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Prescription Medicines:
Costs in Context
2020
2
Then Now
We are in a new era of medicine where breakthrough science
is transforming care with innovative treatment approaches...
Medicines made of chemical
compounds
Medicines treat broad diseases
Radiation and chemotherapy to
treat cancer
Medicines made from living cells
Medicines targeted to specific
patient based on genetic makeup
Immunotherapy that harnesses
body’s own immune system to
fight disease
CAR T-cell therapy
CRISPR
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
3
Treating people with one or more chronic condition consumes
90 cents of every dollar spent on health care.
…and enabling us to more effectively treat chronic disease,
the biggest cost driver.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
Prevalence and Spending by Number of Chronic Conditions (2014)
PERCENTAGE
Total
population
Total
expenditures
12%
41%16%
26%
31%
23%
10%
40%
Number of
chronic conditions
5+
3 – 4
1 – 2
0
Note: Total health care spending defined as the amount
spent on all outpatient and inpatient health care
services across all payers, including out of-pocket
payments.
Health Care Spending by Number of Chronic Conditions (2014)
AVERAGEANNUALSPENDINGPERPERSONINDOLLARS
Number of Chronic Conditions
Note: Total health care spending
is defined as the amount spent on
health care services across all
payers, including patient out-of-
pocket payments.
Other
Home health
Prescription
ED
Office and outpatient
Inpatient
Source: RAND Corporation
4
In the midst of this incredible progress, medicine cost
growth is declining.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
5.3%
0.4%
2015
2018
5.0%
3.3%
2015
2018
8.5%
4.5%
2015
2018
Note: IQVIA data is reflective of retail and physician-administered medicine spending.
5
In fact, after discounts and rebates, brand medicine prices
grew just 0.3% in 2018.
Source: IQVIA, January 2019.
*Includes protected brand medicines only (ie, brand medicines without generic versions available in the year indicated).
**Net price growth reflects impact of off-invoice rebates and discounts provided by manufacturers.
Estimated Net Price Growth**Invoice Price Growth
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
6
Spending on retail and physician-administered medicines
represents just 14% of health care spending…
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
8%
12%
14%
18%
13%
4%
31%
Admin Costs
Home Health & Nursing Home Care
Prescription Medicines
Physician & Clinical Services
Other**
Dental Services
Hospital Care
U.S. Health
Care
Spending,
2018
Source: PhRMA analysis of CMS National Health Expenditures data, Altarum Institute study. May not sum to 100% due to rounding.
7
Dental Services
Other
Prescription Medicines
Government Administrative Costs
Physician and Clinical Services
Home Health and Nursing Home Care
Hospital Care12%
32%
34%
2%
3%
…and a small share of total Medicaid spending…
TOTAL
$545B
Note: Prescription drug data is net of rebates and includes both retail and non-retail drugs. Data used were predominantly derived from CMS 64 reports. Pre-rebate expenditures were tabulated using FY2015 CMS
State Drug Utilization data files and CMS brand/generic indicators for each NDC.
Source: CMS National Health Expenditure Data and Altarum Institute.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
11%
7%
8
…and is projected to grow in line with health care spending
through next decade.
Health Care Retail Prescription Medicines
PercentAnnualGrowthRate
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
Source: CMS National Health Expenditures Report, 2019.
Note: Total retail sales include brand medicines and generics.
9
At the same time, growth in other health care services will be 5
times total medicine spending growth through next decade.
Source: CMS National Health Expenditures Report, 2018.
Note: Total retail sales include brand medicines and generics.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
$0
$50
$100
$150
$200
$250
$300
$350
$400
2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027
Other Health Care Services
(10-year cumulative increase: $2,101 billion)
Prescription Medicines (Retail and Nonretail)
(10-year cumulative increase: $370 billion)
5x
Projected Cumulative Growth in Spending (in Billions), 2018–2027
10
Negotiating power is increasingly concentrated among
fewer pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs).
Top 3
Market Share:
76%
23%
30%
23%
24%
OptumRx (UnitedHealthGroup)
CVS Health (Caremark)
Express Scripts
All Other
Insurers determine:
FORMULARY
if a medicine is covered
TIER PLACEMENT
patient cost sharing
ACCESSIBILITY
utilization management through
prior authorization or fail first
PROVIDER INCENTIVES
preferred treatment guidelines
and pathways
Source: Drug Channels Institute, March 2019.
Insurers and PBMs have a lot of leverage to hold down
medicine costs.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
11
In fact, more than 1/3 of the list price is rebated back to payers,
the government and other stakeholders in the supply chain.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
Rebates, discounts, fees and other
price concessions have more than
doubled since 2012
2012 2018
$74B
$166B
Source: Berkeley Research Group, 2020.
54%
46%
Brand Manufacturer Other Entity Received
Percent of Total Spending on Brand
Medicines Received by Manufacturers
and Other Entities, 2018
12
Hospitals also benefit from misaligned incentives in the supply
chain.
An analysis found that 320
hospitals mark up some
medicine prices at least 1000%
Nearly one in five hospitals marks
up medicine prices to 700% or
more of their acquisition cost
If a hospital purchased a medicine
for $150, a 700% markup could
result in patients being billed
$1,050 for that medicine
Amount
paid by
hospital
Amount
billed by
hospital
$1,050
$150
1000%
Source: The Moran Company. Hospital Charges and Reimbursement for Medicines: Analysis of Cost-to Charge Ratios. September 2018.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
13
Hospital spending is much higher
than prescription drug spending.
Yet patients pay more out-of-pocket
for medicines than for hospital care.
And patients face higher out-of-pocket costs at the pharmacy
counter even though total spending on hospital care is far higher.
Source: Drug Channels Institute analysis of National Health Expenditure Accounts, Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, December 2019. Outpatient prescription drug figures exclude inpatient
prescription drug spending within hospitals and nearly all provider-administered outpatient drugs. Figures in billions.
Total U.S. Spending
Hospital Care Retail Prescription Drugs
$1,191.8B
$335B
$850B
Total Patient Out-of-Pocket Spending
Hospital Care Retail Prescription Drugs
$47.1B
$34.8B
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
14
90% of all medicines dispensed in the United States
are generics.
Source: IMS Health. Drug Channels Institute, March 2019.
Source: Association for Accessible Medicines. “Generic Drug & Biosimilars Access & Savings Report,” 2019.
$1.99
trillion
10-year savings
(2009 - 2018)
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
90%88%
72%
52%
33%
43%
19%
1984 1990 1996 2002 2008 2014 2018
15
Generics cost a fraction of the price of the initial
brand medicine.
Note: Figures represent the average annual price for 30 pills of the most commonly dispensed form and strength. "Then” price
represents the average price in the year prior to generic entry. “Now” price represents the average price in December 2017.
Source: IQVIA Institute for Human Data Science analysis for PhRMA. May 2018.
-92%
-93%
-98%
-96%
-98%
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
Medicine
DIOVAN VCT®
Hypertension (2010)
LIPITOR®
Cholesterol (2010)
PLAVIX®
Blood Thinner (2011)
SEROQUEL®
Schizophrenia (2010)
ZYPREXA®
Schizophrenia& (2010)
Bipolar Disorder
% Change
Brand Name THEN Generic NOW
$87
$85
$166
$87
$393
$7
$6
$4
$2
$17
16
Competition from generics and biosimilars is expected to
reduce U.S. brand sales by $95 billion from 2019 to 2023.
2014-2018: $72 Billion
Projected
2019-2023: $105 Billion
Source: IQVIA. January 2019.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
17
At the same time, innovator companies race to be the first to
market with a new medicine.
Time Between Approval of First and
Second Medicines in a Therapeutic
Class Has Declined Dramatically
Competing brands generally launch within years
10.2
years
1970’s
2.3
years
2005-2011
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
Source: Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (CSDD).
18
For example, American patients have access to cancer
medicines about two years earlier.
The competitive U.S. market provides patients with access to
innovative medicines faster.
22
15
10
10
10
10
10
21
17
17
15
13
7
4
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Taiwan
Australia
Spain
Italy
United Kingdom
France
Germany
Months
Delay in cancer medicine approval and reimbursement, 2010-2014
Delay Between U.S. Approval and Country-Specific Approval Delay Between Country Approval and Reimbursement
17
23
25
27
32
43
14
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
Source: PhRMA analysis of IMS Consulting Group “Patient Access to Innovative Oncology Medicines Across Developed Markets.” June 2016
19
More medicines are available to U.S. patients.
Source: PhRMA analysis of IQVIA Analytics Link and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Health Canada and Australia Therapeutic Goods Administration data.
Note: New active substances approved by the above regulatory agencies and launched in the United States and other countries from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2018.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
100%
67% 64%
53% 52%
48%
41%
United
States
Germany United
Kingdom
France Canada Japan Australia
Number of New Medicines Available by Country
(of 270 global new medicines launched in the United States from 2011 to 2018)
20
Spending on prescription medicines is a small percentage of
total health care spending around the world.
Note: Total health care spending includes hospital care, physician and clinical services, home health and nursing home care, government administration and net cost of private health insurance, dental, home health and other
professional services as well as durable medical equipment.
Source: OECD Health Statistics Database (accessed February 2016); Altarum Institute, 2015, A ten year projection of the prescription drug share of national health expenditures including non-retail.
Prescription Medicines as a Percentage of Total Health Care Spending
14% Canada
14% USA
11% UK
13% France
13% Germany
15% Italy
12% Spain
16% Japan
10% Australia
16% Korea
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
21
3%
5%
7%
13% 14%
20%
23%
32%
44%
51%
Patients in the United States are facing rising out-of-pocket
costs and other barriers to care.
Percent of plans with deductibles
on prescription drugs
23%
52%
2012 2017
Source: PWC, KFF
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
The use of four or more cost-
sharing tiers is becoming more
common on employer plans
22
Cost sharing for nearly 1 in 5 brand
prescriptions is based on list price
More than half of commercially insured
patients’ out-of-pocket spending for brand
medicines is based on the full list price
And too often negotiated savings do not make their way
to patients.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
44%
26%
29%
55%
Copay
Deductible
Coinsurance
Source: IQVIA. May 2018.
23
Certain commercially insured patients could save $145 to more than $800 annually.
Sharing negotiated discounts with patients would increase
premiums about 1%.
NOTE: Plan cost includes medical and pharmacy claims
*HDHP = High-deductible health plan
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
Change in Plan Costs with Shared Rebates
PLAN TYPE
Traditional PPO Copay HDHP* Coinsurance HDHP
Net Plan Per Member Per Month Spend $433.91 $374.41 $372.89
Change in Plan Costs $ $0.82 $2.62 $3.84
Change in Plan Costs % 0.2% 0.7% 1.0%
24
And
20%
of revenues are reinvested
into R&D
NOTE: The remaining 57% share of business R&D spending is conducted by other industries, including subsectors of the machinery sector, the computer and electronics products sector, and the electrical equipment, appliance, and components sector.
Source: Research!America report and PhRMA analysis of National Science Foundation data.
Industry invests 17% of all domestic research
and development funded by U.S. businesses
Invested about
$90 Billion
in R&D in 2016
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
Biopharmaceutical companies use today’s revenues to invest
in tomorrow’s treatments and cures.
Pharmaceuticals
& Medicines
Software Automobiles Aerospace Computer
Systems Design
Scientific R&D
Services
25
On average, it takes more than
10 years and $2.6B to research and develop a new medicine.
BETWEEN 1998 AND 2014
Unsuccessful
Attempts
Successful
Attempts
123
Alzheimer’s Disease
96
Melanoma
167
Lung Cancer
4
Alzheimer’s Disease
7
Melanoma
10
Lung Cancer
Just
12%
of drug candidates that enter
clinical testing are approved
for use by patients
Source: Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (CSDD).
Source: Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), “Researching Alzheimer’s Medicines: Setbacks and Stepping Stones,” 2015.
Source: Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), “Researching Cancer Medicines: Setbacks and Stepping Stones,” 2014.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
We need a public policy environment that recognizes and
rewards risk taking.
26
PROMOTE VALUE-DRIVEN HEALTH CARE
• Remove barriers restricting information companies can share with insurers.
• Reform regulations discouraging companies from offering discounts tied to outcomes.
• Modify Medicaid best price requirements.
MODERNIZE THE DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
• Modernize the FDA to keep pace with scientific discovery and increase efficiency of generic approvals
• Promote and incentivize generic competition.
EMPOWER CONSUMERS AND LOWER OUT-OF-POCKET COSTS
• Provide patients with access to negotiated rebates.
• Address affordability challenges in the deductible.
• Make more information on health care out-of-pocket costs and quality available to patients.
IMPROVE TRADE AGREEMENTS
• Enforce existing trade agreements.
• Ensure new trade agreements recognize value of innovative medicines.
Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
ADDRESS MARKET DISTORTIONS
• Address burdensome regulations that distort programs like the 340B Drug Pricing program.
Collectively, these market-based reforms can make medicines
more affordable and accessible.

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Prescription Medicines Costs in Context January 2020

  • 2. 2 Then Now We are in a new era of medicine where breakthrough science is transforming care with innovative treatment approaches... Medicines made of chemical compounds Medicines treat broad diseases Radiation and chemotherapy to treat cancer Medicines made from living cells Medicines targeted to specific patient based on genetic makeup Immunotherapy that harnesses body’s own immune system to fight disease CAR T-cell therapy CRISPR Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
  • 3. 3 Treating people with one or more chronic condition consumes 90 cents of every dollar spent on health care. …and enabling us to more effectively treat chronic disease, the biggest cost driver. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost Prevalence and Spending by Number of Chronic Conditions (2014) PERCENTAGE Total population Total expenditures 12% 41%16% 26% 31% 23% 10% 40% Number of chronic conditions 5+ 3 – 4 1 – 2 0 Note: Total health care spending defined as the amount spent on all outpatient and inpatient health care services across all payers, including out of-pocket payments. Health Care Spending by Number of Chronic Conditions (2014) AVERAGEANNUALSPENDINGPERPERSONINDOLLARS Number of Chronic Conditions Note: Total health care spending is defined as the amount spent on health care services across all payers, including patient out-of- pocket payments. Other Home health Prescription ED Office and outpatient Inpatient Source: RAND Corporation
  • 4. 4 In the midst of this incredible progress, medicine cost growth is declining. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost 5.3% 0.4% 2015 2018 5.0% 3.3% 2015 2018 8.5% 4.5% 2015 2018 Note: IQVIA data is reflective of retail and physician-administered medicine spending.
  • 5. 5 In fact, after discounts and rebates, brand medicine prices grew just 0.3% in 2018. Source: IQVIA, January 2019. *Includes protected brand medicines only (ie, brand medicines without generic versions available in the year indicated). **Net price growth reflects impact of off-invoice rebates and discounts provided by manufacturers. Estimated Net Price Growth**Invoice Price Growth Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
  • 6. 6 Spending on retail and physician-administered medicines represents just 14% of health care spending… Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost 8% 12% 14% 18% 13% 4% 31% Admin Costs Home Health & Nursing Home Care Prescription Medicines Physician & Clinical Services Other** Dental Services Hospital Care U.S. Health Care Spending, 2018 Source: PhRMA analysis of CMS National Health Expenditures data, Altarum Institute study. May not sum to 100% due to rounding.
  • 7. 7 Dental Services Other Prescription Medicines Government Administrative Costs Physician and Clinical Services Home Health and Nursing Home Care Hospital Care12% 32% 34% 2% 3% …and a small share of total Medicaid spending… TOTAL $545B Note: Prescription drug data is net of rebates and includes both retail and non-retail drugs. Data used were predominantly derived from CMS 64 reports. Pre-rebate expenditures were tabulated using FY2015 CMS State Drug Utilization data files and CMS brand/generic indicators for each NDC. Source: CMS National Health Expenditure Data and Altarum Institute. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost 11% 7%
  • 8. 8 …and is projected to grow in line with health care spending through next decade. Health Care Retail Prescription Medicines PercentAnnualGrowthRate Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost Source: CMS National Health Expenditures Report, 2019. Note: Total retail sales include brand medicines and generics.
  • 9. 9 At the same time, growth in other health care services will be 5 times total medicine spending growth through next decade. Source: CMS National Health Expenditures Report, 2018. Note: Total retail sales include brand medicines and generics. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost $0 $50 $100 $150 $200 $250 $300 $350 $400 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 Other Health Care Services (10-year cumulative increase: $2,101 billion) Prescription Medicines (Retail and Nonretail) (10-year cumulative increase: $370 billion) 5x Projected Cumulative Growth in Spending (in Billions), 2018–2027
  • 10. 10 Negotiating power is increasingly concentrated among fewer pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs). Top 3 Market Share: 76% 23% 30% 23% 24% OptumRx (UnitedHealthGroup) CVS Health (Caremark) Express Scripts All Other Insurers determine: FORMULARY if a medicine is covered TIER PLACEMENT patient cost sharing ACCESSIBILITY utilization management through prior authorization or fail first PROVIDER INCENTIVES preferred treatment guidelines and pathways Source: Drug Channels Institute, March 2019. Insurers and PBMs have a lot of leverage to hold down medicine costs. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
  • 11. 11 In fact, more than 1/3 of the list price is rebated back to payers, the government and other stakeholders in the supply chain. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost Rebates, discounts, fees and other price concessions have more than doubled since 2012 2012 2018 $74B $166B Source: Berkeley Research Group, 2020. 54% 46% Brand Manufacturer Other Entity Received Percent of Total Spending on Brand Medicines Received by Manufacturers and Other Entities, 2018
  • 12. 12 Hospitals also benefit from misaligned incentives in the supply chain. An analysis found that 320 hospitals mark up some medicine prices at least 1000% Nearly one in five hospitals marks up medicine prices to 700% or more of their acquisition cost If a hospital purchased a medicine for $150, a 700% markup could result in patients being billed $1,050 for that medicine Amount paid by hospital Amount billed by hospital $1,050 $150 1000% Source: The Moran Company. Hospital Charges and Reimbursement for Medicines: Analysis of Cost-to Charge Ratios. September 2018. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
  • 13. 13 Hospital spending is much higher than prescription drug spending. Yet patients pay more out-of-pocket for medicines than for hospital care. And patients face higher out-of-pocket costs at the pharmacy counter even though total spending on hospital care is far higher. Source: Drug Channels Institute analysis of National Health Expenditure Accounts, Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, December 2019. Outpatient prescription drug figures exclude inpatient prescription drug spending within hospitals and nearly all provider-administered outpatient drugs. Figures in billions. Total U.S. Spending Hospital Care Retail Prescription Drugs $1,191.8B $335B $850B Total Patient Out-of-Pocket Spending Hospital Care Retail Prescription Drugs $47.1B $34.8B Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
  • 14. 14 90% of all medicines dispensed in the United States are generics. Source: IMS Health. Drug Channels Institute, March 2019. Source: Association for Accessible Medicines. “Generic Drug & Biosimilars Access & Savings Report,” 2019. $1.99 trillion 10-year savings (2009 - 2018) Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost 90%88% 72% 52% 33% 43% 19% 1984 1990 1996 2002 2008 2014 2018
  • 15. 15 Generics cost a fraction of the price of the initial brand medicine. Note: Figures represent the average annual price for 30 pills of the most commonly dispensed form and strength. "Then” price represents the average price in the year prior to generic entry. “Now” price represents the average price in December 2017. Source: IQVIA Institute for Human Data Science analysis for PhRMA. May 2018. -92% -93% -98% -96% -98% Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost Medicine DIOVAN VCT® Hypertension (2010) LIPITOR® Cholesterol (2010) PLAVIX® Blood Thinner (2011) SEROQUEL® Schizophrenia (2010) ZYPREXA® Schizophrenia& (2010) Bipolar Disorder % Change Brand Name THEN Generic NOW $87 $85 $166 $87 $393 $7 $6 $4 $2 $17
  • 16. 16 Competition from generics and biosimilars is expected to reduce U.S. brand sales by $95 billion from 2019 to 2023. 2014-2018: $72 Billion Projected 2019-2023: $105 Billion Source: IQVIA. January 2019. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
  • 17. 17 At the same time, innovator companies race to be the first to market with a new medicine. Time Between Approval of First and Second Medicines in a Therapeutic Class Has Declined Dramatically Competing brands generally launch within years 10.2 years 1970’s 2.3 years 2005-2011 Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost Source: Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (CSDD).
  • 18. 18 For example, American patients have access to cancer medicines about two years earlier. The competitive U.S. market provides patients with access to innovative medicines faster. 22 15 10 10 10 10 10 21 17 17 15 13 7 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Taiwan Australia Spain Italy United Kingdom France Germany Months Delay in cancer medicine approval and reimbursement, 2010-2014 Delay Between U.S. Approval and Country-Specific Approval Delay Between Country Approval and Reimbursement 17 23 25 27 32 43 14 Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost Source: PhRMA analysis of IMS Consulting Group “Patient Access to Innovative Oncology Medicines Across Developed Markets.” June 2016
  • 19. 19 More medicines are available to U.S. patients. Source: PhRMA analysis of IQVIA Analytics Link and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Health Canada and Australia Therapeutic Goods Administration data. Note: New active substances approved by the above regulatory agencies and launched in the United States and other countries from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2018. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost 100% 67% 64% 53% 52% 48% 41% United States Germany United Kingdom France Canada Japan Australia Number of New Medicines Available by Country (of 270 global new medicines launched in the United States from 2011 to 2018)
  • 20. 20 Spending on prescription medicines is a small percentage of total health care spending around the world. Note: Total health care spending includes hospital care, physician and clinical services, home health and nursing home care, government administration and net cost of private health insurance, dental, home health and other professional services as well as durable medical equipment. Source: OECD Health Statistics Database (accessed February 2016); Altarum Institute, 2015, A ten year projection of the prescription drug share of national health expenditures including non-retail. Prescription Medicines as a Percentage of Total Health Care Spending 14% Canada 14% USA 11% UK 13% France 13% Germany 15% Italy 12% Spain 16% Japan 10% Australia 16% Korea Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost
  • 21. 21 3% 5% 7% 13% 14% 20% 23% 32% 44% 51% Patients in the United States are facing rising out-of-pocket costs and other barriers to care. Percent of plans with deductibles on prescription drugs 23% 52% 2012 2017 Source: PWC, KFF Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 The use of four or more cost- sharing tiers is becoming more common on employer plans
  • 22. 22 Cost sharing for nearly 1 in 5 brand prescriptions is based on list price More than half of commercially insured patients’ out-of-pocket spending for brand medicines is based on the full list price And too often negotiated savings do not make their way to patients. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost 44% 26% 29% 55% Copay Deductible Coinsurance Source: IQVIA. May 2018.
  • 23. 23 Certain commercially insured patients could save $145 to more than $800 annually. Sharing negotiated discounts with patients would increase premiums about 1%. NOTE: Plan cost includes medical and pharmacy claims *HDHP = High-deductible health plan Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost Change in Plan Costs with Shared Rebates PLAN TYPE Traditional PPO Copay HDHP* Coinsurance HDHP Net Plan Per Member Per Month Spend $433.91 $374.41 $372.89 Change in Plan Costs $ $0.82 $2.62 $3.84 Change in Plan Costs % 0.2% 0.7% 1.0%
  • 24. 24 And 20% of revenues are reinvested into R&D NOTE: The remaining 57% share of business R&D spending is conducted by other industries, including subsectors of the machinery sector, the computer and electronics products sector, and the electrical equipment, appliance, and components sector. Source: Research!America report and PhRMA analysis of National Science Foundation data. Industry invests 17% of all domestic research and development funded by U.S. businesses Invested about $90 Billion in R&D in 2016 Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost Biopharmaceutical companies use today’s revenues to invest in tomorrow’s treatments and cures. Pharmaceuticals & Medicines Software Automobiles Aerospace Computer Systems Design Scientific R&D Services
  • 25. 25 On average, it takes more than 10 years and $2.6B to research and develop a new medicine. BETWEEN 1998 AND 2014 Unsuccessful Attempts Successful Attempts 123 Alzheimer’s Disease 96 Melanoma 167 Lung Cancer 4 Alzheimer’s Disease 7 Melanoma 10 Lung Cancer Just 12% of drug candidates that enter clinical testing are approved for use by patients Source: Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (CSDD). Source: Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), “Researching Alzheimer’s Medicines: Setbacks and Stepping Stones,” 2015. Source: Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), “Researching Cancer Medicines: Setbacks and Stepping Stones,” 2014. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost We need a public policy environment that recognizes and rewards risk taking.
  • 26. 26 PROMOTE VALUE-DRIVEN HEALTH CARE • Remove barriers restricting information companies can share with insurers. • Reform regulations discouraging companies from offering discounts tied to outcomes. • Modify Medicaid best price requirements. MODERNIZE THE DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS • Modernize the FDA to keep pace with scientific discovery and increase efficiency of generic approvals • Promote and incentivize generic competition. EMPOWER CONSUMERS AND LOWER OUT-OF-POCKET COSTS • Provide patients with access to negotiated rebates. • Address affordability challenges in the deductible. • Make more information on health care out-of-pocket costs and quality available to patients. IMPROVE TRADE AGREEMENTS • Enforce existing trade agreements. • Ensure new trade agreements recognize value of innovative medicines. Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context www.phrma.org/cost ADDRESS MARKET DISTORTIONS • Address burdensome regulations that distort programs like the 340B Drug Pricing program. Collectively, these market-based reforms can make medicines more affordable and accessible.

Editor's Notes

  1. 13. IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. March 2017.