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Post – Capitalist Society
Peter F. Drucker
(1994)
DA 8010 Organization Analysis and Management
Patcharawan Ubonloet
5710131001
14 October 2015
Outline
• Overview
• Society
• Polity
• Knowledge
• Conclusion
• Comments
OVERVIEW
Overview
Capitalist society
• Factor of production capital (land and
labor etc.)
• Society is dominated by two social
classes- the capitalists and workers
• Politics: Sovereign Nation-state-
sovereignty is defined by territory
Overview
Post- Capitalist society
• Primary resource is knowledge
• Employees owns both means and tools for production
• Society is both a non-socialist and post-capitalist
• Politics: Plural state-> Post- Capitalist polity which
transnational, regional, nation-state and local even
tribal compete and co-exist
• The application of knowledge to work and knowledge
worker crucial to economy and society
SOCIETY
1.Society
1.1 From Capitalism to Knowledge Society
Meaning of Knowledge
1750 – 1900 : Capitalism prevailed over the globe
• 1st phrase Knowledge was applied to tools, processes,
products Industrial Revolution
• 2nd phrase (1880 End of WW II) Knowledge is applied to
work  Productivity Revolution
• 3rd phrase (After WW II) Knowledge is applied to knowledge
itself  Knowledge is the most vital factor of production
• Today Knowledge is its ability to do and effective
application to increase productivity
1.Society
• Organizations is always specialized. It is defined by task. Community and
society, by contrast, are defined by a bond that holds together human beings,
whether language, culture, history, or locality. An organization is effective as long
as it focuses on one task. Society in all developed countries has become a
society of organizations. If not all social tasks are being done in and by an
organization.
Characteristics and tasks of organization
• Modern organization is an org, of knowledge specialists. It has to be
organization of equals, of colleagues, of associates. No boss and subordinate. It
must be organized as team of associates.
• The task of organization is to make knowledges become more productive by
fusing them into a single unified knowledge, and able to manage change and
innovation creation.
• Post-capitalist society employee own means of production and they have high
mobility as their means of production is carried with them.
• The redefining of the role, power, and function of both capital and ownership is
required.
1.2 The Society of Organizations
1.Society
• Labor based manufacturing should be converted to
knowledge based
• Knowledge workers easily lose motivation and
dedication because corporations too much attempt
maximize shareholders’ value dampening wealth
producing capacity of firms
• In the economy of change and innovation, there is no
profit only the past and costs of an vague future. The
minimum financial return from the operations of the past
that is sufficient to the costs of the future is the cost of
capital
1.3 Labor, Capital and their Future
1.Society
• Structure of post-capitalist Knowledge and service works requires team meaning
dependency on other to organize the work to get things done effectively i.e. writer&
editor, painter & gallery. There are three kinds of team 1) Baseball 2) Soccer and 3)
Doubles tennis. If we want to change we must cuts across old, long-established, and
cherished human relationships.
• To improve productivity organization must remove work that do not contribute to
performance and concentrate only on core tasks. Alliances and partnerships are
crucial.
• Knowledge is changing so productivity requires continuous learning into your job and
organization. The best way is to learn and to teach to others until organization
becomes learning and teaching organization.
• Structure of post-capitalist society, on the other hand, tends to resemble a liquid
rather than crystalline in their structure like capitalist society.
1.4 The Productivity of the New Workforces
Productivity relates to economic stagnation and social tension because
they knowledge and service workers are paid according to their
productivity. To improve productivity requires both changes in structure of
organization and society.
1.Society
• An organization has full social responsibility for its impact on community and society,
for the effluents it discharges into society and environment such as a local river.
• If organization does not discharge anything, it will reduce organization competence to
perform main task and mission.
• Organization must transform from power-based organization to responsibility-based
organization.
• The characteristics or responsible-based organization is everyone is associates not
superior and subordinate relationship. Everyone know organization’s objective, make
contribution and responsible for own behavior which fit the requirement of knowledge-
based organization. Everybody is contributor to organizaion.
1.5 The Responsibility Based Organization
POLITY
2.Polity
2.1 From Nation- State to Mega State
• Mega state is somehow between capitalism and socialism as a response to
the tensions and problems created by the rapid spread of capitalism and
technology. It attempts to regulates business activities and address society
problems. However, it did not succeed in redistribution of income. The
needs to contract out prevail for better achievement in social and economic
issues.
• Instead, independent non-profit agencies have done better especially in the
U.S.
• The modern state requires a restoration of citizenship of the post-capitalist
polity. Every developed country needs an autonomous, self-governing social
sector of community organizations. Community can no longer be destiny. In
the post-capitalist society and polity, community has to be converted into
commitment.
2.Polity
2.2 Transnationalism, Regionalism and Tribalism
• Neither government, central banks nor nation-state can control the flow of
money. Not even mutual action.
• There are also no national boundaries anymore for information as seen in
totalitarianism. The most absolute regime in history to control access to
information was a major factor in the collapse of Communism and the
Soviet Empire.
• Today information is transnational as money.
• Sovereignty over money and information is almost unmanageable.
• They require transnational agencies. Increasingly, regionalism also makes
the nation-state less important. While internally, the nation-state is being
undermined by tribalism if an attempt to exclude, force tribal groups
(immigrants/minority) to the mainstream exists. The best way is advocate of
“diversity” because people need roots/ community in transnational world.
2.Polity
2.3 The Needed Government Turnaround
• Countries should focus on the economic “climate” rather than the economic
“weather.” like Japan and Germany. The aim of economic policies must be
to make the patient healthy to keep the patient healthy. It must be to create
an economic environment in which the economy can grow; acquire
resistance to infection, injury, and disease; acquire the ability to adapt and
to change rapidly; and stay competitive. Creating the right climate is not the
same thing as keeping taxes low.
• The proper aim of fiscal policy has to be the encouragement of investment
in knowledge and in human resources, in productive facilities in business,
and in infrastructure. The success cases are Japan, Germany and the Four
Asian Tigers- South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
2.Polity
2.4 Citizenship through Social Sector
• In Mega- state political citizenship can no longer function. Without
citizenship the political unit whether state or empire can only be a power
that is the only thing that holds it together.
• In order to be able to act in a rapidly changing and precarious world, the
post- capitalist polity must create citizenship.
• Citizenship is active commitment, responsibility and making a difference in
one’s community, in one’s society, in one’s country
• It is believed that citizenship can be built trough social sector as the
knowledge workers want to voluntarily do more for their community and
their country.
KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge
3.1 KNOWLEDGE: Its Economic and Its productivity
• It is no longer possible to make huge profits by doing or moving things. Increasingly,
there is less and less return on the traditional resources: labor, land and (money)
capital. The main producers of wealth have become information and knowledge.
The Assumptions
Traditional economy Knowledge economy
Imperfect competition is the result
outside interference with the economy,
i.e., of monopoly; of patent protection;
of government regulation; and so on.
Imperfect competition is inherent in
the economy itself
Economy is determined either by
consumption or by investment.
Little evidence that increased
consumption or investment in the
economy leads to greater production
of knowledge.
Knowledge
3.1 Knowledge: Its Economic and Its productivity
Three kinds of knowledge
Continuous
improvement
Continuous
Exploitation
Genuine
Innovation
Knowledge
3.1 KNOWLEDGE: Its Economic and Its productivity
Knowledge: The New Investment
knowledge Productivity
Social and
Economic wellbeing
National
Competitiveness
Knowledge
3.1 KNOWLEDGE: Its Economic and Its productivity
Making Knowledge Productive
• Systematic, organized application of
knowledge to knowledge
• Ambitious result- Make a difference
• Clear focus
• Systematic exploitation of opportunities for
change that have to be matched with the
competences and strengths of the
knowledge worker and the team
• Balancing the long term with the short term
results
• Turn specialization in knowledge into
performance.
Productivity
Knowledge
3.2 The Accountable School
School becomes accountable for performance and
results
• Technology transforms school but it matters less than the changes which it
triggers in substance, content, and focus of schooling and school. These
changes in substance, content, and focus are what really matter.
• Continuing education is now a social necessity. The school will be the place
where adults continue learning even though they are working full time. They will
come back to school for part time courses. Schools will no longer be
monopolists. In many areas, schools will only be only one of several available
teaching and learning institutions, in competition with other purveyors of
teaching and learning.
• Undeniably, school faces radical change that will transform the school. The
school will have to commit itself to results. It will have to establish its “bottom
line,” the performance for which it should be held responsible and for which it is
being paid. The school will finally become accountable.
Knowledge
3.3 The Educated Person
• Knowledge is not impersonal, like money. Knowledge does not reside in a book,
a databank, a software program. Knowledge is always embodied in person;
carried by a person; created, augmented, or improved by a person; applied by a
person; taught and passed on by a person; used or misused by a person.
The shift to the knowledge society therefore puts the person in the center.
• Educator is a representative of knowledge society who are able to appreciate
other cultures and traditions.
• Educated person also will have to be far less exclusively “bookish” than the
product of the liberal education of the Humanists.
• Educated person will have to be prepared for life in a global world- a
“Westernized” world, yet ever more a tribalized world. He or she must become a
“citizen of the world” – in vision, horizon, information with appreciation of the
importance and impact of local culture.
CONCLUSION
Conclusion
• The great developments in structure of economy and society done by capitalism have
created aftermath in how economy and society should be progressed.
• Knowledge plays crucial role even unlike industrial development in the past but it
transcends worker to knowledge worker, the way people live and work together.
• Knowledge workers have high mobility because they have specialization.
• Their capacity relates to national competiveness- economy and society.
• To deal with the post-capitalist circumstance we must be able to design organization
structure that promote employees to make effective contribution to organization they
belong to.
• Organization must be responsible not only for their shareholders but also employees,
society to motivate and to improve their productivity.
• Government needs to adapt their role from being control and regulating to a more use
of contracting out approach particularly in social tasks.
• Educational institutions will have to be more accountable for developing knowledge
workers.
• The most important thing is to built educator that understand and appreciate the
difference among tribes, minority groups, religion and the surge of economic
activities, people within and between regions that comes with different knowledge and
skills.
COMMENTS
Comments
• Several phenomenon have already occurred in the U.S. such as
the role of social organization effectively driven by citizenship.
• Even in Thailand we have attempt to adopt this concept to major
policies formation, it is not certain that it works because the
difference in mindset of people toward social responsibility.
• Society and organization should be less hierarchy, more open for
communication freely as it leads to knowledge exchange,
productivity improvement and innovation eventually.
• The role of government in developing economic climate that
enhances knowledge worker’s productivity and attract those from
abroad remain vital concern.
THANK YOU

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Post – capitalist society

  • 1. Post – Capitalist Society Peter F. Drucker (1994) DA 8010 Organization Analysis and Management Patcharawan Ubonloet 5710131001 14 October 2015
  • 2. Outline • Overview • Society • Polity • Knowledge • Conclusion • Comments
  • 4. Overview Capitalist society • Factor of production capital (land and labor etc.) • Society is dominated by two social classes- the capitalists and workers • Politics: Sovereign Nation-state- sovereignty is defined by territory
  • 5. Overview Post- Capitalist society • Primary resource is knowledge • Employees owns both means and tools for production • Society is both a non-socialist and post-capitalist • Politics: Plural state-> Post- Capitalist polity which transnational, regional, nation-state and local even tribal compete and co-exist • The application of knowledge to work and knowledge worker crucial to economy and society
  • 7. 1.Society 1.1 From Capitalism to Knowledge Society Meaning of Knowledge 1750 – 1900 : Capitalism prevailed over the globe • 1st phrase Knowledge was applied to tools, processes, products Industrial Revolution • 2nd phrase (1880 End of WW II) Knowledge is applied to work  Productivity Revolution • 3rd phrase (After WW II) Knowledge is applied to knowledge itself  Knowledge is the most vital factor of production • Today Knowledge is its ability to do and effective application to increase productivity
  • 8. 1.Society • Organizations is always specialized. It is defined by task. Community and society, by contrast, are defined by a bond that holds together human beings, whether language, culture, history, or locality. An organization is effective as long as it focuses on one task. Society in all developed countries has become a society of organizations. If not all social tasks are being done in and by an organization. Characteristics and tasks of organization • Modern organization is an org, of knowledge specialists. It has to be organization of equals, of colleagues, of associates. No boss and subordinate. It must be organized as team of associates. • The task of organization is to make knowledges become more productive by fusing them into a single unified knowledge, and able to manage change and innovation creation. • Post-capitalist society employee own means of production and they have high mobility as their means of production is carried with them. • The redefining of the role, power, and function of both capital and ownership is required. 1.2 The Society of Organizations
  • 9. 1.Society • Labor based manufacturing should be converted to knowledge based • Knowledge workers easily lose motivation and dedication because corporations too much attempt maximize shareholders’ value dampening wealth producing capacity of firms • In the economy of change and innovation, there is no profit only the past and costs of an vague future. The minimum financial return from the operations of the past that is sufficient to the costs of the future is the cost of capital 1.3 Labor, Capital and their Future
  • 10. 1.Society • Structure of post-capitalist Knowledge and service works requires team meaning dependency on other to organize the work to get things done effectively i.e. writer& editor, painter & gallery. There are three kinds of team 1) Baseball 2) Soccer and 3) Doubles tennis. If we want to change we must cuts across old, long-established, and cherished human relationships. • To improve productivity organization must remove work that do not contribute to performance and concentrate only on core tasks. Alliances and partnerships are crucial. • Knowledge is changing so productivity requires continuous learning into your job and organization. The best way is to learn and to teach to others until organization becomes learning and teaching organization. • Structure of post-capitalist society, on the other hand, tends to resemble a liquid rather than crystalline in their structure like capitalist society. 1.4 The Productivity of the New Workforces Productivity relates to economic stagnation and social tension because they knowledge and service workers are paid according to their productivity. To improve productivity requires both changes in structure of organization and society.
  • 11. 1.Society • An organization has full social responsibility for its impact on community and society, for the effluents it discharges into society and environment such as a local river. • If organization does not discharge anything, it will reduce organization competence to perform main task and mission. • Organization must transform from power-based organization to responsibility-based organization. • The characteristics or responsible-based organization is everyone is associates not superior and subordinate relationship. Everyone know organization’s objective, make contribution and responsible for own behavior which fit the requirement of knowledge- based organization. Everybody is contributor to organizaion. 1.5 The Responsibility Based Organization
  • 13. 2.Polity 2.1 From Nation- State to Mega State • Mega state is somehow between capitalism and socialism as a response to the tensions and problems created by the rapid spread of capitalism and technology. It attempts to regulates business activities and address society problems. However, it did not succeed in redistribution of income. The needs to contract out prevail for better achievement in social and economic issues. • Instead, independent non-profit agencies have done better especially in the U.S. • The modern state requires a restoration of citizenship of the post-capitalist polity. Every developed country needs an autonomous, self-governing social sector of community organizations. Community can no longer be destiny. In the post-capitalist society and polity, community has to be converted into commitment.
  • 14. 2.Polity 2.2 Transnationalism, Regionalism and Tribalism • Neither government, central banks nor nation-state can control the flow of money. Not even mutual action. • There are also no national boundaries anymore for information as seen in totalitarianism. The most absolute regime in history to control access to information was a major factor in the collapse of Communism and the Soviet Empire. • Today information is transnational as money. • Sovereignty over money and information is almost unmanageable. • They require transnational agencies. Increasingly, regionalism also makes the nation-state less important. While internally, the nation-state is being undermined by tribalism if an attempt to exclude, force tribal groups (immigrants/minority) to the mainstream exists. The best way is advocate of “diversity” because people need roots/ community in transnational world.
  • 15. 2.Polity 2.3 The Needed Government Turnaround • Countries should focus on the economic “climate” rather than the economic “weather.” like Japan and Germany. The aim of economic policies must be to make the patient healthy to keep the patient healthy. It must be to create an economic environment in which the economy can grow; acquire resistance to infection, injury, and disease; acquire the ability to adapt and to change rapidly; and stay competitive. Creating the right climate is not the same thing as keeping taxes low. • The proper aim of fiscal policy has to be the encouragement of investment in knowledge and in human resources, in productive facilities in business, and in infrastructure. The success cases are Japan, Germany and the Four Asian Tigers- South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
  • 16. 2.Polity 2.4 Citizenship through Social Sector • In Mega- state political citizenship can no longer function. Without citizenship the political unit whether state or empire can only be a power that is the only thing that holds it together. • In order to be able to act in a rapidly changing and precarious world, the post- capitalist polity must create citizenship. • Citizenship is active commitment, responsibility and making a difference in one’s community, in one’s society, in one’s country • It is believed that citizenship can be built trough social sector as the knowledge workers want to voluntarily do more for their community and their country.
  • 18. Knowledge 3.1 KNOWLEDGE: Its Economic and Its productivity • It is no longer possible to make huge profits by doing or moving things. Increasingly, there is less and less return on the traditional resources: labor, land and (money) capital. The main producers of wealth have become information and knowledge. The Assumptions Traditional economy Knowledge economy Imperfect competition is the result outside interference with the economy, i.e., of monopoly; of patent protection; of government regulation; and so on. Imperfect competition is inherent in the economy itself Economy is determined either by consumption or by investment. Little evidence that increased consumption or investment in the economy leads to greater production of knowledge.
  • 19. Knowledge 3.1 Knowledge: Its Economic and Its productivity Three kinds of knowledge Continuous improvement Continuous Exploitation Genuine Innovation
  • 20. Knowledge 3.1 KNOWLEDGE: Its Economic and Its productivity Knowledge: The New Investment knowledge Productivity Social and Economic wellbeing National Competitiveness
  • 21. Knowledge 3.1 KNOWLEDGE: Its Economic and Its productivity Making Knowledge Productive • Systematic, organized application of knowledge to knowledge • Ambitious result- Make a difference • Clear focus • Systematic exploitation of opportunities for change that have to be matched with the competences and strengths of the knowledge worker and the team • Balancing the long term with the short term results • Turn specialization in knowledge into performance. Productivity
  • 22. Knowledge 3.2 The Accountable School School becomes accountable for performance and results • Technology transforms school but it matters less than the changes which it triggers in substance, content, and focus of schooling and school. These changes in substance, content, and focus are what really matter. • Continuing education is now a social necessity. The school will be the place where adults continue learning even though they are working full time. They will come back to school for part time courses. Schools will no longer be monopolists. In many areas, schools will only be only one of several available teaching and learning institutions, in competition with other purveyors of teaching and learning. • Undeniably, school faces radical change that will transform the school. The school will have to commit itself to results. It will have to establish its “bottom line,” the performance for which it should be held responsible and for which it is being paid. The school will finally become accountable.
  • 23. Knowledge 3.3 The Educated Person • Knowledge is not impersonal, like money. Knowledge does not reside in a book, a databank, a software program. Knowledge is always embodied in person; carried by a person; created, augmented, or improved by a person; applied by a person; taught and passed on by a person; used or misused by a person. The shift to the knowledge society therefore puts the person in the center. • Educator is a representative of knowledge society who are able to appreciate other cultures and traditions. • Educated person also will have to be far less exclusively “bookish” than the product of the liberal education of the Humanists. • Educated person will have to be prepared for life in a global world- a “Westernized” world, yet ever more a tribalized world. He or she must become a “citizen of the world” – in vision, horizon, information with appreciation of the importance and impact of local culture.
  • 25. Conclusion • The great developments in structure of economy and society done by capitalism have created aftermath in how economy and society should be progressed. • Knowledge plays crucial role even unlike industrial development in the past but it transcends worker to knowledge worker, the way people live and work together. • Knowledge workers have high mobility because they have specialization. • Their capacity relates to national competiveness- economy and society. • To deal with the post-capitalist circumstance we must be able to design organization structure that promote employees to make effective contribution to organization they belong to. • Organization must be responsible not only for their shareholders but also employees, society to motivate and to improve their productivity. • Government needs to adapt their role from being control and regulating to a more use of contracting out approach particularly in social tasks. • Educational institutions will have to be more accountable for developing knowledge workers. • The most important thing is to built educator that understand and appreciate the difference among tribes, minority groups, religion and the surge of economic activities, people within and between regions that comes with different knowledge and skills.
  • 27. Comments • Several phenomenon have already occurred in the U.S. such as the role of social organization effectively driven by citizenship. • Even in Thailand we have attempt to adopt this concept to major policies formation, it is not certain that it works because the difference in mindset of people toward social responsibility. • Society and organization should be less hierarchy, more open for communication freely as it leads to knowledge exchange, productivity improvement and innovation eventually. • The role of government in developing economic climate that enhances knowledge worker’s productivity and attract those from abroad remain vital concern.

Editor's Notes

  1. Employees owns both means and tools for production means that for example in the US. it is both socialist and capitalist country. Pension funds are run by a new breeds of capitalists the faceless, anonymous, salaried employees, the analysts and portfolio managers
  2. Capitalist organization: organization try to do so many things. But post-capitalist organization people have specialization and knowledge. However, it does not mean that they work alone. They still need team or partner. Three types of team 1) Baseball: individual skill/performance, suit with repetitive tasks which rules are well recognized mass production (making and moving things) 2) Soccer: symphony orchestra or hospital team that needs conductor or coach (law) and numerous rehearsals. It has high flexibility 3) Doubles tennis: jazz combo or board of management. It is a small team. total performance is greater than the sum of the individual performances of its members, for this team uses the strength of each member while minimizing the weaknesses of each. Drucker feels that the in the organization in post capitalist society will have less command position. We will less managerial positions. The expert/manager knows it all will be disappear. We should see organization as a jazz combo in which leadership within the team shifts with the specific assignment as is independent of the rank of each member. The word “rank” should disappear from vocabulary of knowledge work and knowledge worker. It should be replaced by assignment. However, the shift will cause enormous problems of motivation, reward and recognition. Structure of post-capitalist society, on the other hand, tends to be liquid unlike the capitalist society which social structure is clear.
  3. Capitalist organization: organization try to do so many things. But post-capitalist organization people have specialization and knowledge. However, it does not mean that they work alone. They still need team or partner. Three types of team 1) Baseball: individual skill/performance, suit with repetitive tasks which rules are well recognized mass production (making and moving things) 2) Soccer: symphony orchestra or hospital team that needs conductor or coach (law) and numerous rehearsals. It has high flexibility 3) Doubles tennis: jazz combo or board of management. It is a small team. total performance is greater than the sum of the individual performances of its members, for this team uses the strength of each member while minimizing the weaknesses of each. Drucker feels that the third type of team is the strongest one. Structure of post-capitalist society, on the other hand, tends to be liquid unlike the capitalist society which social structure is clear.
  4. Regionalism is triggered by the European Community with European Economic Community which has more role in politics. It proposes the creation of central bank and European currency and jurisdiction over access to trades and professions, mergers, acquisitions, social legislation or anything that can be non-tariff barriers to the free movement of goods. Trnasnationalsim, regionalism and tribalism between them are rapidly creating new polity a new complex political structure without pattern. Each pullling in a different direction with no solution.
  5. Government will have less power against the onslaught of special interest groups. It will become powerless to govern to govern to make decision and to force different groups i.e. minority and young people. While government is expected to perform new tasks i.e. environmental protection, international terrorism and effective controlling of arms. Actually it requires new form of government- The need of government turnaround. Three steps to turnaround 1. Abandon First thing could be military to be abandoned. 2. Focus on what works, produce results and improve org. ability to perform 3.Abandon what does not perform ans doing more of what does perform
  6. Community and community organization and citizenship are destroyed in the communist countries. Citizenship in and through social sector may not a panacea to tackle all problems in post-capitalist society and polity. But it is a prerequisite for tackle these ills. The social needs are growing in two areas 1) traditionally called “charity” 2) services that aim to change the community and changing people. These days people who volunteer should not considered as helper. They are knowledge workers mid age white collars or somebody’s wife and husband. Building citizenship is help government to contracting out some services that usually stuck in bureaucratic red tape. In Drucker’s opinion government should stick with rule and regulations and paper works. Otherwise they are large gang of thief.
  7. One of the economists’ basic assumptions is that “perfect competition” is the model for the allocation of resources but also for the distribution of economic rewards. Imperfect competition is common in the “real world.” But it is assumed to be the result of outside interference with the economy, i.e., of monopoly; of patent protection; of government regulation; and so on. But in the knowledge economy, imperfect competition seems to be inherent in the economy itself. Initial advantages gained through early application and exploitation of knowledge become permanent and irreversible. Another traditional assumption has been that an economy is determined either by consumption or by investment. In the knowledge economy, neither seems to be in control. There is little evidence that increased consumption or investment in the economy leads to greater production of knowledge.
  8. There are three kinds of knowledge. There is first the continuing improvement of process, product, service; the Japanese, who do it best, call this Kaizen. Then there is exploitation: the continuous exploitation of existing knowledge to develop new and different products, processes, and services. Finally, there is genuine innovation. These three ways of applying
  9. Knowledge become economic resource. Knowledge formation is already the largest investment in every developed country. The return which a country or a company gets on knowledge has become increasingly a determining factor in its competitiveness. Increasingly, productivity of knowledge will be decisive in its economic and social success, and in its entire economic performance. In other words, it relates to economic growth, innovation. It can also explain the birth of overnight newcomers
  10. Unless knowledge applied to make a difference. It is only information. Some examples are Bad example Britain: It was British’s development during the WW II era : jet plane, body scanner, computer. But it did not succeed in turning these knowledge achievements into successful products and services into jobs, into exports, into market standing. If a country do not succeed in this its economic will start to erode. Good example is Japan in manufacturing and in knowledge-based industries based. Japan succeed in import knowledge and turn it into productive use of knowledge acquired. Making knowledge productive involves systematic, organized application of knowledge to knowledge. Knowledge has to aim high to produce results. The steps may be small and incremental but the goal must be ambitious. Knowledge is productive only if it is applied to make a difference. Making knowledge productive further requires that it be clearly focused. It has to be highly concentrated. Whether done by an individual or by a team, the knowledge effort requires purpose and organization. It is not a “flash of genius.” It is hard work. To make knowledge productive also requires the systematic exploitation of opportunities for change. These opportunities have to be matched with the competences and strengths of the knowledge worker and the knowledge team. To make knowledge productive also requires managing time. High knowledge productivity comes at the end of a long gestation period. Yet productivity of knowledge also requires a constant stream of short-term results. It thus requires balancing the long term with the short term. Drucker also emphasizes the learning-doing gap. Most of us know many times more than we put to use. The main reason is that we do not mobilize the multiple knowledge we possess. We do not use knowledges as part of one toolbox. Instead of asking: “What do I know, what have I learned, that might apply to this task?” we tend to classify tasks in terms of specialized knowledge areas. Specialization in knowledge has given us enormous performance potential in each area. But because knowledge has become so specialized, we need also a process to turn this potential into performance. Otherwise, most of the available knowledge will not become productive; it will remain mere information.
  11. The earlier revolution offers an important lesson: Technology itself matters less than the changes which it triggers in substance, content, and focus of schooling and school. These changes in substance, content, and focus are what really matter. They are effective even if there is only a minimum of change in the technology of learning and teaching. The achievement that motivates is doing exceptionally well what one is already good at. Achievement has to be based on the student’s strengths as has been known for millennia by every teacher of artists, every coach of athletes, every mentor. In fact, finding the student’s strengths and focusing them on achievement is the best definition of both teacher and teaching. Continuing education is now a social necessity. Individuals must be able at any stage in their lives to continue their formal education and to qualify for knowledge work. Society needs to be willing to accept people into whatever work they are qualified for, regardless of their age. School, as has been said before, has traditionally been where one learns. The office or factory has been where one works. Increasingly, the line will become blurred.
  12. The shift to the knowledge society therefore puts the person in the center. In so doing, it raises new challenges, new issues, new and quite unprecedented questions about the knowledge society’s representative, the educated person. Post capitalist society needs the educated person even more than any earlier society did. The educated person we need will have to be able to appreciate other cultures and traditions: the great heritage of Chinese, Japanese, Korean paintings and ceramics; the philosophers and religious of the Orient; and Islam, both as a religion and as a culture.
  13. It is a thought provoking book even it was written in 1994 .