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Prescription
 Prescription is a written order from a registered medical
practitioner, or other properly licensed practitioners, such as
dentist, veterinarian etc. to a pharmacist to compound and
dispense a specific medication for the patient.
 The order is accompanied by directions for the pharmacist to
prepare a specific type and quantity of preparation for a patient.
 The prescription also include the directions for the patient
regarding the mode of administration of drugs, which is
dispensed for him: Thus prescription is a media through which
treatment is provided for a patient by the combined skill and
services of both the physician and the pharmacist.
 The prescriptions are generally written in the English language
but Latin words or abbreviations are frequently used in order to
save time.
 So it becomes necessary for a pharmacist, to become familiar
with the common Latin terms and abbreviations used by the
prescriber while writing the prescription.
PARTS OF A PRESCRIPTION:
Prescriptions are generally written on a typical format
which are usually kept as pads. A typical prescription
consists of following parts:-
1. Date
2. Name, age, sex and address of the patient
3. Superscription
4. Inscription
5. Subscription
6. Signatura
7. Renewal instructions
8. Signature, address, and registration number of the
prescriber.
1. Date: It helps a pharmacist to find out the date of prescribing and
date of presentation for filling the prescription The prescription which
prescribe narcotic or other habit forming drugs, must bear the date, so
as to avoid the misuse of prescription if it is presented by the patient, a
number of times for dispensing.
2. Name, age, sex and address of the patient: Name, age, sex and
address of the patient must be written in the prescription because it
serves to identify the prescription In case, if any of these information is
missing in the prescription, the same may be included by the
pharmacist after proper enquiry from the patient. Age and sex of the
patient especially in case of children, help the pharmacist to check the
prescribed dose of medication.
3. Superscription: It is represented by a symbol R which is written
before writing the prescription. R is an abbreviation of the Latin word
recipe, meaning 'You take' (Take thou). In olden days, the symbol was
considered to be originated from the sign of Jupiter, God of healing
This symbol was employed by the ancient in requesting God for the
quick recovery of the patient.
4. Inscription: This is the main part of the prescription order, contains the names and
quantities of the prescribed ingredients The names of ingredients are generally written
in English language but common abbreviation used can be written both in English and
Latin languages.
Extreme care should be taken by the pharmacist in interpreting the abbreviations,
otherwise it can lead to serious errors. The medicament may be prescribed as an
official preparation a proprietary product, a non-proprietary product (generic), not
official or a special or individual formula In case of special or individual formula, the
quantity of each ingredient will be stated together with a description of the type of the
preparation, eg, cream, mixture, lotion etc.
The name of each ingredient is written on a separate line along with its quantity. In
complex prescriptions containing several ingredients the inscription is divided into
following parts:-
(a) Base: The active medicaments which are intended to produce the therapeutic
effect
(b) Adjuvant: It is included either to enhance the action of medicament or to improve
the palatability of the preparation
(c) Vehicle: It is included in the prescription either to dissolve the solid ingredients or
to increase the volume of the preparation.
Nowadays, the majority of the drugs are prescribed which are already in a suitable
formulation. The pharmacist is required to dispense the readymade form of drugs. So,
compounding of prescription is almost eliminated.
5. Subscription: This comprises direction to the pharmacist for preparing the
prescription and number of doses to be dispensed. These days, the prescribers are
omitting the specific instructions to the pharmacist because the majority of the
prescriptions are not compounded and dispensed.
6. Signatura: This consists of the direction to be given to the patient regarding the
administration of the drug It is usually written as Sig on the prescription The
instructions given in the prescription are required to be transferred to the label of the
container in which the medicament is to be dispensed, so that the patient can follow it
The instructions may include
(a) The quantity to be taken or amount to be used
(b) The frequency and timing of administration or application
(c) The route of administration
(d) The special instructions such as dilution direction
7. Renewal instructions: The prescriber indicate on every prescription order whether
it may be renewed and if so, how many times It is very important particularly in the
prescription containing the narcotic and other habit forming drugs to prevent its
misuse.
8. Signature, address and registration number of the prescriber: The prescription
must bear the signature of the prescriber along with its registration number and
address It is very important particularly in the prescription containing the narcotic and
other habit forming drugs to prevent its misuse An example of a typical prescription is
given below.
Ph:99999999
SHARMA NURSING HOME
New Town, Mumbai
Date :
Name: Age: Sex:
Address:
Rx ( Superscription)
Sodium bicarbonate 3 gms
Compound tincture of cardamom 2 ml
( Inscription) Simple Syrup I.P. 6 ml
Water q.s. 90ml
Fiat mistura (Subscription)
Cochleare magnum ter in die post cibos sumenda (Signatura)
Refill:________ Sd/-
Dr. Ashwini Sharma
M.B.B.S. M.D
Reg. No 12345
HANDLING OF PRESCRIPTION:
The following procedure should be adopted by the
pharmacist while handling the prescription for compounding
and dispensing.
1. Receiving
2 Reading and checking
3. Collecting and weighing the materials
4 Compounding, labeling and packaging
1. Receiving: The prescription should be received from the
patient by the pharmacist himself While receiving a
prescription, a pharmacist should not change his facial
expression which gives an impression to the patient that he
is surprised or confused after seeing the prescription.
2. Reading and checking: On receiving a prescription, always check it that it
is written in a proper format i.e, doctor's pad or OPD slip of the hospital
nursing home and signed by the prescriber along with date.
A prescription should always be screened behind the counter. In case of any
difficulty in reading or any doubt regarding the prescription ingredients or
directions, the pharmacist should consult the other pharmacist or the prescriber
But under no circumstance patient should come to know about it Pharmacist
should never guess about the meaning of any illegal or confused word. It may
lead to serious consequences.
Sometimes prescription is received on telephone by senior pharmacist In such
case, after taking down the prescription, it should be verified by repeating it on
phone to the prescriber. It is very important because nowadays, the number of
drugs with almost the same pronunciation and spelling are available in the
market. For example
Acidin (R) Apidin (R)
Prednisone Prednisolone
Digoxin Digitoxin
Althrocin Eltroxin
If there is any omission of any important particulars, such as the dose, the
prescriber should be contacted.
3. Collecting and weighing the material: Before compounding
the prescription, all the materials required for it, should be
collected on the left hand side of the balance. After weighing the
material it should to right hand side of the balance. This gives a
check of ingredients which have been weighed. While
compounding, the label of every stock bottle should be read at
least three times in order to avoid any error-
(a) When taken from the shelf or drawer
(b) When the contents are removed for weighing and measuring
(c) When the containers are returned back to its proper place
4. Compounding, labeling and packaging:
 Compounding should be carried out in a neat place All the equipment etc
required should be thoroughly cleaned and dried Only one prescription
should be com pounded at one time.
 All the ingredients should be compounded according to the directions of
the prescriber or according to pharmaceutical art.
 The compounded medicaments should be filled in suitable containers
depending on its quantity and use The filled containers are suitably labeled
White plain paper of good quality should be used for labeling the
containers.
 The size of the label should be proportional to the size of the container
which is written or typed, giving all the desired information The label
should be fixed with a good quality of adhesive, almost in the center
leaving equal space from the bottom and top of the container.
 The container is polished so as to remove the finger prints. While
delivering the prescription to the patient, the pharmacist should explain the
mode of administration, direction for use, and storage.
Sources of Error in Prescription:
1. Abbreviation: Abbreviation presents a problem in understanding parts of the
prescription order Extreme care should be taken by a pharmacist in interpreting the
abbreviation Pharmacist should not guess at the meaning of an ambiguous abbreviation
eg. to dispense Achromycin for "Achro may cause difficulty when the intention of the
prescriber is to dispense Achrostatin. The abbreviation "SSKI" represents the use of a
short hand for saturated solution and chemical symbols for potassium jodide.
2. Name of the drug : There are certain drugs whose name look or sound like those of
other drugs Some of the examples of such drugs are as under-
Prednisone Prednisolone
Digoxin Digitoxin
Indocin Lincocin
Doxidan Doridan
Pabalate Robalate
Ananase Orinase
Name of the pharmaceutical products have been changed on certain occasion due to the
possible confusion with the name of the other product eg the name of potassium
supplement was changed from Kalyum to Kolyum because of the possible confusion of
the former designation with valium.
3. Strength of the preparation: The strength of the preparation should
be stated by the prescriber It is essential when various strengths of a
product are available in the market For example, it will be a wrong
decision on the part of a pharmacist to dispense Paracetamol tablet 500
mg when prescription for Paracetamol tablet is received with no
specific strength.
4. Dosage form of the drug prescribed: Many medicines are available
in more than one dosage form eg, liquid, tablet, capsule and
suppository The pharmaceutical form of the product should be written
on the prescription in order to avoid ambiguity.
5. Dose: Unusually high or low doses should be discussed with the
prescriber. Pediatric dosage may present a problem. So pharmacist
should consult pediatric posology to avoid any error Sometimes a
reasonable dose is administered too frequently eg, a prescription for
sustained release formulation to be administered after very four hours
should be thoroughly checked because such dosage forms are usually
administered only two or three times a day.
6. Instructions for the patient: The instructions for the patient
which are given in the prescription are incomplete or omitted The
quantity of the drug to be taken, the frequency and timing of
administration, and route of administration should be clearly
given in the prescription so as to avoid any confusion.
7. Incompatibilities: It is essential to check that there are no
pharmaceutical or therapeutic incompatibilities in a prescribed
preparation and that different medicines prescribed for the same
patient do not interact with each other to produce any harm to the
patient Certain antibiotics should not be given with meals since it
significantly decrease the absorption of the drug.

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Prescription ppy.pptx

  • 1. Prescription  Prescription is a written order from a registered medical practitioner, or other properly licensed practitioners, such as dentist, veterinarian etc. to a pharmacist to compound and dispense a specific medication for the patient.  The order is accompanied by directions for the pharmacist to prepare a specific type and quantity of preparation for a patient.  The prescription also include the directions for the patient regarding the mode of administration of drugs, which is dispensed for him: Thus prescription is a media through which treatment is provided for a patient by the combined skill and services of both the physician and the pharmacist.  The prescriptions are generally written in the English language but Latin words or abbreviations are frequently used in order to save time.  So it becomes necessary for a pharmacist, to become familiar with the common Latin terms and abbreviations used by the prescriber while writing the prescription.
  • 2. PARTS OF A PRESCRIPTION: Prescriptions are generally written on a typical format which are usually kept as pads. A typical prescription consists of following parts:- 1. Date 2. Name, age, sex and address of the patient 3. Superscription 4. Inscription 5. Subscription 6. Signatura 7. Renewal instructions 8. Signature, address, and registration number of the prescriber.
  • 3. 1. Date: It helps a pharmacist to find out the date of prescribing and date of presentation for filling the prescription The prescription which prescribe narcotic or other habit forming drugs, must bear the date, so as to avoid the misuse of prescription if it is presented by the patient, a number of times for dispensing. 2. Name, age, sex and address of the patient: Name, age, sex and address of the patient must be written in the prescription because it serves to identify the prescription In case, if any of these information is missing in the prescription, the same may be included by the pharmacist after proper enquiry from the patient. Age and sex of the patient especially in case of children, help the pharmacist to check the prescribed dose of medication. 3. Superscription: It is represented by a symbol R which is written before writing the prescription. R is an abbreviation of the Latin word recipe, meaning 'You take' (Take thou). In olden days, the symbol was considered to be originated from the sign of Jupiter, God of healing This symbol was employed by the ancient in requesting God for the quick recovery of the patient.
  • 4. 4. Inscription: This is the main part of the prescription order, contains the names and quantities of the prescribed ingredients The names of ingredients are generally written in English language but common abbreviation used can be written both in English and Latin languages. Extreme care should be taken by the pharmacist in interpreting the abbreviations, otherwise it can lead to serious errors. The medicament may be prescribed as an official preparation a proprietary product, a non-proprietary product (generic), not official or a special or individual formula In case of special or individual formula, the quantity of each ingredient will be stated together with a description of the type of the preparation, eg, cream, mixture, lotion etc. The name of each ingredient is written on a separate line along with its quantity. In complex prescriptions containing several ingredients the inscription is divided into following parts:- (a) Base: The active medicaments which are intended to produce the therapeutic effect (b) Adjuvant: It is included either to enhance the action of medicament or to improve the palatability of the preparation (c) Vehicle: It is included in the prescription either to dissolve the solid ingredients or to increase the volume of the preparation. Nowadays, the majority of the drugs are prescribed which are already in a suitable formulation. The pharmacist is required to dispense the readymade form of drugs. So, compounding of prescription is almost eliminated.
  • 5. 5. Subscription: This comprises direction to the pharmacist for preparing the prescription and number of doses to be dispensed. These days, the prescribers are omitting the specific instructions to the pharmacist because the majority of the prescriptions are not compounded and dispensed. 6. Signatura: This consists of the direction to be given to the patient regarding the administration of the drug It is usually written as Sig on the prescription The instructions given in the prescription are required to be transferred to the label of the container in which the medicament is to be dispensed, so that the patient can follow it The instructions may include (a) The quantity to be taken or amount to be used (b) The frequency and timing of administration or application (c) The route of administration (d) The special instructions such as dilution direction 7. Renewal instructions: The prescriber indicate on every prescription order whether it may be renewed and if so, how many times It is very important particularly in the prescription containing the narcotic and other habit forming drugs to prevent its misuse. 8. Signature, address and registration number of the prescriber: The prescription must bear the signature of the prescriber along with its registration number and address It is very important particularly in the prescription containing the narcotic and other habit forming drugs to prevent its misuse An example of a typical prescription is given below.
  • 6. Ph:99999999 SHARMA NURSING HOME New Town, Mumbai Date : Name: Age: Sex: Address: Rx ( Superscription) Sodium bicarbonate 3 gms Compound tincture of cardamom 2 ml ( Inscription) Simple Syrup I.P. 6 ml Water q.s. 90ml Fiat mistura (Subscription) Cochleare magnum ter in die post cibos sumenda (Signatura) Refill:________ Sd/- Dr. Ashwini Sharma M.B.B.S. M.D Reg. No 12345
  • 7. HANDLING OF PRESCRIPTION: The following procedure should be adopted by the pharmacist while handling the prescription for compounding and dispensing. 1. Receiving 2 Reading and checking 3. Collecting and weighing the materials 4 Compounding, labeling and packaging 1. Receiving: The prescription should be received from the patient by the pharmacist himself While receiving a prescription, a pharmacist should not change his facial expression which gives an impression to the patient that he is surprised or confused after seeing the prescription.
  • 8. 2. Reading and checking: On receiving a prescription, always check it that it is written in a proper format i.e, doctor's pad or OPD slip of the hospital nursing home and signed by the prescriber along with date. A prescription should always be screened behind the counter. In case of any difficulty in reading or any doubt regarding the prescription ingredients or directions, the pharmacist should consult the other pharmacist or the prescriber But under no circumstance patient should come to know about it Pharmacist should never guess about the meaning of any illegal or confused word. It may lead to serious consequences. Sometimes prescription is received on telephone by senior pharmacist In such case, after taking down the prescription, it should be verified by repeating it on phone to the prescriber. It is very important because nowadays, the number of drugs with almost the same pronunciation and spelling are available in the market. For example Acidin (R) Apidin (R) Prednisone Prednisolone Digoxin Digitoxin Althrocin Eltroxin If there is any omission of any important particulars, such as the dose, the prescriber should be contacted.
  • 9. 3. Collecting and weighing the material: Before compounding the prescription, all the materials required for it, should be collected on the left hand side of the balance. After weighing the material it should to right hand side of the balance. This gives a check of ingredients which have been weighed. While compounding, the label of every stock bottle should be read at least three times in order to avoid any error- (a) When taken from the shelf or drawer (b) When the contents are removed for weighing and measuring (c) When the containers are returned back to its proper place
  • 10. 4. Compounding, labeling and packaging:  Compounding should be carried out in a neat place All the equipment etc required should be thoroughly cleaned and dried Only one prescription should be com pounded at one time.  All the ingredients should be compounded according to the directions of the prescriber or according to pharmaceutical art.  The compounded medicaments should be filled in suitable containers depending on its quantity and use The filled containers are suitably labeled White plain paper of good quality should be used for labeling the containers.  The size of the label should be proportional to the size of the container which is written or typed, giving all the desired information The label should be fixed with a good quality of adhesive, almost in the center leaving equal space from the bottom and top of the container.  The container is polished so as to remove the finger prints. While delivering the prescription to the patient, the pharmacist should explain the mode of administration, direction for use, and storage.
  • 11. Sources of Error in Prescription: 1. Abbreviation: Abbreviation presents a problem in understanding parts of the prescription order Extreme care should be taken by a pharmacist in interpreting the abbreviation Pharmacist should not guess at the meaning of an ambiguous abbreviation eg. to dispense Achromycin for "Achro may cause difficulty when the intention of the prescriber is to dispense Achrostatin. The abbreviation "SSKI" represents the use of a short hand for saturated solution and chemical symbols for potassium jodide. 2. Name of the drug : There are certain drugs whose name look or sound like those of other drugs Some of the examples of such drugs are as under- Prednisone Prednisolone Digoxin Digitoxin Indocin Lincocin Doxidan Doridan Pabalate Robalate Ananase Orinase Name of the pharmaceutical products have been changed on certain occasion due to the possible confusion with the name of the other product eg the name of potassium supplement was changed from Kalyum to Kolyum because of the possible confusion of the former designation with valium.
  • 12. 3. Strength of the preparation: The strength of the preparation should be stated by the prescriber It is essential when various strengths of a product are available in the market For example, it will be a wrong decision on the part of a pharmacist to dispense Paracetamol tablet 500 mg when prescription for Paracetamol tablet is received with no specific strength. 4. Dosage form of the drug prescribed: Many medicines are available in more than one dosage form eg, liquid, tablet, capsule and suppository The pharmaceutical form of the product should be written on the prescription in order to avoid ambiguity. 5. Dose: Unusually high or low doses should be discussed with the prescriber. Pediatric dosage may present a problem. So pharmacist should consult pediatric posology to avoid any error Sometimes a reasonable dose is administered too frequently eg, a prescription for sustained release formulation to be administered after very four hours should be thoroughly checked because such dosage forms are usually administered only two or three times a day.
  • 13. 6. Instructions for the patient: The instructions for the patient which are given in the prescription are incomplete or omitted The quantity of the drug to be taken, the frequency and timing of administration, and route of administration should be clearly given in the prescription so as to avoid any confusion. 7. Incompatibilities: It is essential to check that there are no pharmaceutical or therapeutic incompatibilities in a prescribed preparation and that different medicines prescribed for the same patient do not interact with each other to produce any harm to the patient Certain antibiotics should not be given with meals since it significantly decrease the absorption of the drug.