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Presented by – Gunjan Sharma
M.Sc 1st year (CHN)
Presented on – 08-03-2021
 EMBRYOLOGY
The branch of biology and medicine concerned
with the study of embryos and their development.
 Embryonic period vs. Fetal period
 Embryonic – first 8 weeks Development of
the three primary germ layers give rise to all
structures and Basic body plan takes shape
 Fetal period – remaining 30 weeks. Structures and
organs continue to grow and develop.
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
 Embryonic Development is when the embryo is
formed and develops
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
 Cleavage
 Patterning
 During this process three major germ layers are formed:
 Ectoderm
 Mesoderm
 Endoderm
 Differentiation
 Growth
FOUR STAGES OF EMBRYONIC
DEVELOPMENT
1. Morula
2. Blastocyst
 The blastomeres continue to divide by binary division
through 4, 8, and 16 cell stage until a cluster of cells is
formed– Morula, resemblibg a mulberry
 The morula after spending about 3 days(72 hours) in
the uterine tube enters the uterine cavity through the
narrow uterine ostium (1mm) on the 4th day
 Morula, once entering the uterine cavity,
floats freely(next 2 days) and is covered by
endometrial fluid and mucus.
 Once cavity appears, it is now called a blastocyst
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
 The outer cell mass of the blastocyst form
the trophoblast layer.
 The inner cell mass on the 8th day
differentiates into bilaminar germ disc
consisting of a dorsal ectodermal layer of the
tall columnar cells and a ventral endodermal
layer of flat polyhydral cells
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
 Two cavities appear on either side of the
bilaminar embryonic disc.
 The dorsal cavity between the ectoderm
and trophoblastic layers lined by
mesenchyme(connective tissue) is called the
amniotic cavity.
 The cavity on the ventral aspect lined by the
primitive mesenchyme on the outside and the
endodermal layer of the germ cell disc on the
inside is called the yolk sac.
 Inner cell mass divides into epiblast and
hypoblast
 2 fluid filled sacs
 Amniotic sac from epiblast
within which the embryo and later
the fetus develop until birth
 Bilaminar to trilaminar disc
 Three primary “germ” layers: all body
tissues develop from these
◦ Ectoderm
◦ Endoderm
◦ Mesoderm
 NOTOCHORD
 NEURULATION
NOTOCHORD
 Day 16-18
 Primitive node epiblast cells invaginate and migrate
anteriorly with some endoderm cells.
 Notochord signals overlying ectoderm
 The neural tube is developed from the closure of the
neural plate and the neural fold a process called
neurulation at about 21 to 26 days.
 Closure of neural tube: begins at end of week 3,
complete by end of week 4.
 About day 20, the mesoderm divides into paired bodies
called somites.
 Located on either side of the developing neural tube,
these paired bodies give rise to the skeleton and muscle
tissue.
 During the somite period, day 20 to 30, 38 pairs of
somites develop.
FOURTH WEEK OF LIFE
 The embryo grows dramatically during the fourth week.
 It more than triples its length to 3.5 mm and its weight
approximates 5 mg.
FIFTH WEEKS OF LIFE
 As the embryo and then the fetus grow during the first half
of pregnancy, it is measured by its crown-rump length
(CRL).
 The fetus is measured during the last half of pregnancy by
its crown heel length (CHL), or standing height. The CRL
grows from 4 to 8 mm in this week, and exceeds the
growth.
SIXTH WEEK OF LIFE
 The head has become larger than the trunk and is bent over the
heart prominence.
 Elevations in the facial ectoderm are evident and the position
of the eyes, nose, mouth and the groove that is to become the
external acoustic meatus is established.
SEVENTH WEEK OF LIFE
 Cerebral hemispheres appear as the head enlarges rapidly.
 The eyes move from a lateral to a more frontal position as the
face elongates.
EIGHTH WEEK OF LIFE
 During this final week of the embryonic period, the
embryo exhibits definite human characteristics
 The cerebral hemispheres have grown so rapidly that
the head now makes up 50% of the mass of the embryo.
 The face occupies the lower half of the head and the
eyes continue to move to a more frontal plane.
 Eyelids folds develop, these will become fused during
the ninth week and remain so until the seventh month.
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
 Fertilized egg reaches the uterus and attaches itself to
the uterus.
 Cell multiplication begins
 Internal organs and circulatory system begins to
form.
 Cell Division takes place and at the end of two weeks
the zygote is the size of a pin-head
 Heart begins to beat
 Small bumps show the beginnings of arms and leg
 At 5 weeks the embryo is ¼ inch long
 All major organ systems develop
 The placenta and Umbilical Cord develop
 Brings the baby nourishment and oxygen from the
mother’s blood
 Takes away waster products
 Amniotic Fluid surrounds the baby
 Face, and limbs take shape
 The fetus is about 1 inch long
 Nostrils, mouth, lips, teeth buds, and eyelids form
 Fingers and toes are almost complete
 Eyelids are fused shut
 Arms, legs, fingers, and toes have developed
 All internal organs are present—but aren’t ready to
function
 The genital organs can be recognized as male or
female
 Fetus is 3 inches long and weights 5 oz.
 Your baby is covered with a layer of thick, downy
hair called lanugo.
 His heartbeat can be heard clearly.
 This may be when you feel your baby's first kick
 The Fetus is about 6 inches long and weighs 4-5 oz.
 A protective coating called vernix begins to form on
baby's skin.
 Hair eyelashes and eyebrows appear
 Organs keep maturing
 Fetus is very active
 The eyes can open and blink
 The fetus is 8-10 inches long and weighs 4-5 oz.
 Your baby's lungs are filled with amniotic fluid, and
he has started breathing motions.
 If you talk or sing, he can hear you.
 Fat is starting to deposit under the skin
 Fetus is 10-12 inches long and weighs about 1-2
pounds.
 Fetus is active and then rests.
 The baby now uses the four senses of vision, hearing,
taste and touchs
 Fetus is about 17-18 inches long and weighs 5-6
pounds
 Skin is smooth because of the fat
 Baby’s movement slows down due to lack of room
 “Lightening” occurs when the baby drops in the
pelvis
 Disease fighting antibodies are taken from the
mother’s blood
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
 Effects of maternal nutrition on fetal growth
and infant development.
 Maternal factors associated with fetal growth
and Birth weight Are Independent
Determinants of Placental Weight and Exhibit
Differential Effects by Fetal Sex
 Study details Zika Virus disrupting fetal
brain development during pregnancy
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
Today we have studied
 Definition of embryonic development
 Stages of embryonic development
 Development of fertilised ovum
 Events of the first 6 days of development
 Early development of the embryo
 Formation of amniotic cavity and yok sac
 Major derivatives of the embryonic germ layers
 Fetal development
 Growth and development according to system
 Prenatal factors affecting growth and development
PPT on Embryological and fetal development

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PPT on Embryological and fetal development

  • 1. Presented by – Gunjan Sharma M.Sc 1st year (CHN) Presented on – 08-03-2021
  • 2.  EMBRYOLOGY The branch of biology and medicine concerned with the study of embryos and their development.  Embryonic period vs. Fetal period  Embryonic – first 8 weeks Development of the three primary germ layers give rise to all structures and Basic body plan takes shape  Fetal period – remaining 30 weeks. Structures and organs continue to grow and develop.
  • 4.  Embryonic Development is when the embryo is formed and develops
  • 6.  Cleavage  Patterning  During this process three major germ layers are formed:  Ectoderm  Mesoderm  Endoderm  Differentiation  Growth FOUR STAGES OF EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
  • 8.  The blastomeres continue to divide by binary division through 4, 8, and 16 cell stage until a cluster of cells is formed– Morula, resemblibg a mulberry  The morula after spending about 3 days(72 hours) in the uterine tube enters the uterine cavity through the narrow uterine ostium (1mm) on the 4th day
  • 9.  Morula, once entering the uterine cavity, floats freely(next 2 days) and is covered by endometrial fluid and mucus.  Once cavity appears, it is now called a blastocyst
  • 12.  The outer cell mass of the blastocyst form the trophoblast layer.  The inner cell mass on the 8th day differentiates into bilaminar germ disc consisting of a dorsal ectodermal layer of the tall columnar cells and a ventral endodermal layer of flat polyhydral cells
  • 14.  Two cavities appear on either side of the bilaminar embryonic disc.  The dorsal cavity between the ectoderm and trophoblastic layers lined by mesenchyme(connective tissue) is called the amniotic cavity.  The cavity on the ventral aspect lined by the primitive mesenchyme on the outside and the endodermal layer of the germ cell disc on the inside is called the yolk sac.
  • 15.  Inner cell mass divides into epiblast and hypoblast  2 fluid filled sacs  Amniotic sac from epiblast within which the embryo and later the fetus develop until birth
  • 16.  Bilaminar to trilaminar disc  Three primary “germ” layers: all body tissues develop from these ◦ Ectoderm ◦ Endoderm ◦ Mesoderm
  • 18. NOTOCHORD  Day 16-18  Primitive node epiblast cells invaginate and migrate anteriorly with some endoderm cells.
  • 19.  Notochord signals overlying ectoderm  The neural tube is developed from the closure of the neural plate and the neural fold a process called neurulation at about 21 to 26 days.  Closure of neural tube: begins at end of week 3, complete by end of week 4.
  • 20.  About day 20, the mesoderm divides into paired bodies called somites.  Located on either side of the developing neural tube, these paired bodies give rise to the skeleton and muscle tissue.  During the somite period, day 20 to 30, 38 pairs of somites develop.
  • 21. FOURTH WEEK OF LIFE  The embryo grows dramatically during the fourth week.  It more than triples its length to 3.5 mm and its weight approximates 5 mg. FIFTH WEEKS OF LIFE  As the embryo and then the fetus grow during the first half of pregnancy, it is measured by its crown-rump length (CRL).  The fetus is measured during the last half of pregnancy by its crown heel length (CHL), or standing height. The CRL grows from 4 to 8 mm in this week, and exceeds the growth.
  • 22. SIXTH WEEK OF LIFE  The head has become larger than the trunk and is bent over the heart prominence.  Elevations in the facial ectoderm are evident and the position of the eyes, nose, mouth and the groove that is to become the external acoustic meatus is established. SEVENTH WEEK OF LIFE  Cerebral hemispheres appear as the head enlarges rapidly.  The eyes move from a lateral to a more frontal position as the face elongates.
  • 23. EIGHTH WEEK OF LIFE  During this final week of the embryonic period, the embryo exhibits definite human characteristics  The cerebral hemispheres have grown so rapidly that the head now makes up 50% of the mass of the embryo.  The face occupies the lower half of the head and the eyes continue to move to a more frontal plane.  Eyelids folds develop, these will become fused during the ninth week and remain so until the seventh month.
  • 25.  Fertilized egg reaches the uterus and attaches itself to the uterus.  Cell multiplication begins  Internal organs and circulatory system begins to form.  Cell Division takes place and at the end of two weeks the zygote is the size of a pin-head  Heart begins to beat  Small bumps show the beginnings of arms and leg
  • 26.  At 5 weeks the embryo is ¼ inch long  All major organ systems develop  The placenta and Umbilical Cord develop  Brings the baby nourishment and oxygen from the mother’s blood  Takes away waster products  Amniotic Fluid surrounds the baby  Face, and limbs take shape
  • 27.  The fetus is about 1 inch long  Nostrils, mouth, lips, teeth buds, and eyelids form  Fingers and toes are almost complete  Eyelids are fused shut  Arms, legs, fingers, and toes have developed  All internal organs are present—but aren’t ready to function  The genital organs can be recognized as male or female
  • 28.  Fetus is 3 inches long and weights 5 oz.  Your baby is covered with a layer of thick, downy hair called lanugo.  His heartbeat can be heard clearly.  This may be when you feel your baby's first kick
  • 29.  The Fetus is about 6 inches long and weighs 4-5 oz.  A protective coating called vernix begins to form on baby's skin.  Hair eyelashes and eyebrows appear  Organs keep maturing  Fetus is very active  The eyes can open and blink
  • 30.  The fetus is 8-10 inches long and weighs 4-5 oz.  Your baby's lungs are filled with amniotic fluid, and he has started breathing motions.  If you talk or sing, he can hear you.  Fat is starting to deposit under the skin
  • 31.  Fetus is 10-12 inches long and weighs about 1-2 pounds.  Fetus is active and then rests.  The baby now uses the four senses of vision, hearing, taste and touchs
  • 32.  Fetus is about 17-18 inches long and weighs 5-6 pounds  Skin is smooth because of the fat  Baby’s movement slows down due to lack of room  “Lightening” occurs when the baby drops in the pelvis  Disease fighting antibodies are taken from the mother’s blood
  • 38.  Effects of maternal nutrition on fetal growth and infant development.  Maternal factors associated with fetal growth and Birth weight Are Independent Determinants of Placental Weight and Exhibit Differential Effects by Fetal Sex
  • 39.  Study details Zika Virus disrupting fetal brain development during pregnancy
  • 41. Today we have studied  Definition of embryonic development  Stages of embryonic development  Development of fertilised ovum  Events of the first 6 days of development  Early development of the embryo  Formation of amniotic cavity and yok sac  Major derivatives of the embryonic germ layers  Fetal development  Growth and development according to system  Prenatal factors affecting growth and development