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Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108
99
International Journal of Farmacia
Journal Home page: www.ijfjournal.com
Preparation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets of Repaglinide
(USP) using natural polymers
Mahmooda*, 'Dr. Syed abdul azeez basha
Deccan college of pharmacy, Darussalam, Aghapura, Nampally, Telangana Hyderabad
*Corresponding author: 'Dr. Syed abdul azeez basha
Email id: ahmoodashaik21@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The objective of the present work is to develop and characterizes oral sustain release matrix tablets of Repaglinide.
Repaglinide is practically insoluble in water so it is suitable to develop sustained release matrix tablet using
hydrophilic polymers. Repaglinide is anti-diabetic drug used extensively in the treatment of diabetes type II. The
natural polymers like carrageenan, chitosan, gum karaya, Bhara gum were utilized in the formulation of matrix
tablets containing Repaglinide by wet granulation technique and evaluated for its drug release characteristics.
Granules were prepared and evaluated for its physical properties and shows satisfactory results. Formulation was
optimized on the basis of acceptable tablet properties (hardness, friability, drug content and weight variations), in
vitro drug release and stability studies. All the formulations showed compliance with Pharmacopeial standards. The
in vitro release study of matrix tablets were carried out in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 for 12 hr. Among all the
formulations, F2 with shows 100% better controlled release at the end of 12 hrs when compared to other
formulations. The release data was fitted to various mathematical models such as, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas,
First-order, and Zero order to evaluate the kinetics and mechanism of the drug release. The drug release of
optimized formulations F2 follows zero order kinetics and the mechanism was found to be diffusion coupled with
erosion (non-Fickian diffusion). The stability studies were carried out according to ICH guideline which indicates
that the selected formulations were stable.
Keywords: Repaglinide, chitosan, Carrageenan, Gum karaya, bhara Gum, Matrix tablet, Sustained release, Wet
granulation.
INTRODUCTION
Matrix tablets composed of drug and polymer as
release retarding material offer the simplest approach
in developing a sustained-release drug delivery
system [34, 35]. Recent trend in development of
sustained-release drug delivery systems was the use
of gums of plant origin to fulfill the aim of retarding
the drug release [1, 21]. Natural gums are
biodegradable and nontoxic, which hydrate and swell
on contact with aqueous media, and these have been
used for the preparation of dosage form [27, 28].
Repaglinide is the first member of new class of oral
hypoglycemic designed to normalize the [29, 30]
meal time glucose excursions. Repaglinide induces
rapid onset short lasting insulin release [23, 24]. It is
administered before each major meal to control
postprandial hyperglycemia the [36- 37] dose may be
omitted if a meal is missed. Because of short lasting
action it may have a lower risk of serious
hypoglycemia [2]. Side effects are mild headache,
dyspepsia, arthralgia, and weight gain [25, 26]. After
oral administration, Repaglinide is rapidly and
completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
After single and multiple oral doses inn healthy
subjects or in patients, [32, 33] peak plasma drug
levels (Cmax) occurs within 1 hour (Tmax) [3, 22].
The present study was [38, 39] designed to formulate
matrix tablets using carrageenan, chitosan, gum
Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108
101
karaya, bhara gum matrix polymers for controlling
release of poorly water soluble drug Repaglinide.
AIM AND OBJECTIVE
Aim
The main aim of the present investigation is to
design, formulate and evaluate the sustained release
dosage form of Repaglinide (USP) using natural
polymers [4, 31].
Objectives
1. Preformulation studies such as API
characterization, solubility studies, determination
of melting point.
2. To improve its oral bioavailability.
3. To develop the extended release system over a
period of time.
4. Increased patient compliance by reducing the
dose frequency.
5. Determination of λmax and development of
calibration curve of Repaglinide using UV
spectrophotometer.
6. To perform various quality control evaluation
parameters for the prepared tablets.
METHODOLOGY
Formulation of extended release layer
Matrix tablets of were prepared by Wet Granulation
method [5, 6]. The active ingredient was passed
through the sieve#40 followed by the other
ingredients were passed the same sieve. Repaglinide,
Carrageenan [7,8], Chitosan, Bhara gum, gum
karaya, Ethyl cellulose, Micro crystalline cellulose
were taken in a poly bag according to the formulation
table and mixed for 5minutes to ensure uniform
mixing of the ingredients with the drug [9,10]. Weigh
Starch accurately [40] and it is mixed with water to
form a paste is used as binder solution and kept
separately [11, 12]. The binder solution was added
slowly to the dry mixed ingredients with constant
mixing till to get solid mass to form uniform and
optimum granules [13, 14]. Then the wet granules
were dried in trays and pass the air for drying
.Samples were removed randomly at different time
intervals from the total bulk of the granules and then
checked out for moisture content [15, 16]. The dried
materials were passed through the sieve#20. After
sieving dry granules were lubricated using
Magnesium .stearate and Talc [17, 18]. After
lubrication granules were sent to compression.
Repaglinide Matrix tablets was compressed using
12mm round punch [19, 20].
Table 1: Formulation table for extended release layer
Ingredients F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8
Repaglinide (USP) 4mg 4mg 4mg 4mg 4mg 4mg 4mg 4mg
Carrageenan 15% 30% - - - - - -
Chitosan - - 15% 30% - - - -
Bhara gum - - - - 15% 30% - -
Gum karaya - - - - - - 15% 30%
Starch 5mg 5mg 5mg 5mg 5mg 5mg 5mg 5mg
Talc 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg
Ethyl cellulose 30mg 60mg 30mg 60mg 30mg 60mg 30mg 60mg
Magnesium
Stearate
12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg
MCC q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s
Water q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s
Total wt (mg) 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108
101
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Preformulation studies
Organoleptic characters for Repaglinide
Description of Repaglinide
Solubility
Solvents Solubility
Water Practically insoluble
pH6.8 Phosphate buffer Soluble
Methanol Soluble
Ethanol Soluble
Melting point
Melting point of Repaglinide drug was determined by using melting point apparatus and was in the range of 131o
C.
Evaluation of repaglinde tablets
Table 2: Precompession parameters
Formulations
Bulk
Density(gm/ml)
Tapped
density(gm/ml)
Carr’s Index
(%)
Hausner
ratio
Angle of
repose (0
)
F1 0.356 0.400 11.00 1.12 28.16
F2 0.379 0.429 11.66 1.13 24.59
F3 0.344 0.392 12.24 1.14 28.73
F4 0.369 0.425 13.18 1.15 25.14
F5 0.373 0.429 13.05 1.15 27.35
F6 0.349 0.410 14.88 1.17 28.19
F7 0.371 0.426 12.91 1.15 26.31
F8 0.396 0.453 12.58 1.14 25.14
The blends for Matrix tablets were characterized with
respect to angle of repose, bulk density, tapped
density, Carr’s index, and Hausners ratio. Angle of
repose was less than 30° and Carr’s index values
were less than 15 for the blend of all the batches
indicating excellent to good flowability and
compressibility. Hausner’s ratio was less than 1.17
for all the batches indicating excellent flow
properties.
Table 3: Post compression parameters
F.Code Hardness (kg/cm2
) Thickness (mm) Weight (mg) Friability (%)
F1 5.4 ±0.44 2.08±0.17 199.8±1.48 0.36
F2 4.5±0.31 2.70±0.25 200.4±0.54 0.39
F3 5.5±0.40 2.81±0.80 198.6±0.41 0.43
F4 5.5±0.55 2.2±0.20 200.8±1.64 0.12
F5 4.6±0.57 2.08±0.66 205.6±1.14 0.54
Test Description
Colour white to off-white powder
Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108
2
F6 5.0±0.30 2.91±0.25 199.2±0.83 0.58
F7 4.5±0.57 2.1±0.71 199.9±0.67 0.64
F8 5.4±0.60 2.0±0.89 199.0±0.43 0.37
The results of the uniformity of weight, hardness,
thickness, friability, and drug content of the tablets
are given in above Table 3. All the tablets of different
batches complied with the official requirements of
uniformity of weight as their weights varied between
198.6±0.41 and 200.8±1.64mg. The hardness of the
tablets ranged from 4.5±0.31 to 5.5±0.55 kg/cm2
and
the friability values were less than 0.65% indicating
that tablets were compact and hard. The thickness of
the tablets ranged from 2.0 to 2.91 mm. All the
formulations satisfied the content of the drug as they
contained 98 to 100 % of Repaglinide and good
uniformity in drug content was observed. Thus all the
physical attributes of the prepared tablets were found
be practically within control.
Invitro dissolution studies for matrix tablets
Dissolution study ( matrix tablets)
Acidic Stage
Medium : 0.1N HCL
Type of apparatus : USP - II (paddle type)
RPM : 50
Volume : 900ml
Temperature : 37ºC± 0.5
Time : 2hrs
Buffer Stage
Medium : 6.8pH phosphate buffer
Type of apparatus : USP - II (paddle type)
RPM : 50
Volume : 900ml
Time : 12hrs.
Table 4: Cumulative percentage drug release from matrix tablets
Time
(hrs)
F1
%drug
release
F2
%drug
release
F3
%drug
release
F4
%drug
release
F5
%drug
release
F6
%drug
release
F7
%drug
release
F8
%drug
release
Dissolution medium 0.1N HCL
0.5 7.2 3.1 4.5 3.1 5.1 4.8 5.8 5.1
1 11.8 6.5 9.2 8.3 7.4 8.7 8.6 9.8
2 20.6 12.4 18.6 10.8 8.7 15.7 12.3 15.4
6.8pH phosphate buffer
3 29.1 21.8 20.8 21.6 28.0 19.8 17.8 20.9
4 33.8 26.8 33.4 28.7 37.6 23.8 22.8 27.6
5 40.8 30.9 41.8 34.3 43.8 31.7 26.6 30.8
6 45.6 36.8 50.3 46.8 51.4 36.8 31.8 36.4
7 54.3 39.2 58.6 49.2 63.4 43.2 39.3 41.8
8 63.4 48.3 64.5 55.8 75.4 49.6 46.9 49.1
9 71.8 55.8 73.8 61.3 75.4 51.6 51.8 54.6
10 80.6 65.6 81.7 66.8 89.6 57.8 65.3 59.4
11 87 85.6 88 87.3 93.1 83.6 76.6 65.3
12 91 100 94.2 91 97 89.8 83.6 71.6
The Formulation F2 showed 100% drug release at 12 hrs.
Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108
103
Fig 1: In-Vitro Drug Release Studies for matrix tablets F1 – F8.
Release kinetics of F2
Fig 2: Zero order graph for F2 Formulation
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
%CDR
Time (hrs)
Cumulative percentage drug release from matrix tablets F1-F8
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
y = 7.3535x - 3.3324
R² = 0.9523
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 5 10 15
%CDR
Time (hrs)
Zero order kinetics for F2 Formulation
% DR
Linear (% DR)
Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108
104
Fig 3: First order graph for F2 Formulation
Fig 4: Higuchi graph for F2 Formulation
y = -0.1089x + 2.2292
R² = 0.6013
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Log%drugrelease
Time (hrs)
First order kinetics for F2 Formulation
Log % DR
Linear (Log % DR)
y = 26.429x - 18.545
R² = 0.8417
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 1 2 3 4
%CDR
Sq rt of time (hrs)
Higuchi kinetics for F2 Formulation
% DR
Linear (% DR)
Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108
105
Fig 5: Korsmeyer-Peppas graph for F2 Formulation
Table 5: Release kinetics for F2 formulation for sustained release tablets
ZERO FIRST HIGUCHI PEPPAS
% CDR Vs T Log % Remain Vs T %CDR Vs √T Log C Vs Log T
Slope 7.353 0.108 26.42 0.895
R 2 0.952 0.601 0.841 0.399
Stability studies
Table 6: Stability studies of F2
Cumulative%drug release
Sampling interval 250
C/60%RH 300
C/65%RH 400
C/75%RH
0 Days 100.1 99.8 99.9
15 Days 98.5 98.6 98.2
30 Days 97.82 97.75 97.70
90 Days 96.45 97.32 97.26
Stability studies of the formulation F2 of Repaglinide
(USP) matrix tablets were carried out to determine the
effect of formulation additives on the stability of the drug
and also to determine the physical stability of the
formulation. The stability studies were carried out at 25ᴼ
C/60%RH, 30 ºC/65% RH and 40 ºC/75% RH for 90
days. There was no significant change in the physical
property and percent of drug release was within the limits
±4 during 8hour during the stability period.
DISCUSSION
The release profile of formulations F1, F2, F3, F4
F5,F6, F7 and F8 comprising various polymers like
carrageenan, chitosan, bhara gum, gum karaya with
varying concentrations. Formulations F1, F2, F3, F4
F5,F6, F7 and F8 exhibits release rates of 91%, 100%
94.2%, 91%, 97%, 89.8%, 83.6, 71.6% at various
time intervals as shown in the table. Among all of
these 8 formulations F2 contains carrageenan shows
maximum drug release at the end of 12hrs. Hence it
y = -0.8956x + 2.1706
R² = 0.3997
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Log%drugrelease
Log time(hrs)
Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetics for F2 Formulation
Log % DR
Linear (Log % DR)
Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108
106
was optimized and decided to develop further
formulations.
CONCLUSION
In this study matrix tablet of Repaglinide was
prepared by wet granulation technique, using
carrageenan, chitosan, bhara gum, gum karaya
Polymers used as release retardant. It was found that
increase in the concentration of excipients in
polymeric ratio decreases the drug release.
Carrageenan is non-carcinogenic, biocompatible and
has high drug holding capacity. These led to its
application as excipients in hydrophilic drug delivery
system. The formulation F2 containing 30%
carrageenan respectively showed good drug release
with good matrix integrity. From the above result, it
has been found that the optimized formula F2
containing 30% of carrageenan as drug retarding
polymer shows better sustained effect for 12 hr when
compared to other formulations. Different parameters
like hardness, friability, weight variation, drug
content uniformity, in-vitro drug release were
evaluated for these formulations. Based on these
results, formulation F2 was found to be the most
promising formulations. The optimized formulation
F8 follows zero order plot since the regression
coefficient is 0.952 and plot was also found to be
linear. The regression coefficient (R2) values of zero
order in the optimized formulation F2 was greater
than the R2 values of First order. Thus, the drug
release follows zero order kinetics. The results
suggest that the developed sustained release matrix
tablets of Repaglinide could perform better than
conventional dosage forms, leading to improve
efficacy and better patient compliance. Thus, the aim
of this study was achieved.
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Preparation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets of Repaglinide (USP) using natural polymers

  • 1. Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108 99 International Journal of Farmacia Journal Home page: www.ijfjournal.com Preparation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets of Repaglinide (USP) using natural polymers Mahmooda*, 'Dr. Syed abdul azeez basha Deccan college of pharmacy, Darussalam, Aghapura, Nampally, Telangana Hyderabad *Corresponding author: 'Dr. Syed abdul azeez basha Email id: ahmoodashaik21@gmail.com ABSTRACT The objective of the present work is to develop and characterizes oral sustain release matrix tablets of Repaglinide. Repaglinide is practically insoluble in water so it is suitable to develop sustained release matrix tablet using hydrophilic polymers. Repaglinide is anti-diabetic drug used extensively in the treatment of diabetes type II. The natural polymers like carrageenan, chitosan, gum karaya, Bhara gum were utilized in the formulation of matrix tablets containing Repaglinide by wet granulation technique and evaluated for its drug release characteristics. Granules were prepared and evaluated for its physical properties and shows satisfactory results. Formulation was optimized on the basis of acceptable tablet properties (hardness, friability, drug content and weight variations), in vitro drug release and stability studies. All the formulations showed compliance with Pharmacopeial standards. The in vitro release study of matrix tablets were carried out in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 for 12 hr. Among all the formulations, F2 with shows 100% better controlled release at the end of 12 hrs when compared to other formulations. The release data was fitted to various mathematical models such as, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, First-order, and Zero order to evaluate the kinetics and mechanism of the drug release. The drug release of optimized formulations F2 follows zero order kinetics and the mechanism was found to be diffusion coupled with erosion (non-Fickian diffusion). The stability studies were carried out according to ICH guideline which indicates that the selected formulations were stable. Keywords: Repaglinide, chitosan, Carrageenan, Gum karaya, bhara Gum, Matrix tablet, Sustained release, Wet granulation. INTRODUCTION Matrix tablets composed of drug and polymer as release retarding material offer the simplest approach in developing a sustained-release drug delivery system [34, 35]. Recent trend in development of sustained-release drug delivery systems was the use of gums of plant origin to fulfill the aim of retarding the drug release [1, 21]. Natural gums are biodegradable and nontoxic, which hydrate and swell on contact with aqueous media, and these have been used for the preparation of dosage form [27, 28]. Repaglinide is the first member of new class of oral hypoglycemic designed to normalize the [29, 30] meal time glucose excursions. Repaglinide induces rapid onset short lasting insulin release [23, 24]. It is administered before each major meal to control postprandial hyperglycemia the [36- 37] dose may be omitted if a meal is missed. Because of short lasting action it may have a lower risk of serious hypoglycemia [2]. Side effects are mild headache, dyspepsia, arthralgia, and weight gain [25, 26]. After oral administration, Repaglinide is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After single and multiple oral doses inn healthy subjects or in patients, [32, 33] peak plasma drug levels (Cmax) occurs within 1 hour (Tmax) [3, 22]. The present study was [38, 39] designed to formulate matrix tablets using carrageenan, chitosan, gum
  • 2. Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108 101 karaya, bhara gum matrix polymers for controlling release of poorly water soluble drug Repaglinide. AIM AND OBJECTIVE Aim The main aim of the present investigation is to design, formulate and evaluate the sustained release dosage form of Repaglinide (USP) using natural polymers [4, 31]. Objectives 1. Preformulation studies such as API characterization, solubility studies, determination of melting point. 2. To improve its oral bioavailability. 3. To develop the extended release system over a period of time. 4. Increased patient compliance by reducing the dose frequency. 5. Determination of λmax and development of calibration curve of Repaglinide using UV spectrophotometer. 6. To perform various quality control evaluation parameters for the prepared tablets. METHODOLOGY Formulation of extended release layer Matrix tablets of were prepared by Wet Granulation method [5, 6]. The active ingredient was passed through the sieve#40 followed by the other ingredients were passed the same sieve. Repaglinide, Carrageenan [7,8], Chitosan, Bhara gum, gum karaya, Ethyl cellulose, Micro crystalline cellulose were taken in a poly bag according to the formulation table and mixed for 5minutes to ensure uniform mixing of the ingredients with the drug [9,10]. Weigh Starch accurately [40] and it is mixed with water to form a paste is used as binder solution and kept separately [11, 12]. The binder solution was added slowly to the dry mixed ingredients with constant mixing till to get solid mass to form uniform and optimum granules [13, 14]. Then the wet granules were dried in trays and pass the air for drying .Samples were removed randomly at different time intervals from the total bulk of the granules and then checked out for moisture content [15, 16]. The dried materials were passed through the sieve#20. After sieving dry granules were lubricated using Magnesium .stearate and Talc [17, 18]. After lubrication granules were sent to compression. Repaglinide Matrix tablets was compressed using 12mm round punch [19, 20]. Table 1: Formulation table for extended release layer Ingredients F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 Repaglinide (USP) 4mg 4mg 4mg 4mg 4mg 4mg 4mg 4mg Carrageenan 15% 30% - - - - - - Chitosan - - 15% 30% - - - - Bhara gum - - - - 15% 30% - - Gum karaya - - - - - - 15% 30% Starch 5mg 5mg 5mg 5mg 5mg 5mg 5mg 5mg Talc 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg Ethyl cellulose 30mg 60mg 30mg 60mg 30mg 60mg 30mg 60mg Magnesium Stearate 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg 12mg MCC q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s Water q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s q.s Total wt (mg) 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
  • 3. Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108 101 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Preformulation studies Organoleptic characters for Repaglinide Description of Repaglinide Solubility Solvents Solubility Water Practically insoluble pH6.8 Phosphate buffer Soluble Methanol Soluble Ethanol Soluble Melting point Melting point of Repaglinide drug was determined by using melting point apparatus and was in the range of 131o C. Evaluation of repaglinde tablets Table 2: Precompession parameters Formulations Bulk Density(gm/ml) Tapped density(gm/ml) Carr’s Index (%) Hausner ratio Angle of repose (0 ) F1 0.356 0.400 11.00 1.12 28.16 F2 0.379 0.429 11.66 1.13 24.59 F3 0.344 0.392 12.24 1.14 28.73 F4 0.369 0.425 13.18 1.15 25.14 F5 0.373 0.429 13.05 1.15 27.35 F6 0.349 0.410 14.88 1.17 28.19 F7 0.371 0.426 12.91 1.15 26.31 F8 0.396 0.453 12.58 1.14 25.14 The blends for Matrix tablets were characterized with respect to angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index, and Hausners ratio. Angle of repose was less than 30° and Carr’s index values were less than 15 for the blend of all the batches indicating excellent to good flowability and compressibility. Hausner’s ratio was less than 1.17 for all the batches indicating excellent flow properties. Table 3: Post compression parameters F.Code Hardness (kg/cm2 ) Thickness (mm) Weight (mg) Friability (%) F1 5.4 ±0.44 2.08±0.17 199.8±1.48 0.36 F2 4.5±0.31 2.70±0.25 200.4±0.54 0.39 F3 5.5±0.40 2.81±0.80 198.6±0.41 0.43 F4 5.5±0.55 2.2±0.20 200.8±1.64 0.12 F5 4.6±0.57 2.08±0.66 205.6±1.14 0.54 Test Description Colour white to off-white powder
  • 4. Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108 2 F6 5.0±0.30 2.91±0.25 199.2±0.83 0.58 F7 4.5±0.57 2.1±0.71 199.9±0.67 0.64 F8 5.4±0.60 2.0±0.89 199.0±0.43 0.37 The results of the uniformity of weight, hardness, thickness, friability, and drug content of the tablets are given in above Table 3. All the tablets of different batches complied with the official requirements of uniformity of weight as their weights varied between 198.6±0.41 and 200.8±1.64mg. The hardness of the tablets ranged from 4.5±0.31 to 5.5±0.55 kg/cm2 and the friability values were less than 0.65% indicating that tablets were compact and hard. The thickness of the tablets ranged from 2.0 to 2.91 mm. All the formulations satisfied the content of the drug as they contained 98 to 100 % of Repaglinide and good uniformity in drug content was observed. Thus all the physical attributes of the prepared tablets were found be practically within control. Invitro dissolution studies for matrix tablets Dissolution study ( matrix tablets) Acidic Stage Medium : 0.1N HCL Type of apparatus : USP - II (paddle type) RPM : 50 Volume : 900ml Temperature : 37ºC± 0.5 Time : 2hrs Buffer Stage Medium : 6.8pH phosphate buffer Type of apparatus : USP - II (paddle type) RPM : 50 Volume : 900ml Time : 12hrs. Table 4: Cumulative percentage drug release from matrix tablets Time (hrs) F1 %drug release F2 %drug release F3 %drug release F4 %drug release F5 %drug release F6 %drug release F7 %drug release F8 %drug release Dissolution medium 0.1N HCL 0.5 7.2 3.1 4.5 3.1 5.1 4.8 5.8 5.1 1 11.8 6.5 9.2 8.3 7.4 8.7 8.6 9.8 2 20.6 12.4 18.6 10.8 8.7 15.7 12.3 15.4 6.8pH phosphate buffer 3 29.1 21.8 20.8 21.6 28.0 19.8 17.8 20.9 4 33.8 26.8 33.4 28.7 37.6 23.8 22.8 27.6 5 40.8 30.9 41.8 34.3 43.8 31.7 26.6 30.8 6 45.6 36.8 50.3 46.8 51.4 36.8 31.8 36.4 7 54.3 39.2 58.6 49.2 63.4 43.2 39.3 41.8 8 63.4 48.3 64.5 55.8 75.4 49.6 46.9 49.1 9 71.8 55.8 73.8 61.3 75.4 51.6 51.8 54.6 10 80.6 65.6 81.7 66.8 89.6 57.8 65.3 59.4 11 87 85.6 88 87.3 93.1 83.6 76.6 65.3 12 91 100 94.2 91 97 89.8 83.6 71.6 The Formulation F2 showed 100% drug release at 12 hrs.
  • 5. Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108 103 Fig 1: In-Vitro Drug Release Studies for matrix tablets F1 – F8. Release kinetics of F2 Fig 2: Zero order graph for F2 Formulation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 %CDR Time (hrs) Cumulative percentage drug release from matrix tablets F1-F8 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 y = 7.3535x - 3.3324 R² = 0.9523 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 5 10 15 %CDR Time (hrs) Zero order kinetics for F2 Formulation % DR Linear (% DR)
  • 6. Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108 104 Fig 3: First order graph for F2 Formulation Fig 4: Higuchi graph for F2 Formulation y = -0.1089x + 2.2292 R² = 0.6013 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Log%drugrelease Time (hrs) First order kinetics for F2 Formulation Log % DR Linear (Log % DR) y = 26.429x - 18.545 R² = 0.8417 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 1 2 3 4 %CDR Sq rt of time (hrs) Higuchi kinetics for F2 Formulation % DR Linear (% DR)
  • 7. Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108 105 Fig 5: Korsmeyer-Peppas graph for F2 Formulation Table 5: Release kinetics for F2 formulation for sustained release tablets ZERO FIRST HIGUCHI PEPPAS % CDR Vs T Log % Remain Vs T %CDR Vs √T Log C Vs Log T Slope 7.353 0.108 26.42 0.895 R 2 0.952 0.601 0.841 0.399 Stability studies Table 6: Stability studies of F2 Cumulative%drug release Sampling interval 250 C/60%RH 300 C/65%RH 400 C/75%RH 0 Days 100.1 99.8 99.9 15 Days 98.5 98.6 98.2 30 Days 97.82 97.75 97.70 90 Days 96.45 97.32 97.26 Stability studies of the formulation F2 of Repaglinide (USP) matrix tablets were carried out to determine the effect of formulation additives on the stability of the drug and also to determine the physical stability of the formulation. The stability studies were carried out at 25ᴼ C/60%RH, 30 ºC/65% RH and 40 ºC/75% RH for 90 days. There was no significant change in the physical property and percent of drug release was within the limits ±4 during 8hour during the stability period. DISCUSSION The release profile of formulations F1, F2, F3, F4 F5,F6, F7 and F8 comprising various polymers like carrageenan, chitosan, bhara gum, gum karaya with varying concentrations. Formulations F1, F2, F3, F4 F5,F6, F7 and F8 exhibits release rates of 91%, 100% 94.2%, 91%, 97%, 89.8%, 83.6, 71.6% at various time intervals as shown in the table. Among all of these 8 formulations F2 contains carrageenan shows maximum drug release at the end of 12hrs. Hence it y = -0.8956x + 2.1706 R² = 0.3997 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Log%drugrelease Log time(hrs) Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetics for F2 Formulation Log % DR Linear (Log % DR)
  • 8. Mahmooda et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, 2015; Vol-(1) 2: 99-108 106 was optimized and decided to develop further formulations. CONCLUSION In this study matrix tablet of Repaglinide was prepared by wet granulation technique, using carrageenan, chitosan, bhara gum, gum karaya Polymers used as release retardant. It was found that increase in the concentration of excipients in polymeric ratio decreases the drug release. Carrageenan is non-carcinogenic, biocompatible and has high drug holding capacity. These led to its application as excipients in hydrophilic drug delivery system. The formulation F2 containing 30% carrageenan respectively showed good drug release with good matrix integrity. From the above result, it has been found that the optimized formula F2 containing 30% of carrageenan as drug retarding polymer shows better sustained effect for 12 hr when compared to other formulations. Different parameters like hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content uniformity, in-vitro drug release were evaluated for these formulations. Based on these results, formulation F2 was found to be the most promising formulations. The optimized formulation F8 follows zero order plot since the regression coefficient is 0.952 and plot was also found to be linear. The regression coefficient (R2) values of zero order in the optimized formulation F2 was greater than the R2 values of First order. Thus, the drug release follows zero order kinetics. The results suggest that the developed sustained release matrix tablets of Repaglinide could perform better than conventional dosage forms, leading to improve efficacy and better patient compliance. Thus, the aim of this study was achieved. REFERENCES [1]. Barot Nikunj, Darshan Modi, “Formulation, Development and Evaluation Of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets Of Repaglinide”. Nikunj Barot, 3(2), 2014, 370-396. [2]. Tapaswi Rani Dash, Pankaj Verma, “Matrix Tablets: An Approach towards Oral Extended Release Drug Delivery”. International Journal of Pharma Research & Review, 2(2), 2013, 12-24. [3]. Krushnakumar J Gandhi*, Subhash V Deshmane, “Polymers In Pharmaceutical Drug Delivery System: A Review”. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 14(2), 2012, Nᵒ 10, 57‐66. [4]. Jitender Joshi, Lata Bhakuni, “Formulation and Evaluation of Solid Matrix Tablets Of Repaglinide”, ISSN: 0976-8688; Der Pharmacia Sinica, 3(5), 2012, 598-603. [5]. Prakash Pavan, Porwal Mayor, “Role of Natural Polymers In Sustained Release Drug Delivery System”ISSN 2230 – 8407(2), 2011, 9, 6 – 11. [6]. Balaji Venkataramanappa Kadri, “Mechanism Of Drug Release From Matrix Tablets Involving Moving Boundaries” Department Of Pharmaceutical Sciences University Of Toronto; Master Of Science, 2001. [7]. Jaimini Manish*, Kothari Abhay, “Sustained Release Matrix Type Drug Delivery System: A Review”, Journal Of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics; 2(6), 2012, 142-148. [8]. Baravaliya Smitaben H., Tandel Jyotika G. “Analytical Method Development Of Repaglinide Formulation”, Mohite Mukesh T et al/ IJRAP (4) 1, 2013. [9]. Gamal M El Maghraby1, Mohamed A Osman, “Self Emulsifying Liquisolid Tablets For Enhanced Oral Bioavailability Of Repaglinide: In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation”, Journal Of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 4 (09), 2014, 012-021. [10]. Srinivas Mutalik, Krishnan Manoj, “Chitosan And Enteric Polymer Based Once Daily Sustained Release Tablets Of Aceclofenac” AAPS Pharmscitech. 9(2), 2008, 651–659. [11]. Saptarshi D, Gupta MS. “Modified release dosage form and drug delivery”. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2(11), 2009, 1728-29. [12]. Ansel HC, Allen LV, Popovich NC. “Pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems”. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; Baltimore 7, 2000, .231-75. [13]. James S and James C, “Boylan encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical technology”, 4th ed. Marcel Dekker; 1997, 304-07. [14]. Thomas WY, Joseph L,“Sustained and Controlled release drug delivery system”, Marcel Dekker; (6), 1978, 132- 34.
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