


        Two types of search strategies




     Snowball method   Building blocks method
Search strategy
Exercise: Search for evidence


                       Search in ABI/Inform:




1. How many articles has Stephen Covey published in peer reviewed journals?
2. How many of these articles are based on scientific research?
3. Are there articles (by other authors) that are critical of Covey’s 7 Habits?
4. How many of these critical articles are based on scientific research?
Exercise: Search for evidence


               Search in ABI/Inform or BSE:




 Search for peer reviewed research articles to answer the following
   question: What is the long term effect of a hostile take-over on the
   financial performance of the acquired organization? Use the following
   search terms:
  “hostile takeovers”, “financial performance”, “long term”
   How many studies did you find?
Evidence-based practice

Fase 1: Het ontwikkelen van kritisch en wetenschappelijk
denken dat leidt tot een professioneel-kritische attitude met
betrekking tot organisatievraagstukken

Fase 2: Het kunnen formuleren van een expliciete vraag en
op basis van deze vraag kunnen zoeken in online databases
naar uitkomst van relevant wetenschappelijk onderzoek.

Fase 3: Het kritisch kunnen beoordelen van
wetenschappelijke en organizational evidence (critical
appraisal)

Fase 4: Uitkomst van wetenschappelijk onderzoek kunnen
toepassen in de eigen beroepspraktijk (application of science)
Research designs


  Which design for which question?
What is the best design?

      Randomized controlled study?
      Grounded theory approach?
      Cohort / panel study?
      Qualitative field research?
      Longitudinal study?
      Post-test only study?
      Survey?
      Action research?
      Case study?
What is the BEST car?
What is the best design?




 quants vs quallies, positivists vs post structuralist, etc
Presentation NVAO Evidence Based Practice
Effect   vs   Non-effect
Types of questions


         Does it work?

         Does it work better than ....?

         Does it have an effect on ....?
Effect
         What is the success factor for ....?

         What is required to make it work ...?

         Will it do more good than harm?
Types of questions: non-effect

Needs:         What do people want or need?

Attitude:      What do people think or feel?

Experience:    What are peoples’ experiences?

Prevalence:    How many / often do people / organizations ...?

Procedure:     How can we implement ...?

Process:       How does it work?

Explanation:   Why does it work?

Economics:     How much does it cost?
Internal validity
Internal validity




   internal validity = indicates to what extent the
   results of the research may be biased and is thus
   a comment on the degree to which alternative
   explanations for the outcome found are possible.
Presentation NVAO Evidence Based Practice
Causal relations




      We are pattern seeking primates:
      we are predisposed to see order
      and causal relations in the world
Causality


      Considerations for research:

  1. Are the "cause" and the "effect” related?
     effect size

  1. Does the "cause" precede the "effect" in time?
     before and after measurement

  2. Are there no plausible alternative explanations for
     the observed effect?
     randomization, blinding, control group, measurements
Bias & Confounding




 Research shows:

 Shoe size > quality of handwriting

 Smoking youngsters > better lung function
Levels of internal validity
Which design for which question?




Explanation
Different types of research questions
require different types of research designs,

but ...
But 1: feasibility




           Best research design?
But 1: feasibility
Step 3: Critical appraisal of studies
Intermezzo



    How to read a research article?
Critical appraisal: quick and dirty


  Is the study design appropriate to the stated
  aims?

  Are the measurements likely to be valid and
  reliable?

  Was there a relevant effect size?

  Is the outcome (population, type of organization)
  generalizable to your situation?
Levels of internal validity

 1. Were there enough subjects in the study?
 2. Was a control group used?
 3. Were the subjects randomly assigned?
 4. Was a pretest used?
 5. Was the study started prior to the intervention or event?
 6. Was the outcome measured in an objective and reliable way?

             6x yes      = very high (A)
             5x yes      = high (A)
             4-3x yes    = limited (B)
             2x yes      = low (C)
             1-0x yes    = very low (D)
Appraisal


  Critical appraisal questionnaires




            www.cebma.org/ebp-tools
CAT: Critically Appraised Topic
CAT: Critically Appraised Topic



  A critically appraised topic (or CAT) is a structured, short (3
  pages max) summary of evidence on a topic of interest,
  usually focused around a practical problem or question. A
  CAT is like a “quick and dirty” version of a systematic review,
  summarizing the best available research evidence on a topic.
  Usually more than one study is included in a CAT.
CAT: structure


   1) Background / context

   2) Question (PICOC)

   3) Search strategy

   4) Results / evidence summary

   5) Findings

   6) Limitations

   7) Recommendation
CAT-walk

More Related Content

Similar to Presentation NVAO Evidence Based Practice

Evidence-Based HR Management & Systematic Reviews
Evidence-Based HR Management & Systematic ReviewsEvidence-Based HR Management & Systematic Reviews
Evidence-Based HR Management & Systematic Reviews
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Evidence-Based HR Management
Evidence-Based HR ManagementEvidence-Based HR Management
Evidence-Based HR Management
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
The Path to Evidence Based Management: Major Challenges and Some Solutions
The Path to Evidence Based Management: Major Challenges and Some SolutionsThe Path to Evidence Based Management: Major Challenges and Some Solutions
The Path to Evidence Based Management: Major Challenges and Some Solutions
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Ethicsandcriticalthinking
EthicsandcriticalthinkingEthicsandcriticalthinking
Ethicsandcriticalthinking
Chris Willmott
 
Presentation Teaching Evidence-Based Management NYU Wagner 2014
Presentation Teaching Evidence-Based Management NYU Wagner 2014Presentation Teaching Evidence-Based Management NYU Wagner 2014
Presentation Teaching Evidence-Based Management NYU Wagner 2014
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
PSY101 Week 1 Critical Thinking
PSY101 Week 1 Critical ThinkingPSY101 Week 1 Critical Thinking
PSY101 Week 1 Critical Thinking
Dr. Russell Rodrigo
 
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slidesQualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Alexandra Howson MA, PhD, CHCP
 
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slidesQualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Alexandra Howson MA, PhD, CHCP
 
Nice Model, But What Is The Evidence?
Nice Model, But What Is The Evidence?Nice Model, But What Is The Evidence?
Nice Model, But What Is The Evidence?
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Judgments and decisions in health care review: how to undertake ethical revie...
Judgments and decisions in health care review: how to undertake ethical revie...Judgments and decisions in health care review: how to undertake ethical revie...
Judgments and decisions in health care review: how to undertake ethical revie...
Hugh Davies
 
Evidence-Based Management, An Introduction
Evidence-Based Management, An IntroductionEvidence-Based Management, An Introduction
Evidence-Based Management, An Introduction
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
VU Library: Evidence-based practice tutorial
VU Library: Evidence-based practice tutorialVU Library: Evidence-based practice tutorial
VU Library: Evidence-based practice tutorial
Ishbel Leggat
 
Evidence-Based Management presentation
Evidence-Based Management presentationEvidence-Based Management presentation
Evidence-Based Management presentation
Ioannis Nikolaou
 
Mock Scientific Research Paper
Mock Scientific Research PaperMock Scientific Research Paper
Mock Scientific Research Paper
Jessica Howard
 
LSM PRESENTATION.ppt
LSM PRESENTATION.pptLSM PRESENTATION.ppt
LSM PRESENTATION.ppt
hackerboy66
 
Systematic review and evidence-based work and organizational psychology
Systematic review and evidence-based work and organizational psychologySystematic review and evidence-based work and organizational psychology
Systematic review and evidence-based work and organizational psychology
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Capturing the Beast by Donna Fitzpatrick, Catwalk Solutions
Capturing the Beast by Donna Fitzpatrick, Catwalk SolutionsCapturing the Beast by Donna Fitzpatrick, Catwalk Solutions
Capturing the Beast by Donna Fitzpatrick, Catwalk Solutions
NorthWest MRA
 
PPMA National Service Debate at CIPD Conf 8 Nov 2012 - Rob Briner
PPMA National Service Debate at CIPD Conf 8 Nov 2012 - Rob BrinerPPMA National Service Debate at CIPD Conf 8 Nov 2012 - Rob Briner
PPMA National Service Debate at CIPD Conf 8 Nov 2012 - Rob Briner
PPMA - Public Sector People Managers' Association
 
Psyc 321_01 what is science
Psyc 321_01 what is sciencePsyc 321_01 what is science
Psyc 321_01 what is science
Ryan Sain
 
Critical thinking-e book
Critical thinking-e bookCritical thinking-e book
Critical thinking-e book
Amit Phutane
 

Similar to Presentation NVAO Evidence Based Practice (20)

Evidence-Based HR Management & Systematic Reviews
Evidence-Based HR Management & Systematic ReviewsEvidence-Based HR Management & Systematic Reviews
Evidence-Based HR Management & Systematic Reviews
 
Evidence-Based HR Management
Evidence-Based HR ManagementEvidence-Based HR Management
Evidence-Based HR Management
 
The Path to Evidence Based Management: Major Challenges and Some Solutions
The Path to Evidence Based Management: Major Challenges and Some SolutionsThe Path to Evidence Based Management: Major Challenges and Some Solutions
The Path to Evidence Based Management: Major Challenges and Some Solutions
 
Ethicsandcriticalthinking
EthicsandcriticalthinkingEthicsandcriticalthinking
Ethicsandcriticalthinking
 
Presentation Teaching Evidence-Based Management NYU Wagner 2014
Presentation Teaching Evidence-Based Management NYU Wagner 2014Presentation Teaching Evidence-Based Management NYU Wagner 2014
Presentation Teaching Evidence-Based Management NYU Wagner 2014
 
PSY101 Week 1 Critical Thinking
PSY101 Week 1 Critical ThinkingPSY101 Week 1 Critical Thinking
PSY101 Week 1 Critical Thinking
 
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slidesQualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
 
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slidesQualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
 
Nice Model, But What Is The Evidence?
Nice Model, But What Is The Evidence?Nice Model, But What Is The Evidence?
Nice Model, But What Is The Evidence?
 
Judgments and decisions in health care review: how to undertake ethical revie...
Judgments and decisions in health care review: how to undertake ethical revie...Judgments and decisions in health care review: how to undertake ethical revie...
Judgments and decisions in health care review: how to undertake ethical revie...
 
Evidence-Based Management, An Introduction
Evidence-Based Management, An IntroductionEvidence-Based Management, An Introduction
Evidence-Based Management, An Introduction
 
VU Library: Evidence-based practice tutorial
VU Library: Evidence-based practice tutorialVU Library: Evidence-based practice tutorial
VU Library: Evidence-based practice tutorial
 
Evidence-Based Management presentation
Evidence-Based Management presentationEvidence-Based Management presentation
Evidence-Based Management presentation
 
Mock Scientific Research Paper
Mock Scientific Research PaperMock Scientific Research Paper
Mock Scientific Research Paper
 
LSM PRESENTATION.ppt
LSM PRESENTATION.pptLSM PRESENTATION.ppt
LSM PRESENTATION.ppt
 
Systematic review and evidence-based work and organizational psychology
Systematic review and evidence-based work and organizational psychologySystematic review and evidence-based work and organizational psychology
Systematic review and evidence-based work and organizational psychology
 
Capturing the Beast by Donna Fitzpatrick, Catwalk Solutions
Capturing the Beast by Donna Fitzpatrick, Catwalk SolutionsCapturing the Beast by Donna Fitzpatrick, Catwalk Solutions
Capturing the Beast by Donna Fitzpatrick, Catwalk Solutions
 
PPMA National Service Debate at CIPD Conf 8 Nov 2012 - Rob Briner
PPMA National Service Debate at CIPD Conf 8 Nov 2012 - Rob BrinerPPMA National Service Debate at CIPD Conf 8 Nov 2012 - Rob Briner
PPMA National Service Debate at CIPD Conf 8 Nov 2012 - Rob Briner
 
Psyc 321_01 what is science
Psyc 321_01 what is sciencePsyc 321_01 what is science
Psyc 321_01 what is science
 
Critical thinking-e book
Critical thinking-e bookCritical thinking-e book
Critical thinking-e book
 

More from Center for Evidence-Based Management

Presentation CEBMa EBM Case example: Novartis
Presentation CEBMa EBM Case example: NovartisPresentation CEBMa EBM Case example: Novartis
Presentation CEBMa EBM Case example: Novartis
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Fontys - EBMgt Master Healthy Ageing
Fontys - EBMgt Master Healthy AgeingFontys - EBMgt Master Healthy Ageing
Fontys - EBMgt Master Healthy Ageing
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Teaching CATs - EBM Teachers Network
Teaching CATs - EBM Teachers NetworkTeaching CATs - EBM Teachers Network
Teaching CATs - EBM Teachers Network
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Introducing EBM to DCU: From small start to influencing Business School Curri...
Introducing EBM to DCU: From small start to influencing Business School Curri...Introducing EBM to DCU: From small start to influencing Business School Curri...
Introducing EBM to DCU: From small start to influencing Business School Curri...
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Teaching Evidence Based Management at the University of Prince Edward Island ...
Teaching Evidence Based Management at the University of Prince Edward Island ...Teaching Evidence Based Management at the University of Prince Edward Island ...
Teaching Evidence Based Management at the University of Prince Edward Island ...
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Approaches and innovations for learning EBMgt: An overview of a hybrid EMBA ...
Approaches and innovations for learning EBMgt:  An overview of a hybrid EMBA ...Approaches and innovations for learning EBMgt:  An overview of a hybrid EMBA ...
Approaches and innovations for learning EBMgt: An overview of a hybrid EMBA ...
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Teaching/Learning EBMgt at the ANU: An Integrated Curriculum Approach
Teaching/Learning EBMgt at the ANU: An Integrated Curriculum Approach Teaching/Learning EBMgt at the ANU: An Integrated Curriculum Approach
Teaching/Learning EBMgt at the ANU: An Integrated Curriculum Approach
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Teaching Evidence Based Management in an evidence-based way
Teaching Evidence Based Management in an evidence-based wayTeaching Evidence Based Management in an evidence-based way
Teaching Evidence Based Management in an evidence-based way
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Teaching Evidence-Based Management Through Learning Activities
Teaching Evidence-Based Management Through Learning ActivitiesTeaching Evidence-Based Management Through Learning Activities
Teaching Evidence-Based Management Through Learning Activities
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Using CATs and REAs to inform decision-making
Using CATs and REAs to inform decision-makingUsing CATs and REAs to inform decision-making
Using CATs and REAs to inform decision-making
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Teaching students how to critically appraise organizational data
Teaching students how to critically appraise organizational dataTeaching students how to critically appraise organizational data
Teaching students how to critically appraise organizational data
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Technology fads: Weighing risks and benefits
Technology fads: Weighing risks and benefitsTechnology fads: Weighing risks and benefits
Technology fads: Weighing risks and benefits
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Building organizational capacity for EBMgt
Building organizational capacity for EBMgtBuilding organizational capacity for EBMgt
Building organizational capacity for EBMgt
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Evidence-based HR consulting: lessons learned from projects in talent assessm...
Evidence-based HR consulting: lessons learned from projects in talent assessm...Evidence-based HR consulting: lessons learned from projects in talent assessm...
Evidence-based HR consulting: lessons learned from projects in talent assessm...
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Communicating Evidence to Influence Decisions
Communicating Evidence to Influence DecisionsCommunicating Evidence to Influence Decisions
Communicating Evidence to Influence Decisions
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Evidence-based decision-making in organizations: Why we need it and why some...
Evidence-based decision-making in organizations:  Why we need it and why some...Evidence-based decision-making in organizations:  Why we need it and why some...
Evidence-based decision-making in organizations: Why we need it and why some...
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
How to introduce Evidence Based Management in your organisation without pissi...
How to introduce Evidence Based Management in your organisation without pissi...How to introduce Evidence Based Management in your organisation without pissi...
How to introduce Evidence Based Management in your organisation without pissi...
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
REA: Performance Appraisal & Workplace Performance
REA: Performance Appraisal & Workplace PerformanceREA: Performance Appraisal & Workplace Performance
REA: Performance Appraisal & Workplace Performance
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Talent Management: What's The Evidence
Talent Management: What's The EvidenceTalent Management: What's The Evidence
Talent Management: What's The Evidence
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 
Getting Started With Evidence-Based HR
Getting Started With Evidence-Based HRGetting Started With Evidence-Based HR
Getting Started With Evidence-Based HR
Center for Evidence-Based Management
 

More from Center for Evidence-Based Management (20)

Presentation CEBMa EBM Case example: Novartis
Presentation CEBMa EBM Case example: NovartisPresentation CEBMa EBM Case example: Novartis
Presentation CEBMa EBM Case example: Novartis
 
Fontys - EBMgt Master Healthy Ageing
Fontys - EBMgt Master Healthy AgeingFontys - EBMgt Master Healthy Ageing
Fontys - EBMgt Master Healthy Ageing
 
Teaching CATs - EBM Teachers Network
Teaching CATs - EBM Teachers NetworkTeaching CATs - EBM Teachers Network
Teaching CATs - EBM Teachers Network
 
Introducing EBM to DCU: From small start to influencing Business School Curri...
Introducing EBM to DCU: From small start to influencing Business School Curri...Introducing EBM to DCU: From small start to influencing Business School Curri...
Introducing EBM to DCU: From small start to influencing Business School Curri...
 
Teaching Evidence Based Management at the University of Prince Edward Island ...
Teaching Evidence Based Management at the University of Prince Edward Island ...Teaching Evidence Based Management at the University of Prince Edward Island ...
Teaching Evidence Based Management at the University of Prince Edward Island ...
 
Approaches and innovations for learning EBMgt: An overview of a hybrid EMBA ...
Approaches and innovations for learning EBMgt:  An overview of a hybrid EMBA ...Approaches and innovations for learning EBMgt:  An overview of a hybrid EMBA ...
Approaches and innovations for learning EBMgt: An overview of a hybrid EMBA ...
 
Teaching/Learning EBMgt at the ANU: An Integrated Curriculum Approach
Teaching/Learning EBMgt at the ANU: An Integrated Curriculum Approach Teaching/Learning EBMgt at the ANU: An Integrated Curriculum Approach
Teaching/Learning EBMgt at the ANU: An Integrated Curriculum Approach
 
Teaching Evidence Based Management in an evidence-based way
Teaching Evidence Based Management in an evidence-based wayTeaching Evidence Based Management in an evidence-based way
Teaching Evidence Based Management in an evidence-based way
 
Teaching Evidence-Based Management Through Learning Activities
Teaching Evidence-Based Management Through Learning ActivitiesTeaching Evidence-Based Management Through Learning Activities
Teaching Evidence-Based Management Through Learning Activities
 
Using CATs and REAs to inform decision-making
Using CATs and REAs to inform decision-makingUsing CATs and REAs to inform decision-making
Using CATs and REAs to inform decision-making
 
Teaching students how to critically appraise organizational data
Teaching students how to critically appraise organizational dataTeaching students how to critically appraise organizational data
Teaching students how to critically appraise organizational data
 
Technology fads: Weighing risks and benefits
Technology fads: Weighing risks and benefitsTechnology fads: Weighing risks and benefits
Technology fads: Weighing risks and benefits
 
Building organizational capacity for EBMgt
Building organizational capacity for EBMgtBuilding organizational capacity for EBMgt
Building organizational capacity for EBMgt
 
Evidence-based HR consulting: lessons learned from projects in talent assessm...
Evidence-based HR consulting: lessons learned from projects in talent assessm...Evidence-based HR consulting: lessons learned from projects in talent assessm...
Evidence-based HR consulting: lessons learned from projects in talent assessm...
 
Communicating Evidence to Influence Decisions
Communicating Evidence to Influence DecisionsCommunicating Evidence to Influence Decisions
Communicating Evidence to Influence Decisions
 
Evidence-based decision-making in organizations: Why we need it and why some...
Evidence-based decision-making in organizations:  Why we need it and why some...Evidence-based decision-making in organizations:  Why we need it and why some...
Evidence-based decision-making in organizations: Why we need it and why some...
 
How to introduce Evidence Based Management in your organisation without pissi...
How to introduce Evidence Based Management in your organisation without pissi...How to introduce Evidence Based Management in your organisation without pissi...
How to introduce Evidence Based Management in your organisation without pissi...
 
REA: Performance Appraisal & Workplace Performance
REA: Performance Appraisal & Workplace PerformanceREA: Performance Appraisal & Workplace Performance
REA: Performance Appraisal & Workplace Performance
 
Talent Management: What's The Evidence
Talent Management: What's The EvidenceTalent Management: What's The Evidence
Talent Management: What's The Evidence
 
Getting Started With Evidence-Based HR
Getting Started With Evidence-Based HRGetting Started With Evidence-Based HR
Getting Started With Evidence-Based HR
 

Recently uploaded

Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
Elizabeth Walsh
 
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
thanhluan21
 
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
artenzmartenkai
 
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
AnneMarieJacildo
 
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUMENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
HappieMontevirgenCas
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
Celine George
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
Unlocking Educational Synergy-DIKSHA & Google Classroom.pptx
Unlocking Educational Synergy-DIKSHA & Google Classroom.pptxUnlocking Educational Synergy-DIKSHA & Google Classroom.pptx
Unlocking Educational Synergy-DIKSHA & Google Classroom.pptx
bipin95
 
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
SarahAlie1
 
Neuroimaging Mastery Project: Presentation #6 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Neuroimaging Mastery Project: Presentation #6 Subarachnoid HemorrhageNeuroimaging Mastery Project: Presentation #6 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Neuroimaging Mastery Project: Presentation #6 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Sean M. Fox
 
How to Add Colour Kanban Records in Odoo 17 Notebook
How to Add Colour Kanban Records in Odoo 17 NotebookHow to Add Colour Kanban Records in Odoo 17 Notebook
How to Add Colour Kanban Records in Odoo 17 Notebook
Celine George
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
NurFitriah45
 
NLC English 7 Consolidation Lesson plan for teacher
NLC English 7 Consolidation Lesson plan for teacherNLC English 7 Consolidation Lesson plan for teacher
NLC English 7 Consolidation Lesson plan for teacher
AngelicaLubrica
 
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline PartnershipNC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
Mebane Rash
 
OS ticketing tool: Troubleshooting Guide for DIKSHA’s concern.pptx
OS ticketing tool: Troubleshooting Guide for DIKSHA’s concern.pptxOS ticketing tool: Troubleshooting Guide for DIKSHA’s concern.pptx
OS ticketing tool: Troubleshooting Guide for DIKSHA’s concern.pptx
bipin95
 
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptxPrinciples of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
ibtesaam huma
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Abhik Roychoudhury
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
 
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
 
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
 
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
 
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUMENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
 
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
 
Unlocking Educational Synergy-DIKSHA & Google Classroom.pptx
Unlocking Educational Synergy-DIKSHA & Google Classroom.pptxUnlocking Educational Synergy-DIKSHA & Google Classroom.pptx
Unlocking Educational Synergy-DIKSHA & Google Classroom.pptx
 
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
 
Neuroimaging Mastery Project: Presentation #6 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Neuroimaging Mastery Project: Presentation #6 Subarachnoid HemorrhageNeuroimaging Mastery Project: Presentation #6 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Neuroimaging Mastery Project: Presentation #6 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
 
How to Add Colour Kanban Records in Odoo 17 Notebook
How to Add Colour Kanban Records in Odoo 17 NotebookHow to Add Colour Kanban Records in Odoo 17 Notebook
How to Add Colour Kanban Records in Odoo 17 Notebook
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
 
NLC English 7 Consolidation Lesson plan for teacher
NLC English 7 Consolidation Lesson plan for teacherNLC English 7 Consolidation Lesson plan for teacher
NLC English 7 Consolidation Lesson plan for teacher
 
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline PartnershipNC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
 
OS ticketing tool: Troubleshooting Guide for DIKSHA’s concern.pptx
OS ticketing tool: Troubleshooting Guide for DIKSHA’s concern.pptxOS ticketing tool: Troubleshooting Guide for DIKSHA’s concern.pptx
OS ticketing tool: Troubleshooting Guide for DIKSHA’s concern.pptx
 
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptxPrinciples of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
 

Presentation NVAO Evidence Based Practice

  • 1. Evidence-Based Practice Lunchbijeenkomst 14 maart 2013
  • 3. Post Grad HBO Universiteit (E)MBA Business Schools
  • 4. Aanleiding 1. Wat moet een student in de praktijk straks kunnen: - zelf onderzoek doen? - onderzoek kunnen beoordelen + toepassen? 2. Wat betekent dat voor het curriculum? 3. Wat betekent dat voor de accreditatie?
  • 5. HBO standaard (2009) “In onze moderne samenleving is het cruciaal dat hbo- bachelors over een onderzoekend vermogen beschikken dat leidt tot reflectie, tot evidence-based practice, en tot innovatie.”
  • 6. Evidence-Based Practice ?
  • 7.  Wat is het?  Waar komt het vandaan?  Hoe ziet het er uit in een opleiding?  Hoe zit dat bij 4e jaars studenten?
  • 9. Evidence-based practice Uitgangspunt bij evidence-based practice is dat beslissingen gebaseerd dienen te zijn op een combinatie van wetenschappelijk denken en de best beschikbare 'evidence'.
  • 10. Evidence based practice Met het begrip 'evidence' wordt niet meer bedoeld dan 'informatie'. Dit kan informatie zijn afkomstig uit wetenschappelijk onderzoek, maar ook interne bedrijfsinformatie en zelfs persoonlijke ervaring geldt als 'evidence’.
  • 11. Evidence based practice In principe neemt iedere manager dus beslissingen op basis van 'evidence'. De meeste managers besteden echter nauwelijks aandacht aan de kwaliteit van de 'evidence' waarop ze hun beslissingen baseren.
  • 12. Evidence-based practice:  kritisch en wetenschappelijk denken  van verschillende informatiebronnen gebruik maken  de beschikbare evidence kritisch tegen het licht houden  denken in termen van waarschijnlijkheid in plaats van 'golden bullets'.
  • 13. Evidence based practice Best available Professional scientific evidence expertise and judgement Evidence-based decision Best available Stakeholders’ organizational values and concerns evidence
  • 14. Evidence based practice: Waar komt het vandaan?
  • 15. What field is this?  “there is a large research-user gap”  “practitioners do not read academic journals”  “the findings of research into what is an effective intervention are not being translated into actual practice”  “academics not practitioners are driving the research agenda”  “the relevance, quality and applicability of research is questionable”  “practice is being driven more by fads and fashions than research”  “many practices are doing more harm than good”
  • 16. Medicine: Founding fathers David Sackett Gordon Guyatt McMaster University Medical School, Canada
  • 17. How it all started
  • 18. Problem I: persistent convictions if you’re breathe into a bag hyperventilating
  • 19. Problem I: persistent convictions elderly people who have give them a drug that an irregular heartbeat are reduces the much more likely to die of number of coronary disease irregular beats
  • 20. How 40,000 cardiologists can be wrong In the early 1980s newly introduced anti-arrhythmic drugs were found to be highly successful at suppressing arrhythmias. Not until a RCT was performed was it realized that, although these drugs suppressed arrhythmias, they actually increased mortality. By the time the results of this trial were published, at least 100,000 such patients had been taking these drugs.
  • 21. David Sackett  Half of what you learn in medical school will be shown to be either dead wrong or out-of-date within 5 years of your graduation; the trouble is that nobody can tell you which half.  The most important thing to learn is how to learn on your own: search for the evidence!  (Remember that your teachers are as full of bullshit as your parents)
  • 22. Problem II: too much information  More than 1 million articles in 40,000 medical journals per year (= 1995; now probably more than 2 million). For a specialist to keep up this means reading 25 articles every day (for a GP more than 100!)
  • 23. Problem II: too much information  HRM: 1,350 articles in 2010 (ABI/INFORM). For an HR manager to keep up this means reading 3 to 4 articles every day (for a „general‟ manager more than 50!) BTW: most of the research is seriously flawed or irrelevant for practice
  • 24. The 5 steps EBP 1. Formulate a focused question (Ask) 2. Search for the best available evidence (Acquire) 3. Critically appraise the evidence (Appraise) 4. Integrate the evidence with your professional expertise and apply (Apply) 5. Monitor the outcome (Assess)
  • 25. Evidence-Based Practice 1991 Medicine 1998 Education 1999 Social care, public policy 2000 Nursing 2000 Criminal justice ???? Management?
  • 26. Evidence based practice: Hoe ziet het er uit in de opleiding?
  • 27. Evidence-based practice Fase 1: Het ontwikkelen van kritisch en wetenschappelijk denken dat leidt tot een professioneel-kritische attitude met betrekking tot organisatievraagstukken Fase 2: Het kunnen formuleren van een expliciete vraag en op basis van deze vraag kunnen zoeken in online databases naar uitkomst van relevant wetenschappelijk onderzoek. Fase 3: Het kritisch kunnen beoordelen van wetenschappelijke en organizational evidence (critical appraisal) Fase 4: Uitkomst van wetenschappelijk onderzoek kunnen toepassen in de eigen beroepspraktijk (application of science)
  • 28. Evidence based practice Best available Professional scientific evidence expertise and judgment Evidence-based decision Best available Stakeholders’ organizational values and concerns evidence
  • 30. Trust me, 20 years of experience
  • 32. Richard Feynman “The first principle is that you must not fool yourself - and you are the easiest person to fool”.
  • 34. Het feilbare brein System 1  Snel, actie  Intuitief, associatief  shortcuts & biasses System 2  Langzaam (lui!)  Rationeel  Nadenken
  • 36. Systeem 1: het feilbare brein  Seeing order in randomness  Mental corner cutting  Misinterpretation of incomplete data  Halo effect  False consensus effect  Group think  Confirmation bias  Self serving bias  Authority bias  Sunk cost fallacy  Small numbers fallacy  Cognitive dissonance reduction  In-group bias  Recall bias  Anchoring bias  Inaccurate covariation detection  Distortions due to plausibility
  • 37. Waarom onderzoek? Het feilbare brein - Meningen - Assumpties (aannames) - Overtuigingen BIAS - Persoonlijke ervaringen Wetenschappelijk onderzoek - Feiten - Evidence: bewijs / aanwijzingen
  • 38. Fase 1: Kritisch & wetenschappelijk denken 1. Denkfouten 2. Informatiebronnen 3. Mythbusting 4. Assumpties
  • 39. 7 Denkfouten (die u beter aan anderen kunt overlaten) 1. Seeing order in randomness 2. Confirmation bias 3. Small numbers fallacy 4. Outcome bias 5. Halo effect 6. Authority bias 7. Group think
  • 40. Seeing order in randomness  Een Type I fout of een vals positief: denken dat er een patroon / verband is terwijl dat er in het echt niet is.  Een Type II fout of een vals negatief: denken dat er geen patroon / verband is terwijl dat er in het echt wel is Dr. Michael Shermer (Director of the Skeptics Society)
  • 41. Het feilbare brein: patern recognition  Een Type I fout of een vals positief: denken dat het geritsel in de bosjes een gevaarlijk roofdier is, terwijl het gewoon de wind is (goedkoop foutje)
  • 42. Het feilbare brein: patern recognition  Een Type II fout of een vals negatief: denken dat het geritsel in de bosjes gewoon de wind is, terwijl het een gevaarlijk roofdier is (duur foutje)
  • 43. Het feilbare brein: patern recognition Het probleem met patroon herkenning: Het kritisch beoordelen of er sprake is van een Type I of een Type II fout is best moeilijk, (vooral in „split second life and death‟ situaties), dus de default positie is om aan te nemen dat alle patronen echt zijn.
  • 44. Het feilbare brein: patern recognition  Een Type I fout of een vals positief: denken dat het geritsel in de bosjes een gevaarlijk roofdier is, terwijl het gewoon de wind is (goedkoop foutje)  Een Type II fout of een vals negatief: denken dat het geritsel in de bosjes gewoon de wind is, terwijl het een gevaarlijk roofdier is (duur foutje)
  • 45. Het feilbare brein: patern recognition Ook ervaren mensen en experts zien patronen en verbanden waar ze niet zijn. stress & lifestyle peptic ulcer
  • 46. Oct 2005 Peptic ulcer – an infectious disease! This year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine goes to Barry Marshall and Robin Warren, who with tenacity and a prepared mind challenged prevailing dogmas. By using technologies generally available (fibre endoscopy, silver staining of histological sections and culture techniques for microaerophilic bacteria), they made an irrefutable case that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is causing disease. By culturing the bacteria they made them amenable to scientific study. In 1982, when this bacterium was discovered by Marshall and Warren, stress and lifestyle were considered the major causes of peptic ulcer disease. It is now firmly established that Helicobacter pylori causes more then 90% of duodenal ulcers. The link between Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease has been established through studies of human volunteers, antibiotic treatment studies and epidemiological studies.
  • 47. Het feilbare brein: patern recognition Ook slimme mensen houden er verkeerde ideeën op na, niet omdat ze dom of eigenwijs zijn, maar omdat het de meest logische conclusie is op basis van hun eigen ervaringen. (systeem 1 doet altijd mee!)
  • 48. Evidence-based practice Fase 1: Het ontwikkelen van kritisch en wetenschappelijk denken dat leidt tot een professioneel-kritische attitude met betrekking tot organisatievraagstukken Fase 2: Het kunnen formuleren van een expliciete vraag en op basis van deze vraag kunnen zoeken in online databases naar uitkomst van relevant wetenschappelijk onderzoek. Fase 3: Het kritisch kunnen beoordelen van wetenschappelijke en organizational evidence (critical appraisal) Fase 4: Uitkomst van wetenschappelijk onderzoek kunnen toepassen in de eigen beroepspraktijk (application of science)
  • 50. 5-step approach EBMgt is a 5-step approach 1. Formulate an answerable question (PICOC) 2. Search for the best available evidence 3. Critically appraise the quality of the found evidence 4. Integrate the evidence with managerial expertise and organizational concerns and apply 5. Monitor and evaluate the results
  • 52. Focused question?  Does team-building work?  What are the costs and benefits of self-steering teams?  What are the success factors for culture change?  Does management development improve the performance of managers?  Does employee participation prevent resistance to change?  How do employees feel about 360 degree feedback?
  • 53. Foreground question?  Does team-building work?  What is a „team‟?  What kind of teams?  In what contexts/settings?  What counts as „team-building‟?  What does „work‟ mean?  What outcomes are relevant?  Over what time periods?
  • 54. Answerable question: PICOC P = Population I = Intervention or success factor C = Comparison O = Outcome C = Context
  • 55. 2. Finding the best available evidence
  • 56. Searching evidence What do we search?
  • 57. What do we search? Current Information Overview of a subject General background Academic Information Statistical Information Theories about a subject Company information
  • 59. Searching evidence Where do we search?
  • 61. Databases  ABI/INFORM  Business Source Elite  PsycINFO  Web of Knowledge  ERIC  Google Scholar
  • 63. Searching evidence How do we search? Search Strategy
  • 64. Search strategy Two types of search strategies Snowball method Building blocks method
  • 66. Exercise: Search for evidence Search in ABI/Inform: 1. How many articles has Stephen Covey published in peer reviewed journals? 2. How many of these articles are based on scientific research? 3. Are there articles (by other authors) that are critical of Covey’s 7 Habits? 4. How many of these critical articles are based on scientific research?
  • 67. Exercise: Search for evidence Search in ABI/Inform or BSE:  Search for peer reviewed research articles to answer the following question: What is the long term effect of a hostile take-over on the financial performance of the acquired organization? Use the following search terms: “hostile takeovers”, “financial performance”, “long term” How many studies did you find?
  • 68. Evidence-based practice Fase 1: Het ontwikkelen van kritisch en wetenschappelijk denken dat leidt tot een professioneel-kritische attitude met betrekking tot organisatievraagstukken Fase 2: Het kunnen formuleren van een expliciete vraag en op basis van deze vraag kunnen zoeken in online databases naar uitkomst van relevant wetenschappelijk onderzoek. Fase 3: Het kritisch kunnen beoordelen van wetenschappelijke en organizational evidence (critical appraisal) Fase 4: Uitkomst van wetenschappelijk onderzoek kunnen toepassen in de eigen beroepspraktijk (application of science)
  • 69. Research designs Which design for which question?
  • 70. What is the best design?  Randomized controlled study?  Grounded theory approach?  Cohort / panel study?  Qualitative field research?  Longitudinal study?  Post-test only study?  Survey?  Action research?  Case study?
  • 71. What is the BEST car?
  • 72. What is the best design? quants vs quallies, positivists vs post structuralist, etc
  • 74. Effect vs Non-effect
  • 75. Types of questions Does it work? Does it work better than ....? Does it have an effect on ....? Effect What is the success factor for ....? What is required to make it work ...? Will it do more good than harm?
  • 76. Types of questions: non-effect Needs: What do people want or need? Attitude: What do people think or feel? Experience: What are peoples’ experiences? Prevalence: How many / often do people / organizations ...? Procedure: How can we implement ...? Process: How does it work? Explanation: Why does it work? Economics: How much does it cost?
  • 78. Internal validity internal validity = indicates to what extent the results of the research may be biased and is thus a comment on the degree to which alternative explanations for the outcome found are possible.
  • 80. Causal relations We are pattern seeking primates: we are predisposed to see order and causal relations in the world
  • 81. Causality Considerations for research: 1. Are the "cause" and the "effect” related? effect size 1. Does the "cause" precede the "effect" in time? before and after measurement 2. Are there no plausible alternative explanations for the observed effect? randomization, blinding, control group, measurements
  • 82. Bias & Confounding Research shows: Shoe size > quality of handwriting Smoking youngsters > better lung function
  • 83. Levels of internal validity
  • 84. Which design for which question? Explanation
  • 85. Different types of research questions require different types of research designs, but ...
  • 86. But 1: feasibility Best research design?
  • 88. Step 3: Critical appraisal of studies
  • 89. Intermezzo How to read a research article?
  • 90. Critical appraisal: quick and dirty Is the study design appropriate to the stated aims? Are the measurements likely to be valid and reliable? Was there a relevant effect size? Is the outcome (population, type of organization) generalizable to your situation?
  • 91. Levels of internal validity 1. Were there enough subjects in the study? 2. Was a control group used? 3. Were the subjects randomly assigned? 4. Was a pretest used? 5. Was the study started prior to the intervention or event? 6. Was the outcome measured in an objective and reliable way? 6x yes = very high (A) 5x yes = high (A) 4-3x yes = limited (B) 2x yes = low (C) 1-0x yes = very low (D)
  • 92. Appraisal Critical appraisal questionnaires www.cebma.org/ebp-tools
  • 94. CAT: Critically Appraised Topic A critically appraised topic (or CAT) is a structured, short (3 pages max) summary of evidence on a topic of interest, usually focused around a practical problem or question. A CAT is like a “quick and dirty” version of a systematic review, summarizing the best available research evidence on a topic. Usually more than one study is included in a CAT.
  • 95. CAT: structure 1) Background / context 2) Question (PICOC) 3) Search strategy 4) Results / evidence summary 5) Findings 6) Limitations 7) Recommendation