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Power PlantPower Plant
DefinitionDefinition
A power station (also referred to as aA power station (also referred to as a
generating station, power plant, powerhouse orgenerating station, power plant, powerhouse or
generating plant) is an industrial facility forgenerating plant) is an industrial facility for
the generation of electric power.the generation of electric power.
Hydraulic Energy / Thermal Energy -> Mechanical Energy -> Electrical EnergyHydraulic Energy / Thermal Energy -> Mechanical Energy -> Electrical Energy
Unit collection of Power PlantUnit collection of Power Plant
 There may be several units which areThere may be several units which are
described below –described below –
1.1. Energy source (Heat, wind, water etc.)Energy source (Heat, wind, water etc.)
2.2. TurbineTurbine
3. Generator (3. Generator (a rotating machine that convertsa rotating machine that converts
mechanical power into electrical power bymechanical power into electrical power by
creating relative motion between a magneticcreating relative motion between a magnetic
field and a conductorfield and a conductor))
Types of Power PlantTypes of Power Plant
1. On the Basis of Primary Source / Fuel –1. On the Basis of Primary Source / Fuel –
(a.) Nuclear Power Plants(a.) Nuclear Power Plants
(b.) Geothermal Power Plants(b.) Geothermal Power Plants
(c.) Fossil-Fuel Power Plants(c.) Fossil-Fuel Power Plants
(d.) Biomass-Fuelled Power Plants(d.) Biomass-Fuelled Power Plants
(e.) Solar Thermal Power Plants(e.) Solar Thermal Power Plants
2.On the Basis of Prime Mover2.On the Basis of Prime Mover
(a.) Steam Turbine Power Plants(a.) Steam Turbine Power Plants
(b.) Gas Turbine Power Plants(b.) Gas Turbine Power Plants
(c.) Combined Cycle Power Plants(c.) Combined Cycle Power Plants
(d.) Internal combustion reciprocating engines are used for small(d.) Internal combustion reciprocating engines are used for small
cogeneration plants likes - Hospitals, office buildings,cogeneration plants likes - Hospitals, office buildings,
industrial plants, and other critical facilities.industrial plants, and other critical facilities.
(e.) Micro turbines, Stirling engine and internal combustion(e.) Micro turbines, Stirling engine and internal combustion
reciprocating engines are low-cost solutions for usingreciprocating engines are low-cost solutions for using
opportunity fuels, such as landfill gas, digester gas from wateropportunity fuels, such as landfill gas, digester gas from water
treatment plants and waste gas from oil productiontreatment plants and waste gas from oil production..
3. On the Basis of Duty3. On the Basis of Duty
(a.) Base Load Power Plants(a.) Base Load Power Plants -- Base Load Power Plants run nearlyBase Load Power Plants run nearly
continually to provide that component of system load that doesn't varycontinually to provide that component of system load that doesn't vary
during a day or week.during a day or week.
(b.) Peaking Power Plants(b.) Peaking Power Plants -- Peaking power plants meet the daily peakPeaking power plants meet the daily peak
load, which may only be for a one or two hours each day. While theirload, which may only be for a one or two hours each day. While their
incremental operating cost is always higher than base load plantsincremental operating cost is always higher than base load plants
(c.) Load Following Power Plants(c.) Load Following Power Plants -- Load following power plants canLoad following power plants can
economically follow the variations in the daily and weekly load, at lowereconomically follow the variations in the daily and weekly load, at lower
cost than peaking plants and with more flexibility than base load plants.cost than peaking plants and with more flexibility than base load plants.
Performance EfficienciesPerformance Efficiencies
 All thermal power plants produce waste heatAll thermal power plants produce waste heat
energy as a by product of the useful electricalenergy as a by product of the useful electrical
energy produced. The amount of waste heatenergy produced. The amount of waste heat
energy equals or exceeds the amount of energyenergy equals or exceeds the amount of energy
converted into useful electricity .converted into useful electricity . Gas-firedGas-fired
power plantspower plants can achievecan achieve “50%”“50%” conversionconversion
efficiency whileefficiency while coal and oil plantscoal and oil plants achieveachieve
aroundaround “30–49%”.“30–49%”.
Cooling Process / Cooling TowerCooling Process / Cooling Tower
(a.) Water Cooled(a.) Water Cooled
(b.) Mechanical Induced(b.) Mechanical Induced
Draft Wet CoolingDraft Wet Cooling
(c.) Air Cooled(c.) Air Cooled
Natural draft wet cooling tower
(a.) Water Cooled -(a.) Water Cooled - many nuclear power plants and large fossilmany nuclear power plants and large fossil
fuel-fired power plants use large hyperboloid chimney - like structures thatfuel-fired power plants use large hyperboloid chimney - like structures that
release the waste heat to the ambient atmosphere by the evaporation of water.release the waste heat to the ambient atmosphere by the evaporation of water.
(b.) Mechanical Induced Draft Wet Cooling -(b.) Mechanical Induced Draft Wet Cooling - Many powerMany power plants useplants use
fans to provide air movement upward through down coming water, and are notfans to provide air movement upward through down coming water, and are not
hyperboloid chimney-like structures.hyperboloid chimney-like structures.
(c.) Air Cooled(c.) Air Cooled –– In areas with restricted water use, a dry cooling tower orIn areas with restricted water use, a dry cooling tower or
directly air-cooled radiators may be necessary. These coolers have lowerdirectly air-cooled radiators may be necessary. These coolers have lower
efficiency and higher energy consumption to drive fans, compared to a typicalefficiency and higher energy consumption to drive fans, compared to a typical
wet, evaporative cooling tower.wet, evaporative cooling tower.
Thermal Power PlantThermal Power Plant
Thermal Power PlantThermal Power Plant
A thermal power station is aA thermal power station is a
power plant in which thepower plant in which the
prime mover is steamprime mover is steam
driven. Water is heated,driven. Water is heated,
turns into steam and spins aturns into steam and spins a
steam turbine which drivessteam turbine which drives
an electrical generator. Afteran electrical generator. After
it passes through theit passes through the
turbine, the steam isturbine, the steam is
condensed in a condensercondensed in a condenser
and recycled to where it wasand recycled to where it was
heated; this is known as aheated; this is known as a
Rankine cycleRankine cycle..
T – S diagram of Rankine Cycle
Components of a Thermal Power PlantComponents of a Thermal Power Plant
 1. Cooling tower1. Cooling tower
 2. Cooling water pump2. Cooling water pump
 3. transmission line (3-phase)3. transmission line (3-phase)
 4. Step-up transformer (3-phase)4. Step-up transformer (3-phase)
 5. Electrical generator (3-phase)5. Electrical generator (3-phase)
 6. Low pressure steam turbine6. Low pressure steam turbine
 7. Condensate pump7. Condensate pump
 8. Surface condenser8. Surface condenser
 9. Intermediate pressure steam turbine9. Intermediate pressure steam turbine
 10. Steam Control valve10. Steam Control valve
 11. High pressure steam turbine11. High pressure steam turbine
 12. De aerator12. De aerator
 13. Feed water heater13. Feed water heater
 14. Boiler steam drum14. Boiler steam drum
 15. Super heater15. Super heater
 16. Forced draught (draft) fan16. Forced draught (draft) fan
 17. Re heater17. Re heater
 18. Combustion air intake18. Combustion air intake
 19. Induced draught (draft) fan19. Induced draught (draft) fan
2.Nuclear Thermal Power Plant2.Nuclear Thermal Power Plant
 The heat is produced byThe heat is produced by
fission in a nuclearfission in a nuclear
reactor (a light waterreactor (a light water
reactor). Directly orreactor). Directly or
indirectly, water vapourindirectly, water vapour
(steam) is produced.(steam) is produced.
The pressurized steam isThe pressurized steam is
then usually fed to athen usually fed to a
multi-stage steammulti-stage steam
turbine.turbine.
Nuclear ReactorsNuclear Reactors
 A nuclear reactor is aA nuclear reactor is a
device to initiate anddevice to initiate and
control a sustainedcontrol a sustained
nuclear chain reaction.nuclear chain reaction.
The most common useThe most common use
of nuclear reactors is forof nuclear reactors is for
the generation ofthe generation of
electric energy and forelectric energy and for
the propulsion of ships.the propulsion of ships.
The nuclear reactor isThe nuclear reactor is
the heart of the plant.the heart of the plant.
Hydraulic Power Plant / HydroelectricityHydraulic Power Plant / Hydroelectricity
 The production ofThe production of
electrical power throughelectrical power through
the use of thethe use of the
gravitational force ofgravitational force of
falling or flowing water.falling or flowing water.
It is the most widelyIt is the most widely
used form of renewableused form of renewable
energy.energy.
Generating Methods of HydroelectricityGenerating Methods of Hydroelectricity
 Conventional ( dams )Conventional ( dams ) -- Most hydroelectric power comes fromMost hydroelectric power comes from
the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine andthe potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and
generator.generator.
 Pumped-Storage -Pumped-Storage - This method produces electricity to supply highThis method produces electricity to supply high
peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations.peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations.
 Run-of-the-River -Run-of-the-River - Run of the river hydropower could provideRun of the river hydropower could provide
potential to drive the turbine.potential to drive the turbine.
 TideTide -- A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of oceanA tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean
water due to tides.water due to tides.
 Underground -Underground - AAn underground power station makes use of a largen underground power station makes use of a large
natural height difference between two waterways, such as a waterfall ornatural height difference between two waterways, such as a waterfall or
mountain lake.mountain lake.
Geothermal Power PlantGeothermal Power Plant
 Geothermal electricity isGeothermal electricity is
electricity generatedelectricity generated
from geothermalfrom geothermal
energy. Technologies inenergy. Technologies in
use include dry steamuse include dry steam
power plants, flashpower plants, flash
steam power plants andsteam power plants and
binary cycle powerbinary cycle power
plants.plants.
Types of Geothermal Power PlantTypes of Geothermal Power Plant
(1.) Dry Steam Power Plant -(1.) Dry Steam Power Plant -They directly use geothermal steam of 150°C orThey directly use geothermal steam of 150°C or
greater to turn turbines.greater to turn turbines.
(2.) Flash Steam Power Plants -(2.) Flash Steam Power Plants - Flash steam plants pull deep, high-pressureFlash steam plants pull deep, high-pressure
hot water into lower-pressure tanks and use the resulting flashed steam to drivehot water into lower-pressure tanks and use the resulting flashed steam to drive
turbines. They require fluid temperatures of at least 180°C, usually more.turbines. They require fluid temperatures of at least 180°C, usually more.
(3.)Binary Cycle Power Plants -(3.)Binary Cycle Power Plants - The moderately hot geothermal water isThe moderately hot geothermal water is
passed by a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water. Thispassed by a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water. This
causes the secondary fluid to flash vaporize, which then drives the turbines.causes the secondary fluid to flash vaporize, which then drives the turbines.
For more visitFor more visit
www.studyhubz.comwww.studyhubz.com
Thank YouThank You
A Power Point Presentation ByA Power Point Presentation By
Yogendra Singh ShekhawatYogendra Singh Shekhawat
B. Tech, Mechanical EngineeringB. Tech, Mechanical Engineering

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Power plant, Power Station and types of power plant

  • 2. DefinitionDefinition A power station (also referred to as aA power station (also referred to as a generating station, power plant, powerhouse orgenerating station, power plant, powerhouse or generating plant) is an industrial facility forgenerating plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.the generation of electric power. Hydraulic Energy / Thermal Energy -> Mechanical Energy -> Electrical EnergyHydraulic Energy / Thermal Energy -> Mechanical Energy -> Electrical Energy
  • 3. Unit collection of Power PlantUnit collection of Power Plant  There may be several units which areThere may be several units which are described below –described below – 1.1. Energy source (Heat, wind, water etc.)Energy source (Heat, wind, water etc.) 2.2. TurbineTurbine 3. Generator (3. Generator (a rotating machine that convertsa rotating machine that converts mechanical power into electrical power bymechanical power into electrical power by creating relative motion between a magneticcreating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductorfield and a conductor))
  • 4. Types of Power PlantTypes of Power Plant 1. On the Basis of Primary Source / Fuel –1. On the Basis of Primary Source / Fuel – (a.) Nuclear Power Plants(a.) Nuclear Power Plants (b.) Geothermal Power Plants(b.) Geothermal Power Plants (c.) Fossil-Fuel Power Plants(c.) Fossil-Fuel Power Plants (d.) Biomass-Fuelled Power Plants(d.) Biomass-Fuelled Power Plants (e.) Solar Thermal Power Plants(e.) Solar Thermal Power Plants
  • 5. 2.On the Basis of Prime Mover2.On the Basis of Prime Mover (a.) Steam Turbine Power Plants(a.) Steam Turbine Power Plants (b.) Gas Turbine Power Plants(b.) Gas Turbine Power Plants (c.) Combined Cycle Power Plants(c.) Combined Cycle Power Plants (d.) Internal combustion reciprocating engines are used for small(d.) Internal combustion reciprocating engines are used for small cogeneration plants likes - Hospitals, office buildings,cogeneration plants likes - Hospitals, office buildings, industrial plants, and other critical facilities.industrial plants, and other critical facilities. (e.) Micro turbines, Stirling engine and internal combustion(e.) Micro turbines, Stirling engine and internal combustion reciprocating engines are low-cost solutions for usingreciprocating engines are low-cost solutions for using opportunity fuels, such as landfill gas, digester gas from wateropportunity fuels, such as landfill gas, digester gas from water treatment plants and waste gas from oil productiontreatment plants and waste gas from oil production..
  • 6. 3. On the Basis of Duty3. On the Basis of Duty (a.) Base Load Power Plants(a.) Base Load Power Plants -- Base Load Power Plants run nearlyBase Load Power Plants run nearly continually to provide that component of system load that doesn't varycontinually to provide that component of system load that doesn't vary during a day or week.during a day or week. (b.) Peaking Power Plants(b.) Peaking Power Plants -- Peaking power plants meet the daily peakPeaking power plants meet the daily peak load, which may only be for a one or two hours each day. While theirload, which may only be for a one or two hours each day. While their incremental operating cost is always higher than base load plantsincremental operating cost is always higher than base load plants (c.) Load Following Power Plants(c.) Load Following Power Plants -- Load following power plants canLoad following power plants can economically follow the variations in the daily and weekly load, at lowereconomically follow the variations in the daily and weekly load, at lower cost than peaking plants and with more flexibility than base load plants.cost than peaking plants and with more flexibility than base load plants.
  • 7. Performance EfficienciesPerformance Efficiencies  All thermal power plants produce waste heatAll thermal power plants produce waste heat energy as a by product of the useful electricalenergy as a by product of the useful electrical energy produced. The amount of waste heatenergy produced. The amount of waste heat energy equals or exceeds the amount of energyenergy equals or exceeds the amount of energy converted into useful electricity .converted into useful electricity . Gas-firedGas-fired power plantspower plants can achievecan achieve “50%”“50%” conversionconversion efficiency whileefficiency while coal and oil plantscoal and oil plants achieveachieve aroundaround “30–49%”.“30–49%”.
  • 8. Cooling Process / Cooling TowerCooling Process / Cooling Tower (a.) Water Cooled(a.) Water Cooled (b.) Mechanical Induced(b.) Mechanical Induced Draft Wet CoolingDraft Wet Cooling (c.) Air Cooled(c.) Air Cooled Natural draft wet cooling tower
  • 9. (a.) Water Cooled -(a.) Water Cooled - many nuclear power plants and large fossilmany nuclear power plants and large fossil fuel-fired power plants use large hyperboloid chimney - like structures thatfuel-fired power plants use large hyperboloid chimney - like structures that release the waste heat to the ambient atmosphere by the evaporation of water.release the waste heat to the ambient atmosphere by the evaporation of water. (b.) Mechanical Induced Draft Wet Cooling -(b.) Mechanical Induced Draft Wet Cooling - Many powerMany power plants useplants use fans to provide air movement upward through down coming water, and are notfans to provide air movement upward through down coming water, and are not hyperboloid chimney-like structures.hyperboloid chimney-like structures. (c.) Air Cooled(c.) Air Cooled –– In areas with restricted water use, a dry cooling tower orIn areas with restricted water use, a dry cooling tower or directly air-cooled radiators may be necessary. These coolers have lowerdirectly air-cooled radiators may be necessary. These coolers have lower efficiency and higher energy consumption to drive fans, compared to a typicalefficiency and higher energy consumption to drive fans, compared to a typical wet, evaporative cooling tower.wet, evaporative cooling tower.
  • 11. Thermal Power PlantThermal Power Plant A thermal power station is aA thermal power station is a power plant in which thepower plant in which the prime mover is steamprime mover is steam driven. Water is heated,driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins aturns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drivessteam turbine which drives an electrical generator. Afteran electrical generator. After it passes through theit passes through the turbine, the steam isturbine, the steam is condensed in a condensercondensed in a condenser and recycled to where it wasand recycled to where it was heated; this is known as aheated; this is known as a Rankine cycleRankine cycle.. T – S diagram of Rankine Cycle
  • 12. Components of a Thermal Power PlantComponents of a Thermal Power Plant  1. Cooling tower1. Cooling tower  2. Cooling water pump2. Cooling water pump  3. transmission line (3-phase)3. transmission line (3-phase)  4. Step-up transformer (3-phase)4. Step-up transformer (3-phase)  5. Electrical generator (3-phase)5. Electrical generator (3-phase)  6. Low pressure steam turbine6. Low pressure steam turbine  7. Condensate pump7. Condensate pump  8. Surface condenser8. Surface condenser  9. Intermediate pressure steam turbine9. Intermediate pressure steam turbine  10. Steam Control valve10. Steam Control valve  11. High pressure steam turbine11. High pressure steam turbine  12. De aerator12. De aerator  13. Feed water heater13. Feed water heater  14. Boiler steam drum14. Boiler steam drum  15. Super heater15. Super heater  16. Forced draught (draft) fan16. Forced draught (draft) fan  17. Re heater17. Re heater  18. Combustion air intake18. Combustion air intake  19. Induced draught (draft) fan19. Induced draught (draft) fan
  • 13. 2.Nuclear Thermal Power Plant2.Nuclear Thermal Power Plant  The heat is produced byThe heat is produced by fission in a nuclearfission in a nuclear reactor (a light waterreactor (a light water reactor). Directly orreactor). Directly or indirectly, water vapourindirectly, water vapour (steam) is produced.(steam) is produced. The pressurized steam isThe pressurized steam is then usually fed to athen usually fed to a multi-stage steammulti-stage steam turbine.turbine.
  • 14. Nuclear ReactorsNuclear Reactors  A nuclear reactor is aA nuclear reactor is a device to initiate anddevice to initiate and control a sustainedcontrol a sustained nuclear chain reaction.nuclear chain reaction. The most common useThe most common use of nuclear reactors is forof nuclear reactors is for the generation ofthe generation of electric energy and forelectric energy and for the propulsion of ships.the propulsion of ships. The nuclear reactor isThe nuclear reactor is the heart of the plant.the heart of the plant.
  • 15. Hydraulic Power Plant / HydroelectricityHydraulic Power Plant / Hydroelectricity  The production ofThe production of electrical power throughelectrical power through the use of thethe use of the gravitational force ofgravitational force of falling or flowing water.falling or flowing water. It is the most widelyIt is the most widely used form of renewableused form of renewable energy.energy.
  • 16. Generating Methods of HydroelectricityGenerating Methods of Hydroelectricity  Conventional ( dams )Conventional ( dams ) -- Most hydroelectric power comes fromMost hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine andthe potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator.generator.  Pumped-Storage -Pumped-Storage - This method produces electricity to supply highThis method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations.peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations.  Run-of-the-River -Run-of-the-River - Run of the river hydropower could provideRun of the river hydropower could provide potential to drive the turbine.potential to drive the turbine.  TideTide -- A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of oceanA tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides.water due to tides.  Underground -Underground - AAn underground power station makes use of a largen underground power station makes use of a large natural height difference between two waterways, such as a waterfall ornatural height difference between two waterways, such as a waterfall or mountain lake.mountain lake.
  • 17. Geothermal Power PlantGeothermal Power Plant  Geothermal electricity isGeothermal electricity is electricity generatedelectricity generated from geothermalfrom geothermal energy. Technologies inenergy. Technologies in use include dry steamuse include dry steam power plants, flashpower plants, flash steam power plants andsteam power plants and binary cycle powerbinary cycle power plants.plants.
  • 18. Types of Geothermal Power PlantTypes of Geothermal Power Plant (1.) Dry Steam Power Plant -(1.) Dry Steam Power Plant -They directly use geothermal steam of 150°C orThey directly use geothermal steam of 150°C or greater to turn turbines.greater to turn turbines. (2.) Flash Steam Power Plants -(2.) Flash Steam Power Plants - Flash steam plants pull deep, high-pressureFlash steam plants pull deep, high-pressure hot water into lower-pressure tanks and use the resulting flashed steam to drivehot water into lower-pressure tanks and use the resulting flashed steam to drive turbines. They require fluid temperatures of at least 180°C, usually more.turbines. They require fluid temperatures of at least 180°C, usually more. (3.)Binary Cycle Power Plants -(3.)Binary Cycle Power Plants - The moderately hot geothermal water isThe moderately hot geothermal water is passed by a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water. Thispassed by a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water. This causes the secondary fluid to flash vaporize, which then drives the turbines.causes the secondary fluid to flash vaporize, which then drives the turbines.
  • 19. For more visitFor more visit www.studyhubz.comwww.studyhubz.com Thank YouThank You A Power Point Presentation ByA Power Point Presentation By Yogendra Singh ShekhawatYogendra Singh Shekhawat B. Tech, Mechanical EngineeringB. Tech, Mechanical Engineering