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Department of Horticulture
Patuakhali Science and Technology University
Course Title:
Horticultural seed and Post Harvest Technology
Course code: HRT 321
Credit Hour: 3
Course Teacher
Habiba Zannat Meem
Lecturer
Department of Horticulture
Patuakhali Science and Technology
University
Md. Nazmul Hasan Mehedi
Lecturer
Department of Horticulture
Patuakhali Science and Technology
University
Horticultural seed
Technology
Post Harvest
Technology
Outline of the Talk
 Acquaintance (Myself and Yourselves);
 Career planning;
 Syllabus/course content (Postharvest technology part);
 Introduction to PHT;
 Present status of postharvest losses;
 Why postharvest management is important?
 Major causes of postharvest loss;
 How to reduce?
 Book reference;
 Recap
 Questions/Comments
Course content
(Postharvest technology part)
 Introduction to postharvest technology
 Quality of horticultural crops
 Postharvest physiology
 Postharvest handling of horticultural crops
 Postharvest technology for loss minimization
 Processing and preservation of horticultural seeds
Some basic terminology
 Harvest: is a specific and single deliberate action to separates the food stuff
with or with out non-edible portion from its growth medium.
e.g – Plucking of F and V
– Lifting of fish from water
– Lifting of tuber or roots from soil etc.
 Harvesting: is the process by which agricultural commodities are detached
from their mother plants for consumption or sale or for other purposes.
 Postharvest: all the succeeding action after harvest are defined as post-
harvest technique.
 Post-harvest shelf life: The period during which consumption is considered
acceptable is defined as the time of “post-harvest shelf life”.
It is a branch of agriculture that deals with all the operations right from
harvesting or even the pre-harvest stages till the commodity reaches the
consumer
- either in fresh (grains, apple, mango, tomato fruits)
- or processed form (flour, juice, nectar, ketchup)
and utilization of the wastes (pomace, peel, seed, skin etc.) in a
profitable manner (manufacture of fermented beverages, colour
extraction, pectin extraction etc.)
Post harvest Management
Post-harvest technology is inter-disciplinary “science and technique”
applied to horticultural produce after harvest for its protection,
conservation, processing, packaging, distribution, marketing and
utilization to meet the food and nutritional requirements of the people in
relation to their needs.
Post harvest technology
Fruit and vegetables are highly perishable and unless great care is taken in
there harvesting, handling and transportation, they soon decay and
become unfit for human consumption.
Flow chart for post-harvest handling operations of horticultural produce
Post harvest Handling
Ultimate fate of a horticultural produce
13
Country Estimated level of losses (%)
1. India 32
2. Indonesia 20-30
3. Iran 25
4. Korea 10-25
5. Philippines 17-32
6. Sri Lanka 16-31
7. Thailand 17-25
8. Vietnam 20-25
9. Bangladesh 25-40
Estimated levels of post harvest losses of fruits in the Asia Pacific Region
Estimated postharvest losses of selected fruits and vegetables in Bangladesh
 Increase food and nutritional security
 Increase of agriculture productivity is difficult
rather than to reduce the post harvest losses
 More value added
 To reduce the pressure on environment
 Reduce impact of unfair trade
 Decrease unemployment rate
 Increase the quality of food
Why is Postharvest management is Important?
Causes of postharvest losses in Bangladesh
Causes of postharvest losses
 Horticultural crops not only provide nutritional and healthy foods to
human beings, but also generate a considerable cash income for growers.
 However, horticultural crops typically have high moisture content, tender
texture and high perishability.
 If not handled properly, a high value nutritious product can deteriorate
and rot in a matter of days or hours.
The causes of post harvest losses can be divided into different categories:
• Metabolic
• Mechanical
• Developmental
• Parasitic diseases
• Physiological deterioration
• Lack of market demand
• Cosumption
15
Preharvest factors
Disease and disorders
Temperature
Radiation
Relative Humidity
Nutrition
Irrigation
PGRs
Damage of pineapple by sun burn Fruit cracking due to use of PGRs
Damage of jackfruit by borer Damage of banana by beetle
Damage of fruit before harvesting
Physiological
deterioration
Mechanical
damage
Respiration
Pest & Disease
Ripening
High Temperature injury
Low temperature injury
Overpacking/Underpacking
Poor harvesting practices
Careless handling
Supply of O2
Supply of CO2
Climacteric fruits
Non-climacteric fruits
Parasite
Fungi
After
harvesting
26
Source: www.fao.org.com
Postharvest loss of some fruits due to mechanical damage
Skin Abrasion of Banana
Bruising of papaya
Oil spotting of Lemon Bruising of apple
Post harvest losses of some fruits due to physical deterioration
Source: postharvest.ucdavis.edu
A. Mango spread on floor for chemical spray
B. Mango subjected to chemical spray
Jackfruit covered by polythene
after chemical spray
Immature banana ripening
Immature pineapple ripening
Ripening of fruits by chemical spraying
Source: www.post.edu.com
Black rot of papaya Anthracnose of mango
Rhizopus rot of banana
Cottony rot of lemon
Postharvest loss of some fruits due to pest and diseases
Source: www.fao.org.com
22
30
During drying
During storage
During transportation
During packaging
During processing
During handling in warehouse
Postharvest
Loss
Rupture of seed
Rodents
Insects
Birds
Microorganisms
Humidity
Temperature
High humidity
High temperature
Respiration
Microorganism
Contamination
Fig.6. Causes of postharvest loss at different steps
25
Highly nutritious and antioxidant rich tomato fruits are lost after harvest
Postharvest bruises (A & B) and microbial damage (C) of banana fruits.
Damages of fruits in supply chain
Source: www.fao.org.com
Wetting floors
Supply moisture
by humidifier
Refrigeration
Rapid cooling after
harvesting
Shade in sunny place
Low temperature room
How to reduce the Post harvest losses of fruits
Water supply
Use of fertilizers
Cultivation practices
Preharvest control of
disease
Field hygiene
Healthy planting
materials
Balanced
nutrition
Adequate
moisture
Control of pest
Preharvest
management Postharvest
management
Temperature Relative
Humidity
source: Amiruzzaman, M. 2001
27
33
Postharvest management
Harvesting
Maturity stage
Advanced stage
Increase shelf life and
quality of fruits
Reduce shelf life and
quality of fruits
Harvesting of mango
Sorting
Removal of diseased, damaged
and insect infested fruits
Visual observation
Roller conveyor
Push-bar conveyor
Bangladesh
Methods
Developed countries
Fruit sorting machine
29
35
Fungicide treatment
Reduction of decay caused
by bacteria or moulds
Longer period of storage
Long distance transportation
Fungicide treated
mango
Without
Fungicide
treatment
Fungicide treatment of mango
Cont.
Grading Based on size, shape and color
No scientific methods of grading in
Bangladesh
Grading machine of fruits
Electronic fruit
color grader
Electronic fruit
weight grader
Waxing
To limit water loss from the fruits
To enhance appearance of fruits
Before waxing After waxing
Waxing of fruits
To preservation of fruits
Cont.
Packaging
Long distance transportation
Long term storage of fruits
Marketing purpose
Long transportation
Multiple handling
Storage condition
Marketing
Packaging materials
Conventional method Improved method
Method of packaging
Bags, crates
Basket, cartons
bins etc
Transportation
Harvesting place Packaging house Distribution centre
Postharvest
operations
Wholesalers
Supermarkets
Retailers
Important consideration
 Refrigerated vehicle
 Modified atmosphere packaging
 Perforated/ non-perforated bags
 Potassium permanganate
 Avoiding load
Transportation of fruit in controlled condition
Modern transportation system
Traditional transportation
Storage
Long term storage
Short term storage
Methods
Low temperature storage
Controlled atmosphere(CA)
Modified atmosphere(MA)
Air cooled storage
Ice refrigeration
Commercial cold storage
Low conc. Of oxygen
High conc. Of carbon dioxide
Plastic films
Heat treatment
Hot water treatment
Vapour heat treatment
Forced hot air treatment
Potassium permanganate
1-methyl cyclopropene
Chitosan
PVC
LDPE
Cont.
Modern Storage system
36
43
Education and
training of farmer
Farmers
attitude
Presence of middlemen in
marketing channel
Consumer`s
behavior
Role of
mass media
Participation
of policy
makers
Challenges
source: The Business standard, 21 October, 2023
36
45
Achievements
36
46
Achievements
Reference Books
 Yahia, E.M. 2011. Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and
subtropical fruits. Vol. 1-4. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Oxfara.
 Kader, A.A. (editor). 2002. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural
Crops (3rd edition), University of California, Agriculture and Natural
Resources, Publication 3311, 535pp.
 Paliyath, G., Murr, D.P., Handa, A and S. Lurie (eds.) (2008).
Postharvest biology and technology of fruits, vegetables and
flowers, Wiley-Blackwell, IoWa.
Recap
Questions/Comments/Suggestions
Postharvest technology  and manageent.ppt

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Postharvest technology and manageent.ppt

  • 1. Department of Horticulture Patuakhali Science and Technology University
  • 2. Course Title: Horticultural seed and Post Harvest Technology Course code: HRT 321 Credit Hour: 3
  • 3. Course Teacher Habiba Zannat Meem Lecturer Department of Horticulture Patuakhali Science and Technology University Md. Nazmul Hasan Mehedi Lecturer Department of Horticulture Patuakhali Science and Technology University Horticultural seed Technology Post Harvest Technology
  • 4. Outline of the Talk  Acquaintance (Myself and Yourselves);  Career planning;  Syllabus/course content (Postharvest technology part);  Introduction to PHT;  Present status of postharvest losses;  Why postharvest management is important?  Major causes of postharvest loss;  How to reduce?  Book reference;  Recap  Questions/Comments
  • 5. Course content (Postharvest technology part)  Introduction to postharvest technology  Quality of horticultural crops  Postharvest physiology  Postharvest handling of horticultural crops  Postharvest technology for loss minimization  Processing and preservation of horticultural seeds
  • 6. Some basic terminology  Harvest: is a specific and single deliberate action to separates the food stuff with or with out non-edible portion from its growth medium. e.g – Plucking of F and V – Lifting of fish from water – Lifting of tuber or roots from soil etc.  Harvesting: is the process by which agricultural commodities are detached from their mother plants for consumption or sale or for other purposes.  Postharvest: all the succeeding action after harvest are defined as post- harvest technique.  Post-harvest shelf life: The period during which consumption is considered acceptable is defined as the time of “post-harvest shelf life”.
  • 7. It is a branch of agriculture that deals with all the operations right from harvesting or even the pre-harvest stages till the commodity reaches the consumer - either in fresh (grains, apple, mango, tomato fruits) - or processed form (flour, juice, nectar, ketchup) and utilization of the wastes (pomace, peel, seed, skin etc.) in a profitable manner (manufacture of fermented beverages, colour extraction, pectin extraction etc.) Post harvest Management Post-harvest technology is inter-disciplinary “science and technique” applied to horticultural produce after harvest for its protection, conservation, processing, packaging, distribution, marketing and utilization to meet the food and nutritional requirements of the people in relation to their needs. Post harvest technology
  • 8. Fruit and vegetables are highly perishable and unless great care is taken in there harvesting, handling and transportation, they soon decay and become unfit for human consumption. Flow chart for post-harvest handling operations of horticultural produce Post harvest Handling
  • 9. Ultimate fate of a horticultural produce
  • 10. 13 Country Estimated level of losses (%) 1. India 32 2. Indonesia 20-30 3. Iran 25 4. Korea 10-25 5. Philippines 17-32 6. Sri Lanka 16-31 7. Thailand 17-25 8. Vietnam 20-25 9. Bangladesh 25-40 Estimated levels of post harvest losses of fruits in the Asia Pacific Region
  • 11. Estimated postharvest losses of selected fruits and vegetables in Bangladesh
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  • 20.  Increase food and nutritional security  Increase of agriculture productivity is difficult rather than to reduce the post harvest losses  More value added  To reduce the pressure on environment  Reduce impact of unfair trade  Decrease unemployment rate  Increase the quality of food Why is Postharvest management is Important?
  • 21. Causes of postharvest losses in Bangladesh
  • 22. Causes of postharvest losses  Horticultural crops not only provide nutritional and healthy foods to human beings, but also generate a considerable cash income for growers.  However, horticultural crops typically have high moisture content, tender texture and high perishability.  If not handled properly, a high value nutritious product can deteriorate and rot in a matter of days or hours. The causes of post harvest losses can be divided into different categories: • Metabolic • Mechanical • Developmental • Parasitic diseases • Physiological deterioration • Lack of market demand • Cosumption
  • 23. 15 Preharvest factors Disease and disorders Temperature Radiation Relative Humidity Nutrition Irrigation PGRs
  • 24. Damage of pineapple by sun burn Fruit cracking due to use of PGRs Damage of jackfruit by borer Damage of banana by beetle Damage of fruit before harvesting
  • 25. Physiological deterioration Mechanical damage Respiration Pest & Disease Ripening High Temperature injury Low temperature injury Overpacking/Underpacking Poor harvesting practices Careless handling Supply of O2 Supply of CO2 Climacteric fruits Non-climacteric fruits Parasite Fungi After harvesting
  • 26. 26 Source: www.fao.org.com Postharvest loss of some fruits due to mechanical damage Skin Abrasion of Banana Bruising of papaya Oil spotting of Lemon Bruising of apple
  • 27. Post harvest losses of some fruits due to physical deterioration Source: postharvest.ucdavis.edu
  • 28. A. Mango spread on floor for chemical spray B. Mango subjected to chemical spray Jackfruit covered by polythene after chemical spray Immature banana ripening Immature pineapple ripening Ripening of fruits by chemical spraying Source: www.post.edu.com
  • 29. Black rot of papaya Anthracnose of mango Rhizopus rot of banana Cottony rot of lemon Postharvest loss of some fruits due to pest and diseases Source: www.fao.org.com
  • 30. 22 30 During drying During storage During transportation During packaging During processing During handling in warehouse Postharvest Loss Rupture of seed Rodents Insects Birds Microorganisms Humidity Temperature High humidity High temperature Respiration Microorganism Contamination Fig.6. Causes of postharvest loss at different steps
  • 31. 25 Highly nutritious and antioxidant rich tomato fruits are lost after harvest Postharvest bruises (A & B) and microbial damage (C) of banana fruits. Damages of fruits in supply chain Source: www.fao.org.com
  • 32. Wetting floors Supply moisture by humidifier Refrigeration Rapid cooling after harvesting Shade in sunny place Low temperature room How to reduce the Post harvest losses of fruits Water supply Use of fertilizers Cultivation practices Preharvest control of disease Field hygiene Healthy planting materials Balanced nutrition Adequate moisture Control of pest Preharvest management Postharvest management Temperature Relative Humidity source: Amiruzzaman, M. 2001
  • 33. 27 33 Postharvest management Harvesting Maturity stage Advanced stage Increase shelf life and quality of fruits Reduce shelf life and quality of fruits Harvesting of mango
  • 34. Sorting Removal of diseased, damaged and insect infested fruits Visual observation Roller conveyor Push-bar conveyor Bangladesh Methods Developed countries Fruit sorting machine
  • 35. 29 35 Fungicide treatment Reduction of decay caused by bacteria or moulds Longer period of storage Long distance transportation Fungicide treated mango Without Fungicide treatment Fungicide treatment of mango Cont.
  • 36. Grading Based on size, shape and color No scientific methods of grading in Bangladesh Grading machine of fruits Electronic fruit color grader Electronic fruit weight grader
  • 37. Waxing To limit water loss from the fruits To enhance appearance of fruits Before waxing After waxing Waxing of fruits To preservation of fruits Cont.
  • 38. Packaging Long distance transportation Long term storage of fruits Marketing purpose Long transportation Multiple handling Storage condition Marketing Packaging materials Conventional method Improved method Method of packaging Bags, crates Basket, cartons bins etc
  • 39. Transportation Harvesting place Packaging house Distribution centre Postharvest operations Wholesalers Supermarkets Retailers Important consideration  Refrigerated vehicle  Modified atmosphere packaging  Perforated/ non-perforated bags  Potassium permanganate  Avoiding load Transportation of fruit in controlled condition
  • 41. Storage Long term storage Short term storage Methods Low temperature storage Controlled atmosphere(CA) Modified atmosphere(MA) Air cooled storage Ice refrigeration Commercial cold storage Low conc. Of oxygen High conc. Of carbon dioxide Plastic films Heat treatment Hot water treatment Vapour heat treatment Forced hot air treatment Potassium permanganate 1-methyl cyclopropene Chitosan PVC LDPE Cont.
  • 43. 36 43 Education and training of farmer Farmers attitude Presence of middlemen in marketing channel Consumer`s behavior Role of mass media Participation of policy makers Challenges
  • 44. source: The Business standard, 21 October, 2023
  • 47. Reference Books  Yahia, E.M. 2011. Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits. Vol. 1-4. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Oxfara.  Kader, A.A. (editor). 2002. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops (3rd edition), University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3311, 535pp.  Paliyath, G., Murr, D.P., Handa, A and S. Lurie (eds.) (2008). Postharvest biology and technology of fruits, vegetables and flowers, Wiley-Blackwell, IoWa.
  • 48. Recap