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PR1 Analyzing Film
Introduction
Genre theory is used in the study of films in order to facilitate the
categorization of films. Genre is dependent on various factors such as story
line, which the director is, what are the audience expectations. In using genre
theory we create a short cut in how we are to describe films. Genre theory
through its use is a method of shortening academic works.
According to Daniel Chandler “genres constitute conventions of themes
settings, structure and style that are shared by texts'. This means that every
genre of every kind has a range of similar conventions. As stated in Nick
Lacey’s repertoire of elements, genre is categorized into five parts. These
include; are Visual imagery/iconography, Style (technical/audio codes),
Character/ Stars, Setting and Narrative development. Another Genre theorists
who goes by the name of Steve Neale states that “genres are instances of
repetition and difference” this means that it is okay to have the same genre in
other films but they should be different at all times.
Leon and James Bond: Casino Royale
Leon is a film that was created in 1994 by Luc Besson. Luc Besson is an Auteur,
which means he is a film director who influences his own film so much that he
ranks himself as the author.
Leon fits into the crime/thriller genre; It begins with establishing shot so that
the audience are familiar with the setting. We know that this is a Crime/action
movie by the way the firstscenes commences. Itshows a curious man drinking
a glass of milk being given a mission to execute. We also understand that it fits
in with the crime genre because of the lighting in the first location. The
conventions of this movie are more unexpected compared to other movies of
this similar genre. The reason I say this is because the director Luc Besson
being an auteur, meaning that he has an unusual way of narrating his story. It
has a unique view on which a hero and a villain should be .In this unique twist,
the assassin in this film is the protagonist while his companion is a twelve year
old girl, and as you may have guessed, the police/detectives in this film are the
antagonists. This refers to the Steve Neale theory because it shows the
difference in similar genres.
The audio also used in the movie is highly relevant to this type of genre.
The Diegetic sounds used in the movie such as squeaking, explosion and also
gunshots could suggest that this fits into that genre. The non-diegetic sounds
being used in this movie is to toy with the audience’s emotions and to make it
characters seem more realistic.
The narrative in this movie is bizarre because, in normal crime/action movies
you predict to see a typical hero, however Leon seems to be a ruthless
assassin; a monastic individual whose life outside of his role as hit man for the
local mafia is desolate. You wouldn’t expect him to live in a humble flat and to
not own a fast fancy car with top secret gadgets like the usual hero.
In normal Crime/action you expect to see the women in the movie more
objectified or even sexualized but in ‘Leon’ the only main girl in the film is a 12-
year old child.
You could apply Steve Neale theory which was ‘Genre are instances of
repetition and difference…’ this means that you could compare both Leon and
Casino Royale. They both share the same genre which is Action/Thriller. This
could also link to the Nick Lacey’s theory which was the ‘Repertoire of
Elements’, for example in Casino Royale the characters are similar but in a
different way, In Leon the companion is a 12-year old girl who also wants to be
an assassin and strange looking French man who looks more like a villain than
a hero whereas in Casino Royale the woman is heavily sexualized and while the
main character James Bond is always Well-groomed and drives an Aston
Martin whereas Leon doesn’t drive at all and is far from well-dressed. There is
a resemblance between Leon and James bond as they are both experience in
their craft. This makes Luc Besson an auteur because of the way he portrays a
hero, Luc Besson hero is what you wouldn’t expect a hero to be because Leon
started off as a professional assassin and killed people whenever he was
instructed to, but in Casino Royale James Bond isn’t the villain at the beginning
making this Luc Besson film so unique from others. The visual imagery is similar
as there is a load of shooting and explosions going on. The settings for both of
the movies are fairly similar as Leon is located in one of New York’s very busy
cities, whereas Casino Royale based in various exotic countries around the
world.
The narrative development between both films is very contrasting as in Leon
everything is about corruption and being an outlaw, there are no real good
guys in the film, that’s what makes Luc Besson an auteur because he was able
to make a prosperous film where there is no good guys and everyone is as bad
as one other but still managed to generate a hero in the making while James
Bond is working for the government and therefore he doesn’t need to break
the rules.
Mean Girls and Napoleon Dynamite
Mean Girls is a 2004 American teen comedy film directed by Mark Waters and
written by Tina Fey. The film describes female high school social cliques and
the damaging effects they can have on girls. This movie takes you through the
trials and tribulations of being a new girl in high school who has been
homeschooled all her life. Cady is a very smart girl who was raised to be kind,
and she meets Janis and Damian who are considered the 'outcasts' of the
school who take her under their wing. The three friends come up with the idea
to have Cady join the 'plastics' and act as a spy, but overtime Cady becomes a
little caught up in this game and starts to become a 'plastic' herself and gets a
little too close to the group of girls whom she had originally disliked. As Janis
and Damian, as well as Cady's teachers and family begin to see her change into
a person they all know she truly is not they become concerned or even begin
to grow distant from Cady, who eventually is able to escape the horrors that
the 'plastics' have turned her into.
On the other hand, Napoleon Dynamite is one of the best illustrations of what
it feels like to be lonely ever made. The whole movie is about portraying the
many forms of loneliness. All the main characters feel disconnected,
misunderstood, and havenobody to relate to. Not even the protagonists seem
to truly connect. Their conversations arealways a little awkward, as if only 80%
of the messagewas received, often rolling along without any conclusions being
reached. There are little details also, like how Napoleon seldom looks someone
in the eyes. In fact, his eyes remain barely open throughoutthe film. Minor
details that add to the senseof disconnection.
Auteur Theory
Auteur theory is a medium for the personal artistic expression of the director,
allowing the director to add his unique/signature twist to his film. These kinds
of directors are known as auteurs, because their artistic input is so visible on
the screen.
A filmmaker can be an auteur in multiple ways, for example, Quentin Tarantino
is the principle creator of his films, and this means that he directs, produces
and sometimes even acts in his films.
Another auteur is a director named Tim Burton, he demonstrates a particular
style in his movies. His films usually have a gothic theme; audiences come to
expect quirky, unusual stories when a film is associated with him.
James Cameron is also another auteur, he tends to demonstrates innovation in
his films, he changed the game with his computer effects in films such as
Titanic and Avatar.
Luc Besson is a filmmaker who values artistic merit over commercial success. A
good example of this is his film “Leon”, instead of focusing on a typical action
movie story; he experimented and switched it up.
Martin Scorsese is an auteur who makes films with similar themes, his films
usually have a gangster theme, about mafias set in New York.
Tim Burton
One of the auteurs I will be analyzing is Tim Burton. Tim Burton is one of those
directors who has an easily identifiable visual style. Almost all of his films revel
in gothic imagery. Fromthe characters themselves, to the props, to the houses
and cities where the films take place are sculpted in an an exaggerated, almost
cartoonish way to emphasize “goth” features.
One the most obvious and famous examples of this type of styleis the costume
and makeup for Edward Scissorhands, not only is the character himself gothic,
but he lives in an old gothic mansion.
This is similar to the visuals in Beetlejuice. Not only is the main character’s
presentation very punk rock, but the entire film takes place in a creepy old
haunted Victorian home. Another great example is Burton’s Batman where the
gloomy, almost industrial streets of Gotham City are strewn with ornate
details. Not to mention Burton’s Batmobile, which mimicked the sweeping
lines and elaborated details of classic 30’s custom coach designs. In his later
films, Burton uses CGI to expand the impact of his visuals even more. Alice and
Wonderland features multiple characters generated by CGI so that their
proportions are exaggerated to emphasize their gothic stylings.
Martin Scorsese
Another auteur I will be analyzing, is my personalfavorite director Martin
Scorsese. His movies normally have an Italian mafia theme, they usually depict
a character's riseand humbling fall and are often narrated.
A good example of this is GoodFellas, a mobster movie with real depth and
universalthemes. His one change from his style is the focus on Ray Liotta as
the main character, Henry Hill, and having the two stars as minor wiseguys
(not that they’re not important, it’s justthat the film is told from Henry’s point
of view). Just as the rock and roll music blares both dietetically and non-
dietetically, the plot continually flies forward in a world of greed, drugs,
violence, and betrayal.
Another example is Casino. his film follows the good life and down fall of two
Mobsters that move to Las Vegas and exploit the casino business. In typical
Scorsesestyle, both Sam(De Niro) and Nicky (Pesci) are propelled by the
prospectof fame, fortune, dames, and other various vices. Drugs becomethe
destructiveforce in Nicky’s life and lead to his violent outbursts that resultin
his own murder. Onceagain, the soundtrack beautifully reflects the visual
elements on screen with rock and roll from the time period that sometimes
blatantly comment on themes.
Jared Hess

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Pr1 analyzing film nawaf ogueboule

  • 1. PR1 Analyzing Film Introduction Genre theory is used in the study of films in order to facilitate the categorization of films. Genre is dependent on various factors such as story line, which the director is, what are the audience expectations. In using genre theory we create a short cut in how we are to describe films. Genre theory through its use is a method of shortening academic works. According to Daniel Chandler “genres constitute conventions of themes settings, structure and style that are shared by texts'. This means that every genre of every kind has a range of similar conventions. As stated in Nick Lacey’s repertoire of elements, genre is categorized into five parts. These include; are Visual imagery/iconography, Style (technical/audio codes), Character/ Stars, Setting and Narrative development. Another Genre theorists who goes by the name of Steve Neale states that “genres are instances of repetition and difference” this means that it is okay to have the same genre in other films but they should be different at all times. Leon and James Bond: Casino Royale Leon is a film that was created in 1994 by Luc Besson. Luc Besson is an Auteur, which means he is a film director who influences his own film so much that he ranks himself as the author. Leon fits into the crime/thriller genre; It begins with establishing shot so that the audience are familiar with the setting. We know that this is a Crime/action movie by the way the firstscenes commences. Itshows a curious man drinking a glass of milk being given a mission to execute. We also understand that it fits in with the crime genre because of the lighting in the first location. The conventions of this movie are more unexpected compared to other movies of this similar genre. The reason I say this is because the director Luc Besson being an auteur, meaning that he has an unusual way of narrating his story. It has a unique view on which a hero and a villain should be .In this unique twist, the assassin in this film is the protagonist while his companion is a twelve year old girl, and as you may have guessed, the police/detectives in this film are the antagonists. This refers to the Steve Neale theory because it shows the difference in similar genres. The audio also used in the movie is highly relevant to this type of genre.
  • 2. The Diegetic sounds used in the movie such as squeaking, explosion and also gunshots could suggest that this fits into that genre. The non-diegetic sounds being used in this movie is to toy with the audience’s emotions and to make it characters seem more realistic. The narrative in this movie is bizarre because, in normal crime/action movies you predict to see a typical hero, however Leon seems to be a ruthless assassin; a monastic individual whose life outside of his role as hit man for the local mafia is desolate. You wouldn’t expect him to live in a humble flat and to not own a fast fancy car with top secret gadgets like the usual hero. In normal Crime/action you expect to see the women in the movie more objectified or even sexualized but in ‘Leon’ the only main girl in the film is a 12- year old child. You could apply Steve Neale theory which was ‘Genre are instances of repetition and difference…’ this means that you could compare both Leon and Casino Royale. They both share the same genre which is Action/Thriller. This could also link to the Nick Lacey’s theory which was the ‘Repertoire of Elements’, for example in Casino Royale the characters are similar but in a different way, In Leon the companion is a 12-year old girl who also wants to be an assassin and strange looking French man who looks more like a villain than a hero whereas in Casino Royale the woman is heavily sexualized and while the main character James Bond is always Well-groomed and drives an Aston Martin whereas Leon doesn’t drive at all and is far from well-dressed. There is a resemblance between Leon and James bond as they are both experience in their craft. This makes Luc Besson an auteur because of the way he portrays a hero, Luc Besson hero is what you wouldn’t expect a hero to be because Leon started off as a professional assassin and killed people whenever he was instructed to, but in Casino Royale James Bond isn’t the villain at the beginning making this Luc Besson film so unique from others. The visual imagery is similar as there is a load of shooting and explosions going on. The settings for both of the movies are fairly similar as Leon is located in one of New York’s very busy cities, whereas Casino Royale based in various exotic countries around the world. The narrative development between both films is very contrasting as in Leon everything is about corruption and being an outlaw, there are no real good guys in the film, that’s what makes Luc Besson an auteur because he was able to make a prosperous film where there is no good guys and everyone is as bad as one other but still managed to generate a hero in the making while James Bond is working for the government and therefore he doesn’t need to break the rules.
  • 3. Mean Girls and Napoleon Dynamite Mean Girls is a 2004 American teen comedy film directed by Mark Waters and written by Tina Fey. The film describes female high school social cliques and the damaging effects they can have on girls. This movie takes you through the trials and tribulations of being a new girl in high school who has been homeschooled all her life. Cady is a very smart girl who was raised to be kind, and she meets Janis and Damian who are considered the 'outcasts' of the school who take her under their wing. The three friends come up with the idea to have Cady join the 'plastics' and act as a spy, but overtime Cady becomes a little caught up in this game and starts to become a 'plastic' herself and gets a little too close to the group of girls whom she had originally disliked. As Janis and Damian, as well as Cady's teachers and family begin to see her change into a person they all know she truly is not they become concerned or even begin to grow distant from Cady, who eventually is able to escape the horrors that the 'plastics' have turned her into. On the other hand, Napoleon Dynamite is one of the best illustrations of what it feels like to be lonely ever made. The whole movie is about portraying the many forms of loneliness. All the main characters feel disconnected, misunderstood, and havenobody to relate to. Not even the protagonists seem to truly connect. Their conversations arealways a little awkward, as if only 80% of the messagewas received, often rolling along without any conclusions being reached. There are little details also, like how Napoleon seldom looks someone in the eyes. In fact, his eyes remain barely open throughoutthe film. Minor details that add to the senseof disconnection.
  • 4. Auteur Theory Auteur theory is a medium for the personal artistic expression of the director, allowing the director to add his unique/signature twist to his film. These kinds of directors are known as auteurs, because their artistic input is so visible on the screen. A filmmaker can be an auteur in multiple ways, for example, Quentin Tarantino is the principle creator of his films, and this means that he directs, produces and sometimes even acts in his films. Another auteur is a director named Tim Burton, he demonstrates a particular style in his movies. His films usually have a gothic theme; audiences come to expect quirky, unusual stories when a film is associated with him. James Cameron is also another auteur, he tends to demonstrates innovation in his films, he changed the game with his computer effects in films such as Titanic and Avatar. Luc Besson is a filmmaker who values artistic merit over commercial success. A good example of this is his film “Leon”, instead of focusing on a typical action movie story; he experimented and switched it up. Martin Scorsese is an auteur who makes films with similar themes, his films usually have a gangster theme, about mafias set in New York.
  • 5. Tim Burton One of the auteurs I will be analyzing is Tim Burton. Tim Burton is one of those directors who has an easily identifiable visual style. Almost all of his films revel in gothic imagery. Fromthe characters themselves, to the props, to the houses and cities where the films take place are sculpted in an an exaggerated, almost cartoonish way to emphasize “goth” features. One the most obvious and famous examples of this type of styleis the costume and makeup for Edward Scissorhands, not only is the character himself gothic, but he lives in an old gothic mansion. This is similar to the visuals in Beetlejuice. Not only is the main character’s presentation very punk rock, but the entire film takes place in a creepy old haunted Victorian home. Another great example is Burton’s Batman where the gloomy, almost industrial streets of Gotham City are strewn with ornate details. Not to mention Burton’s Batmobile, which mimicked the sweeping lines and elaborated details of classic 30’s custom coach designs. In his later films, Burton uses CGI to expand the impact of his visuals even more. Alice and Wonderland features multiple characters generated by CGI so that their proportions are exaggerated to emphasize their gothic stylings. Martin Scorsese Another auteur I will be analyzing, is my personalfavorite director Martin Scorsese. His movies normally have an Italian mafia theme, they usually depict a character's riseand humbling fall and are often narrated. A good example of this is GoodFellas, a mobster movie with real depth and universalthemes. His one change from his style is the focus on Ray Liotta as the main character, Henry Hill, and having the two stars as minor wiseguys (not that they’re not important, it’s justthat the film is told from Henry’s point of view). Just as the rock and roll music blares both dietetically and non- dietetically, the plot continually flies forward in a world of greed, drugs, violence, and betrayal. Another example is Casino. his film follows the good life and down fall of two Mobsters that move to Las Vegas and exploit the casino business. In typical Scorsesestyle, both Sam(De Niro) and Nicky (Pesci) are propelled by the prospectof fame, fortune, dames, and other various vices. Drugs becomethe destructiveforce in Nicky’s life and lead to his violent outbursts that resultin his own murder. Onceagain, the soundtrack beautifully reflects the visual elements on screen with rock and roll from the time period that sometimes blatantly comment on themes.