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PowerPoint KILLS
Effective Teacher and Student Presentations




             Spiro Bolos, New Trier High School
PowerPoint KILLS   ?
“Imagine a widely used and expensive
prescription drug that claimed to make us
beautiful but didn’t. Instead the drug had
frequent, serious side effects: making us
stupid, degrading the quality and credibility of
our communication, turning us into bores,
wasting our colleagues’ time. The side
effects, and the resulting unsatisfactory cost/
benefit ratio, would rightly lead to a
worldwide product recall.”

    — Edward Tufte, The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint
COLUMBIA
                                                              ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION BOARD




                                                       ENGINEERING                 BY       VIEWGRAPHS
The Debris Assessment Team presented its analysis in a formal                               Tufte also criticized the sloppy language on the slide. “The
briefing to the Mission Evaluation Room that relied on Power-                                vaguely quantitative words ‘significant’ and ‘significantly’ are
Point slides from Boeing. When engineering analyses and risk                                used 5 times on this slide,” he notes, “with de facto meanings
assessments are condensed to fit on a standard form or overhead                              ranging from ‘detectable in largely irrelevant calibration case
slide, information is inevitably lost. In the process, the prior-                           study’ to ‘an amount of damage so that everyone dies’ to ‘a dif-
ity assigned to information can be easily misrepresented by its                             ference of 640-fold.’ ” 40 Another example of sloppiness is that
placement on a chart and the language that is used. Dr. Edward                              “cubic inches” is written inconsistently: “3cu. In,” “1920cu in,”
Tufte of Yale University, an expert in information presentation                             and “3 cu in.” While such inconsistencies might seem minor, in
who also researched communications failures in the Challenger                               highly technical fields like aerospace engineering a misplaced
accident, studied how the slides used by the Debris Assessment                              decimal point or mistaken unit of measurement can easily
Team in their briefing to the Mission Evaluation Room misrep-                                engender inconsistencies and inaccuracies. In another phrase
resented key information.38                                                                 “Test results do show that it is possible at sufficient mass and
                                                                                            velocity,” the word “it” actually refers to “damage to the protec-
The slide created six levels of hierarchy, signified by the title                            tive tiles.”
and the symbols to the left of each line. These levels prioritized
information that was already contained in 11 simple sentences.                              As information gets passed up an organization hierarchy, from
Tufte also notes that the title is confusing. “Review of Test Data                          people who do analysis to mid-level managers to high-level
Indicates Conservatism” refers not to the predicted tile damage,                            leadership, key explanations and supporting information is fil-
but to the choice of test models used to predict the damage.                                tered out. In this context, it is easy to understand how a senior
                                                                                            manager might read this PowerPoint slide and not realize that it
Only at the bottom of the slide do engineers state a key piece of                           addresses a life-threatening situation.
information: that one estimate of the debris that struck Columbia
was 640 times larger than the data used to calibrate the model on                           At many points during its investigation, the Board was sur-
which engineers based their damage assessments. (Later analy-                               prised to receive similar presentation slides from NASA offi-
sis showed that the debris object was actually 400 times larger).                           cials in place of technical reports. The Board views the endemic
This difference led Tufte to suggest that a more appropriate                                use of PowerPoint briefing slides instead of technical papers as
headline would be “Review of Test Data Indicates Irrelevance                                an illustration of the problematic methods of technical com-
of Two Models.” 39                                                                          munication at NASA.


                                                                                                 The vaguely quantitative words "significant" and
                                                                                                 "significantly" are used 5 times on this slide, with de facto
                                                                                                 meanings ranging from "detectable in largely irrelevant
                                                                                                 calibration case study" to "an amount of damage so that
                                                                                                 everyone dies" to "a difference of 640-fold." None of
                                                                                                 these 5 usages appears to refer to the technical meaning
                                                                                                 of "statistical significance."
           Review Of Test Data Indicates Conservatism for Tile                                   The low resolution of PowerPoint slides promotes
                              Penetration                                                        the use of compressed phrases like "Tile Penetration."
                                                                                                 As is the case here, such phrases may well be ambiquous.
          •   The existing SOFI on tile test data used to create Crater
              was reviewed along with STS-107 Southwest Research data
                                                                                                 (The low resolution and large font generate 3 typographic
                                                                                                 orphans, lonely words dangling on a seperate line.)
               – Crater overpredicted penetration of tile coating
                 significantly
                  • Initial penetration to described by normal velocity
                          Varies with volume/mass of projectile(e.g., 200ft/sec for              This vague pronoun reference "it" alludes to damage
                          3cu. In)                                                               to the protective tiles,which caused the destruction of the
                  • Significant energy is required for the softer SOFI particle                  Columbia. The slide weakens important material with
                    to penetrate the relatively hard tile coating                                ambiquous language (sentence fragments, passive voice,
                          Test results do show that it is possible at sufficient mass            multiple meanings of "significant"). The 3 reports
                          and velocity
                  • Conversely, once tile is penetrated SOFI can cause                           were created by engineers for high-level NASA officials
                    significant damage                                                           who were deciding whether the threat of wing damage
                          Minor variations in total energy (above penetration level)             required further investigation before the Columbia
                          can cause significant tile damage                                      attempted return. The officials were satisfied that the
               – Flight condition is significantly outside of test database                      reports indicated that the Columbia was not in danger,
                  • Volume of ramp is 1920cu in vs 3 cu in for test
                                                                                                 and no attempts to further examine the threat were
                                             2/21/03                                    6
                                                                                                 made. The slides were part of an oral presentation and
                                                                                                 also were circulated as e-mail attachments.
                                                                                                 In this slide the same unit of measure for volume
                                                                                                 (cubic inches) is shown a different way every time
                                                                                                             3cu. in      1920cu. in       3 cu. in
                                                                                                 rather than in clear and tidy exponential form 1920 in 3 .
                                                                                                 Perhaps the available font cannot show exponents.
                                                                                                 Shakiness in units of measurement provokes concern.
                                                                                                 Slides that use hierarchical bullet-outlines here do not
                                                                                                 handle statistical data and scientific notation gracefully.
                                                                                                 If PowerPoint is a corporate-mandated format for all
                                                                                                 engineering reports, then some competent scientific
                                                                                                 typography (rather than the PP market-pitch style) is
                                                                                                 essential. In this slide, the typography is so choppy and
                                                                                                 clunky that it impedes understanding.



The analysis by Dr. Edward Tufte of the slide from the Debris Assessment Team briefing. [SOFI=Spray-On Foam Insulation]



                                                       Report Volume I                      August 2003                                                          191
The vaguely quantitative words "significant" and
                                                                                            "significantly" are used 5 times on this slide, with de facto
                                                                                            meanings ranging from "detectable in largely irrelevant
                                                                                            calibration case study" to "an amount of damage so that
                                                                                            everyone dies" to "a difference of 640-fold." None of
                                                                                            these 5 usages appears to refer to the technical meaning
                                                                                            of "statistical significance."
          Review Of Test Data Indicates Conservatism for Tile                               The low resolution of PowerPoint slides promotes
                             Penetration                                                    the use of compressed phrases like "Tile Penetration."
                                                                                            As is the case here, such phrases may well be ambiquous.
          •   The existing SOFI on tile test data used to create Crater
              was reviewed along with STS-107 Southwest Research data
                                                                                            (The low resolution and large font generate 3 typographic
                                                                                            orphans, lonely words dangling on a seperate line.)
               – Crater overpredicted penetration of tile coating
                 significantly
                  • Initial penetration to described by normal velocity
                          Varies with volume/mass of projectile(e.g., 200ft/sec for         This vague pronoun reference "it" alludes to damage
                          3cu. In)                                                          to the protective tiles,which caused the destruction of the
                  • Significant energy is required for the softer SOFI particle             Columbia. The slide weakens important material with
                    to penetrate the relatively hard tile coating                           ambiquous language (sentence fragments, passive voice,
                          Test results do show that it is possible at sufficient mass       multiple meanings of "significant"). The 3 reports
                          and velocity
                  • Conversely, once tile is penetrated SOFI can cause                      were created by engineers for high-level NASA officials
                    significant damage                                                      who were deciding whether the threat of wing damage
                          Minor variations in total energy (above penetration level)        required further investigation before the Columbia
                          can cause significant tile damage                                 attempted return. The officials were satisfied that the
               – Flight condition is significantly outside of test database                 reports indicated that the Columbia was not in danger,
                  • Volume of ramp is 1920cu in vs 3 cu in for test
                                                                                            and no attempts to further examine the threat were
                                             2/21/03                                    6
                                                                                            made. The slides were part of an oral presentation and
                                                                                            also were circulated as e-mail attachments.
                                                                                            In this slide the same unit of measure for volume
                                                                                            (cubic inches) is shown a different way every time
                                                                                                        3cu. in      1920cu. in       3 cu. in
                                                                                            rather than in clear and tidy exponential form 1920 in 3 .
                                                                                            Perhaps the available font cannot show exponents.
                                                                                            Shakiness in units of measurement provokes concern.
                                                                                            Slides that use hierarchical bullet-outlines here do not
                                                                                            handle statistical data and scientific notation gracefully.
                                                                                            If PowerPoint is a corporate-mandated format for all
                                                                                            engineering reports, then some competent scientific
                                                                                            typography (rather than the PP market-pitch style) is
                                                                                            essential. In this slide, the typography is so choppy and
                                                                                            clunky that it impedes understanding.



The analysis by Dr. Edward Tufte of the slide from the Debris Assessment Team briefing. [SOFI=Spray-On Foam Insulation]
meaning
                                                                                calibrati
                                                                                everyone
                                                                                these 5 u
                                                                                of "statis
Review Of Test Data Indicates Conservatism for Tile
“In the reports, every single text-slide
                                                                                The low
                   Penetration                                                  the use o
                                                                                As is the
usesreviewed along tile test data used 4 create Crater
   was
         bullet-outlines with to to 6 levels
• The existing SOFI onwith STS-107 Southwest Research data                      (The low
                                                                                orphans,
of hierarchy. Then another multi-level
    – Crater overpredicted penetration of tile coating
      significantly

list, another bureaucracy of bullets,
      • Initial penetration to described by normal velocity
              Varies with volume/mass of projectile(e.g., 200ft/sec for         This vag
              3cu. In)                                                          to the pr
starts afresh for a new slide.
      • Significant energy is required for the softer SOFI particle
        to penetrate the relatively hard tile coating
                                                                                Columbi
                                                                                ambiquo
              Test results do show that it is possible at sufficient mass       multiple
              and velocity
      • Conversely, once tile is penetrated SOFI can cause                      were cre
How is it that each elaborate
        significant damage
              Minor variations in total energy (above penetration level)
                                                                                who wer
                                                                                required

architecture of thought always
              can cause significant tile damage                                 attempte
  – Flight condition is significantly outside of test database                  reports i
      • Volume of ramp is 1920cu in vs 3 cu in for test
fits exactly on one slide?”
                                                                                and no a
                                 2/21/03                                    6
                                                                                made. T
                                                                                also wer
                                                                                In this sl
                                                                                (cubic in

                                                                                rather th
“Life After Death By PPT”
“Particularly disturbing is the adoption
of the PowerPoint cognitive style in
our schools. Rather than learning to
write a report using sentences, children
are being taught how to formulate
client pitches and infomercials.”
            — Edward Tufte, “PowerPoint is Evil”
RESEARCH
dual-channels
“Multimedia Principle”
“Contiguity Principle”
“Coherence Principle”
(cognitive load)
versus
“[I]n designing a PowerPoint slide it is
important to not present an overwhelming
amount of information (i.e., coherence
principle) and it is useful to have simple
graphics to supplement words (i.e.,
multimedia principle).”
“Personalization Principle”
EXEMPLARS
The “Lessig Method”
www.ted.com
GUIDES
danger,
 alert
               renewal

fave


       trust
SOURCES
flickrSTORM
http://www.zoo-m.com/flickr-storm/
AFTERWARDS
“Studies by...Mayer et al. (2003) showed
beneficial effects of giving learners
control over the pacing of their
multimedia instructions in terms of
learning results” (346).
    The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning 
                             — Richard E. Mayer
“PowerPoint is a competent slide manager
and projector. But rather than supplementing
a presentation, it has become a substitute for
it. Such misuse ignores the most important
rule of speaking: Respect your audience.”

        — Edward Tufte, “PowerPoint is Evil”
• PowerPoint icon: http://en.wikipedia.org/
  wiki/File:Powerpoint_mac_2008_icon.png

• Dr. Richard Mayer: http://
  www.psych.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/mayer/
  index.php

• The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia
  Learning by Richard E. Mayer

• Bill Gates: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  worldeconomicforum/350245689/
• Interview with Richard Mayer: http://
  www.sociablemedia.com/
  articles_mayer.htm

• Edward Tufte, “PowerPoint is Evil”: http://
  www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.09/
  ppt2.html

• Columbia shuttle debris: http://
  history.nasa.gov/columbia/debris_pics.html

• Sunset: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  wavy1/2303062662/
• Columbia launch: http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/
  BROWSE/columbia_1.html

• Richard E. Mayer: http://www.udel.edu/PR/
  UDaily/2008/jul/Mayerlg.jpg

• The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: http://
  www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/powerpoint

• “Entering Hyperspace”: http://
  www.flickr.com/photos/eole/380316678/
• Sports Designer of the Year: http://
  www.sportsdesigner.com/
  1/2007/02/2006_sports_des.html

• 2 computers image: http://www.flickr.com/
  photos/timsamoff/144022496/

• Limited capacity image: http://
  www.flickr.com/photos/fotex/217896072/

• Steve Jobs: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  acaben/541334636/
• Lawrence Lessig: http://www.flickr.com/
  photos/joi/2115184003/

• “Dodging Bullets in Presentations”: http://
  www.slideshare.net/RowanManahan/
  dodging-bullets-in-presentations

• “Our Direction”: http://www.flickr.com/
  photos/b-tal/116220689/

• One Hour PPT: http://jakes.editme.com/
  onehourppt
• “Sources”: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  theklan/527782553/

• An Introduction to FlickrStorm: http://
  www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?
  viewkey=6fa63738371ec0d5df81

• Ear: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  lintmachine/2251514423/

• Eye: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  simonpais/59039141/

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PowerPoint Kills

  • 1. PowerPoint KILLS Effective Teacher and Student Presentations Spiro Bolos, New Trier High School
  • 3.
  • 4. “Imagine a widely used and expensive prescription drug that claimed to make us beautiful but didn’t. Instead the drug had frequent, serious side effects: making us stupid, degrading the quality and credibility of our communication, turning us into bores, wasting our colleagues’ time. The side effects, and the resulting unsatisfactory cost/ benefit ratio, would rightly lead to a worldwide product recall.” — Edward Tufte, The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. COLUMBIA ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION BOARD ENGINEERING BY VIEWGRAPHS The Debris Assessment Team presented its analysis in a formal Tufte also criticized the sloppy language on the slide. “The briefing to the Mission Evaluation Room that relied on Power- vaguely quantitative words ‘significant’ and ‘significantly’ are Point slides from Boeing. When engineering analyses and risk used 5 times on this slide,” he notes, “with de facto meanings assessments are condensed to fit on a standard form or overhead ranging from ‘detectable in largely irrelevant calibration case slide, information is inevitably lost. In the process, the prior- study’ to ‘an amount of damage so that everyone dies’ to ‘a dif- ity assigned to information can be easily misrepresented by its ference of 640-fold.’ ” 40 Another example of sloppiness is that placement on a chart and the language that is used. Dr. Edward “cubic inches” is written inconsistently: “3cu. In,” “1920cu in,” Tufte of Yale University, an expert in information presentation and “3 cu in.” While such inconsistencies might seem minor, in who also researched communications failures in the Challenger highly technical fields like aerospace engineering a misplaced accident, studied how the slides used by the Debris Assessment decimal point or mistaken unit of measurement can easily Team in their briefing to the Mission Evaluation Room misrep- engender inconsistencies and inaccuracies. In another phrase resented key information.38 “Test results do show that it is possible at sufficient mass and velocity,” the word “it” actually refers to “damage to the protec- The slide created six levels of hierarchy, signified by the title tive tiles.” and the symbols to the left of each line. These levels prioritized information that was already contained in 11 simple sentences. As information gets passed up an organization hierarchy, from Tufte also notes that the title is confusing. “Review of Test Data people who do analysis to mid-level managers to high-level Indicates Conservatism” refers not to the predicted tile damage, leadership, key explanations and supporting information is fil- but to the choice of test models used to predict the damage. tered out. In this context, it is easy to understand how a senior manager might read this PowerPoint slide and not realize that it Only at the bottom of the slide do engineers state a key piece of addresses a life-threatening situation. information: that one estimate of the debris that struck Columbia was 640 times larger than the data used to calibrate the model on At many points during its investigation, the Board was sur- which engineers based their damage assessments. (Later analy- prised to receive similar presentation slides from NASA offi- sis showed that the debris object was actually 400 times larger). cials in place of technical reports. The Board views the endemic This difference led Tufte to suggest that a more appropriate use of PowerPoint briefing slides instead of technical papers as headline would be “Review of Test Data Indicates Irrelevance an illustration of the problematic methods of technical com- of Two Models.” 39 munication at NASA. The vaguely quantitative words "significant" and "significantly" are used 5 times on this slide, with de facto meanings ranging from "detectable in largely irrelevant calibration case study" to "an amount of damage so that everyone dies" to "a difference of 640-fold." None of these 5 usages appears to refer to the technical meaning of "statistical significance." Review Of Test Data Indicates Conservatism for Tile The low resolution of PowerPoint slides promotes Penetration the use of compressed phrases like "Tile Penetration." As is the case here, such phrases may well be ambiquous. • The existing SOFI on tile test data used to create Crater was reviewed along with STS-107 Southwest Research data (The low resolution and large font generate 3 typographic orphans, lonely words dangling on a seperate line.) – Crater overpredicted penetration of tile coating significantly • Initial penetration to described by normal velocity Varies with volume/mass of projectile(e.g., 200ft/sec for This vague pronoun reference "it" alludes to damage 3cu. In) to the protective tiles,which caused the destruction of the • Significant energy is required for the softer SOFI particle Columbia. The slide weakens important material with to penetrate the relatively hard tile coating ambiquous language (sentence fragments, passive voice, Test results do show that it is possible at sufficient mass multiple meanings of "significant"). The 3 reports and velocity • Conversely, once tile is penetrated SOFI can cause were created by engineers for high-level NASA officials significant damage who were deciding whether the threat of wing damage Minor variations in total energy (above penetration level) required further investigation before the Columbia can cause significant tile damage attempted return. The officials were satisfied that the – Flight condition is significantly outside of test database reports indicated that the Columbia was not in danger, • Volume of ramp is 1920cu in vs 3 cu in for test and no attempts to further examine the threat were 2/21/03 6 made. The slides were part of an oral presentation and also were circulated as e-mail attachments. In this slide the same unit of measure for volume (cubic inches) is shown a different way every time 3cu. in 1920cu. in 3 cu. in rather than in clear and tidy exponential form 1920 in 3 . Perhaps the available font cannot show exponents. Shakiness in units of measurement provokes concern. Slides that use hierarchical bullet-outlines here do not handle statistical data and scientific notation gracefully. If PowerPoint is a corporate-mandated format for all engineering reports, then some competent scientific typography (rather than the PP market-pitch style) is essential. In this slide, the typography is so choppy and clunky that it impedes understanding. The analysis by Dr. Edward Tufte of the slide from the Debris Assessment Team briefing. [SOFI=Spray-On Foam Insulation] Report Volume I August 2003 191
  • 8. The vaguely quantitative words "significant" and "significantly" are used 5 times on this slide, with de facto meanings ranging from "detectable in largely irrelevant calibration case study" to "an amount of damage so that everyone dies" to "a difference of 640-fold." None of these 5 usages appears to refer to the technical meaning of "statistical significance." Review Of Test Data Indicates Conservatism for Tile The low resolution of PowerPoint slides promotes Penetration the use of compressed phrases like "Tile Penetration." As is the case here, such phrases may well be ambiquous. • The existing SOFI on tile test data used to create Crater was reviewed along with STS-107 Southwest Research data (The low resolution and large font generate 3 typographic orphans, lonely words dangling on a seperate line.) – Crater overpredicted penetration of tile coating significantly • Initial penetration to described by normal velocity Varies with volume/mass of projectile(e.g., 200ft/sec for This vague pronoun reference "it" alludes to damage 3cu. In) to the protective tiles,which caused the destruction of the • Significant energy is required for the softer SOFI particle Columbia. The slide weakens important material with to penetrate the relatively hard tile coating ambiquous language (sentence fragments, passive voice, Test results do show that it is possible at sufficient mass multiple meanings of "significant"). The 3 reports and velocity • Conversely, once tile is penetrated SOFI can cause were created by engineers for high-level NASA officials significant damage who were deciding whether the threat of wing damage Minor variations in total energy (above penetration level) required further investigation before the Columbia can cause significant tile damage attempted return. The officials were satisfied that the – Flight condition is significantly outside of test database reports indicated that the Columbia was not in danger, • Volume of ramp is 1920cu in vs 3 cu in for test and no attempts to further examine the threat were 2/21/03 6 made. The slides were part of an oral presentation and also were circulated as e-mail attachments. In this slide the same unit of measure for volume (cubic inches) is shown a different way every time 3cu. in 1920cu. in 3 cu. in rather than in clear and tidy exponential form 1920 in 3 . Perhaps the available font cannot show exponents. Shakiness in units of measurement provokes concern. Slides that use hierarchical bullet-outlines here do not handle statistical data and scientific notation gracefully. If PowerPoint is a corporate-mandated format for all engineering reports, then some competent scientific typography (rather than the PP market-pitch style) is essential. In this slide, the typography is so choppy and clunky that it impedes understanding. The analysis by Dr. Edward Tufte of the slide from the Debris Assessment Team briefing. [SOFI=Spray-On Foam Insulation]
  • 9. meaning calibrati everyone these 5 u of "statis Review Of Test Data Indicates Conservatism for Tile “In the reports, every single text-slide The low Penetration the use o As is the usesreviewed along tile test data used 4 create Crater was bullet-outlines with to to 6 levels • The existing SOFI onwith STS-107 Southwest Research data (The low orphans, of hierarchy. Then another multi-level – Crater overpredicted penetration of tile coating significantly list, another bureaucracy of bullets, • Initial penetration to described by normal velocity Varies with volume/mass of projectile(e.g., 200ft/sec for This vag 3cu. In) to the pr starts afresh for a new slide. • Significant energy is required for the softer SOFI particle to penetrate the relatively hard tile coating Columbi ambiquo Test results do show that it is possible at sufficient mass multiple and velocity • Conversely, once tile is penetrated SOFI can cause were cre How is it that each elaborate significant damage Minor variations in total energy (above penetration level) who wer required architecture of thought always can cause significant tile damage attempte – Flight condition is significantly outside of test database reports i • Volume of ramp is 1920cu in vs 3 cu in for test fits exactly on one slide?” and no a 2/21/03 6 made. T also wer In this sl (cubic in rather th
  • 10. “Life After Death By PPT”
  • 11. “Particularly disturbing is the adoption of the PowerPoint cognitive style in our schools. Rather than learning to write a report using sentences, children are being taught how to formulate client pitches and infomercials.” — Edward Tufte, “PowerPoint is Evil”
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 19.
  • 22.
  • 23. “[I]n designing a PowerPoint slide it is important to not present an overwhelming amount of information (i.e., coherence principle) and it is useful to have simple graphics to supplement words (i.e., multimedia principle).”
  • 29.
  • 30. danger, alert renewal fave trust
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 38. “Studies by...Mayer et al. (2003) showed beneficial effects of giving learners control over the pacing of their multimedia instructions in terms of learning results” (346). The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning  — Richard E. Mayer
  • 39.
  • 40. “PowerPoint is a competent slide manager and projector. But rather than supplementing a presentation, it has become a substitute for it. Such misuse ignores the most important rule of speaking: Respect your audience.” — Edward Tufte, “PowerPoint is Evil”
  • 41. • PowerPoint icon: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/File:Powerpoint_mac_2008_icon.png • Dr. Richard Mayer: http:// www.psych.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/mayer/ index.php • The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning by Richard E. Mayer • Bill Gates: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ worldeconomicforum/350245689/
  • 42. • Interview with Richard Mayer: http:// www.sociablemedia.com/ articles_mayer.htm • Edward Tufte, “PowerPoint is Evil”: http:// www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.09/ ppt2.html • Columbia shuttle debris: http:// history.nasa.gov/columbia/debris_pics.html • Sunset: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ wavy1/2303062662/
  • 43. • Columbia launch: http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ BROWSE/columbia_1.html • Richard E. Mayer: http://www.udel.edu/PR/ UDaily/2008/jul/Mayerlg.jpg • The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: http:// www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/powerpoint • “Entering Hyperspace”: http:// www.flickr.com/photos/eole/380316678/
  • 44. • Sports Designer of the Year: http:// www.sportsdesigner.com/ 1/2007/02/2006_sports_des.html • 2 computers image: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/timsamoff/144022496/ • Limited capacity image: http:// www.flickr.com/photos/fotex/217896072/ • Steve Jobs: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ acaben/541334636/
  • 45. • Lawrence Lessig: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/joi/2115184003/ • “Dodging Bullets in Presentations”: http:// www.slideshare.net/RowanManahan/ dodging-bullets-in-presentations • “Our Direction”: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/b-tal/116220689/ • One Hour PPT: http://jakes.editme.com/ onehourppt
  • 46. • “Sources”: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ theklan/527782553/ • An Introduction to FlickrStorm: http:// www.teachertube.com/view_video.php? viewkey=6fa63738371ec0d5df81 • Ear: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ lintmachine/2251514423/ • Eye: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ simonpais/59039141/