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POPULATION
AND
DEMOGRAPHY
POPULATION
 is the number of persons occupying a certain
geographic area, drawing substance from their
habitat, and interacting from one another.
is the number of all the organisms of the same group
or species, which live in a particular geographical
area, and have the capability of interbreeding
Collective group of individuals occupying a particular
place at a given time.
Keywords to population:
Group – People not situated within the
geographical limits and those who are not living
or died
Place – places within the geographical limits
Time – the specified time the population count
is conducted.
DEMOGRAPHY
 from the Greek word “demos” which means people
 is the statistical analysis and description of
population aggregates with reference to the
distribution, vital statistics, age, sex and related
factors.
 is the study of human population dynamics. It
encompasses the study of the size, structure and
distribution of populations, and how populations
change over time due to births, deaths, migration,
and aging.
Demographers
 are the people who gather data about the size,
distribution, composition and change in
population in order to describe them (Petersen)
Primary Task of Demography:
 To ascertain the number of people in a given area
 To know the resourcesavailable for their support.
 To determine what changes, growth or decline this number
represents and explain the causes of changes.
 To estimate on this basis the future trends.
 To know the different kinds of people who may make up any
given population with regard to their physical, mental and
cultural characteristics.
 To categorize people on the basis of characteristics like age, sex,
marital status, occupation, income ,nationality, race, ethnic
group, religion and other characteristics.
To ascertain the distribution of people among the different
countries and regions, both rural and urban.
Why Study Demography?
• Demographic analysis is a powerful tool that
can explain a number of sociological
phenomena.
• It provides a basis for predicting future trends
and making informed decisions
• It is important for the formulation,
implementation, evaluation of plans, policies
and programs for social services.
• Can guide policy makers in meeting the needs
of various sectors.
Sources of Demographic Data
1. Population Census – Population count
conducted by government offices (NSO)
2. Vital registration statistics system – birth,
death, marriage and divorce registrations
3. Sample or Special Surveys – surveys of
households
4. Demographic data gathered and processed
by government agencies
Components of Population Change
Occur either as growth or decline.
 Fertility (births)
Mortality (deaths)
Migration (immigration and emigration)
* FERTILITY
- Refers to the number of actual children born to a
woman or group of women
- Refers to the ability of females to produce healthy
offspring in abundance
- Crude birth rate: is the annual number of live births
per thousand people
CBR = Registered number of births in a year x 1,000
Total mid- year population
One of the strongest predictors of fertility rates is
women's educational attainment.
Almost universally, higher levels of educational
attainment result in lower fertility rates. It is not,
however, education itself that causes declines in fertility
but rather its association with other factors that reduce
fertility: women with higher levels of education delay
marriage and are more likely to abstain from marriage
and / or parenthood, have improved labor market
opportunities, are more likely to use
contraception during intercourse, and are less likely to
adopt traditional childbearing roles.
* MORTALITY
- refers to the finite nature of humanity: people die.
- the number of deaths in a given time or place or the
proportion of deaths in relation to a population.
- crude death rate: the annual number of deaths per
1000 people
CDR = = Registered number of deaths a year x 1,000
Total mid- year population
Life Expectancy
-Is the average number of years a
person can expect to live at the
time of birth.
One of the best predictors of longevity is
education, even when other factors are controlled: the
more educated you are, the longer you can expect to
live. A few additional years of schooling can add several
additional years to your life and vastly improve your
health in old age. The mechanism through which this
works is not the schooling itself, but schooling's
influence on other health-related behaviors. The more
education someone has, the lower his/her likelihood of
smoking and engaging in unhealthy and high risk
behaviors. Education also increases the probability of
people engaging in healthy behaviors, like frequently
exercising.
Other factors associatedwith greater longevity include:
• Wealth: money increases access to good healthcare, which
improves health and increases longevity
• Race: whites live longer than blacks, though this is due to
other social disparities, like income and education, and not
to race itself
• Ability to delay gratification: with the ability to delay
gratification people live healthier lives and engage in
healthier behaviors (e.g., exercise)
• Larger social networks: having a large group of friends and
close relationships with relatives increases your social
support, which positively influences health
• Job satisfaction: people in more powerful and more
satisfying jobs tend to be healthier than people in less
satisfyingjobs
Rank Country (Years)
1 Monaco 89.52
2 Japan 84.74
3 Singapore 84.68
4 Macau 84.51
5 San Marino 83.24
6 Iceland 82.97
7 Hong Kong 82.86
8 Andorra 82.72
9 Switzerland 82.50
10 Guernsey 82.47
11 Israel 82.27
12 Luxembourg 82.17
13 Australia 82.15
14 Italy 82.12
15 Sweden 81.98
16 Liechtenstein 81.77
17 Jersey 81.76
18 Canada 81.76
19 France 81.75
20 Norway 81.70
Top 20 Countries with Highest Life Expectancy
* MIGRATION
- The spatial movement of a person or group
of persons from one place to another,
more or less for permanent residency.
- They moved for different reasons such as
economic, educational, religious, medical,
social, political, work opportunities and
technologies.
- May be internal or international.
Internal migration
- Is the spatial movement of a person or group
of persons within a country or specified
territory, more or less for permanent
residency.
International migration
- Is the spatial movement of a person or group
of persons from one country to another, more
or less for permanent settlement
Forces Involved in Migration
PUSH – refers to the unfavorable or unattractive
conditions which impel a person to move out of an
area.
Example:
Natural Disasters (floods, famine, volcanic eruptions)
War
Racial Discrimination
Political Repressions
PULL – refers to the favorable conditions or
attractions of locality which lure a person or group
of persons to move into that area.
Example:
Favorable climate
Employment opportunities
Peace and order
Political and religious freedom
Recreational and cultural facilities
Two Types of Migration
 Immigration
- when one enters a country or destination
 Emigration
- when one leaves the country in order to
move into another.
POPULATION PYRAMID
- Refers to the two- dimensional graph
used to display the age and gender
structure of a population.
- If the birth rate is high, the pyramid will
be more triangular because of the large
number of babies added to the bottom
each year.
- If the birth rate decreases, the pyramid
takes on a more diamond shape. It
means that a great portion of the
population are added to the nation’s
productive labor force.
Characteristics of Population
 Age structure
- proportion of people at the different age levels
 Sex composition
- refers to how the total population is composed in terms of
males or females.
 Dependency ratio
- refers to the proportion of the 0-4 and the 65 – over age
levels per one hundred persons aged 15 - 64
 Population density
- refers to the number of persons that can be equally and
statistically distributed per square kilometer in a given
geographical area considering the population in the said area.
Population Growth
The increase of population that affects and
intensify major local, natural and global issues
like poverty, energy crisis, environmental
degradation, criminality, housing problems and
inequality.
Overpopulation indicates a scenario
in which the population of a living species
exceeds the carrying capacity of
its ecological niche.
Overpopulation is not a function of
the number or density of the individuals,
but rather the number of individuals
compared to the resources they need to
survive. In other words, it is a
ratio: population over resources.
Effects of Overpopulation:
• Child poverty
• High birth rates
• Lower life expectancies
• Lower levels of literacy
• Higher rates of unemployment, especially in urban
• Insufficient arable land
• Little surplus food
• Poor diet with ill health and diet-deficiency diseases
(e.g. rickets)
• Low per capita GDP
• Increasingly unhygienic conditions
• Government is stretchedeconomically
• Increased crime rates resulting from people stealing resources
to survive
• Mass extinctions of plants and animals as habitat is used for
farming and human settlements
Population Control
 Adoption of planned parenthood or family
planning
 Use of artificial birth control methods
 Disseminating information on family planning
 Re-educate people concerning their beliefs
and practices which favor big family size.
First, population can be reduced by conscious
and deliberate control of reproduction by
individuals,families or societies.
Second, the more people earn and learn, the
fewer children they want.
Third, a truly determined, highly organized
nation can check its population explosion
relatively fast.
This is the only certain in population
control:
Theories on Population Growth
and Decline
Malthusian Theory
 Thomas Malthus
 An Essay on the Principle of Population
 If left unrestricted, human populations would
continue to grow until they would become too large
to be supported by the food grown on available
agricultural land. He proposed that, while resources
tend to grow arithmetically, population grows
exponentially. At that point, the population would be
restrained through mass famine and starvation.
Malthus argued for population control,
through moral restraint, to avoid this happening.
Basis:
•The need for food and
•The passion between sexes.
Marxian Theory
- Karl Marx
- the widespread poverty and misery of the
working class people was, not due to an
eternal law of nature but to the
misconceived organization of society.
Starvation was caused by the unequal
distribution of the wealth and its
accumulation by capitalists.
Demographic Transition Theory
- Demographic transition is a term, first used by Warren
S. Thompson (1929), and later on by Frank W. Notestein
(1945), referring to a historical process of change which
accounts the trends in births, deaths and population
growth that occurred in today’s industrialized societies,
especially European societies. This process of
demographic change began for the most part in the later
18th century.
-The theory postulates a particular pattern of
demographic change from a high fertility and high
mortality to a low fertility and low mortality when a
society progresses from a largely rural agrarian and
illiterate society to a dominant urban, industrial, literate
and modern society.
Philippines’ Current Population
Data
• During 2017 Philippines population is projected to increased
by 1 630 066 people and reach 104 733 524 in the beginning
of 2018.
• The natural increase is expected to be positive, as the
number of births will exceed the number of deaths by 1 779
566.
• If external migration will remain on the previous year level,
the population will be declined by 149 500 due to the
migration reasons. It means that the number of people who
leave Philippines to settle permanently in another country
(emigrants) will prevail over the number of people who
move into the country (to which they are not native) in
order to settle there as permanent residents (immigrants).
According to our estimations, daily change rates
of Philippines population in 2017 will be the
following:
• 6 765 live births average per day (281.89 in an
hour)
• 1 890 deaths average per day (78.74 in an
hour)
• -410 emigrants average per day (-17.07 in an
hour)
• The population of Philippines will be
increased by 4 466 persons daily in 2017.
Below are the key figures for Philippines
population in 2016:
• 2 430 895 live births
• 679 027 deaths
• Natural increase: 1 751 869 people
• Net migration: -147 173 people
• 51 704 640 males as of 31 December 2016
• 51 398 818 females as of 31 December 2016
Philippines population density:
Philippines population density is
343.7 people per square kilometer
as of February 2017
Philippines age structure
34.6% - population under 15
61.1% - population between 15 and 64 years old
4.3% - population 65+
In absolute figures (estimate):
• 35 724 317 young people under 15 years old ( 18 223
536 males / 17 500 781 females)
• 62 976 623 persons between 15 and 64 years old ( 31
491 920 males / 31 484 703 females)
• 4 402 518 persons above 64 years old ( 1 900 197
males / 2 502 321 females)
Age dependency ratio
The total dependency ratio of population in
Philippines is 63.7 %.
• What does this value mean?
It shows that the dependent part of
population is more than a half of the working
part. It means that the working population
(labor force) in Philippines must provide goods
for itself and cover expenditure on children and
aged persons (this population is more than a half
of working population). The value of more than
50% shows that the pressure on productive
population in Philippines is relatively high.
•
Child dependency ratio
•Child dependency ratio is a ratio of
people below working age (under 15)
to workforce of a country.
•Child dependency ratio in
Philippines is 56.7 %.
Aged dependency ratio
•Aged dependency ratio is a ratio of
people above working age (65+) to
workforce of a country.
•Aged dependency ratio in Philippines is
7 %.
Life Expectancy
•Male life expectancy at birth is 68.7
years.
•Female life expectancy at birth is
74.7 years.
•Total life expectancy (both sexes) at
birth for Philippines is 71.7 years.
Source :
United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs:
Population Division
References
• http://www.worldometers.info/world-
population/population-by-country/
• https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Sociology/De
mography
• http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and-
law/sociology-and-social-reform/sociology-general-terms-
and-concepts-63
• http://www.infoplease.com/world/statistics/life-expectancy-
country.html
• http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/population/theories-of-
population-malthus-theory-marxs-theory-and-theory-of-
demographic-transition/31397/
• http://countrymeters.info/en/Philippines

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Population and Demography

  • 2. POPULATION  is the number of persons occupying a certain geographic area, drawing substance from their habitat, and interacting from one another. is the number of all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding Collective group of individuals occupying a particular place at a given time.
  • 3. Keywords to population: Group – People not situated within the geographical limits and those who are not living or died Place – places within the geographical limits Time – the specified time the population count is conducted.
  • 4. DEMOGRAPHY  from the Greek word “demos” which means people  is the statistical analysis and description of population aggregates with reference to the distribution, vital statistics, age, sex and related factors.  is the study of human population dynamics. It encompasses the study of the size, structure and distribution of populations, and how populations change over time due to births, deaths, migration, and aging.
  • 5. Demographers  are the people who gather data about the size, distribution, composition and change in population in order to describe them (Petersen)
  • 6. Primary Task of Demography:  To ascertain the number of people in a given area  To know the resourcesavailable for their support.  To determine what changes, growth or decline this number represents and explain the causes of changes.  To estimate on this basis the future trends.  To know the different kinds of people who may make up any given population with regard to their physical, mental and cultural characteristics.  To categorize people on the basis of characteristics like age, sex, marital status, occupation, income ,nationality, race, ethnic group, religion and other characteristics. To ascertain the distribution of people among the different countries and regions, both rural and urban.
  • 7. Why Study Demography? • Demographic analysis is a powerful tool that can explain a number of sociological phenomena. • It provides a basis for predicting future trends and making informed decisions • It is important for the formulation, implementation, evaluation of plans, policies and programs for social services. • Can guide policy makers in meeting the needs of various sectors.
  • 8. Sources of Demographic Data 1. Population Census – Population count conducted by government offices (NSO) 2. Vital registration statistics system – birth, death, marriage and divorce registrations 3. Sample or Special Surveys – surveys of households 4. Demographic data gathered and processed by government agencies
  • 9. Components of Population Change Occur either as growth or decline.  Fertility (births) Mortality (deaths) Migration (immigration and emigration)
  • 10. * FERTILITY - Refers to the number of actual children born to a woman or group of women - Refers to the ability of females to produce healthy offspring in abundance - Crude birth rate: is the annual number of live births per thousand people CBR = Registered number of births in a year x 1,000 Total mid- year population
  • 11. One of the strongest predictors of fertility rates is women's educational attainment. Almost universally, higher levels of educational attainment result in lower fertility rates. It is not, however, education itself that causes declines in fertility but rather its association with other factors that reduce fertility: women with higher levels of education delay marriage and are more likely to abstain from marriage and / or parenthood, have improved labor market opportunities, are more likely to use contraception during intercourse, and are less likely to adopt traditional childbearing roles.
  • 12. * MORTALITY - refers to the finite nature of humanity: people die. - the number of deaths in a given time or place or the proportion of deaths in relation to a population. - crude death rate: the annual number of deaths per 1000 people CDR = = Registered number of deaths a year x 1,000 Total mid- year population
  • 13. Life Expectancy -Is the average number of years a person can expect to live at the time of birth.
  • 14. One of the best predictors of longevity is education, even when other factors are controlled: the more educated you are, the longer you can expect to live. A few additional years of schooling can add several additional years to your life and vastly improve your health in old age. The mechanism through which this works is not the schooling itself, but schooling's influence on other health-related behaviors. The more education someone has, the lower his/her likelihood of smoking and engaging in unhealthy and high risk behaviors. Education also increases the probability of people engaging in healthy behaviors, like frequently exercising.
  • 15. Other factors associatedwith greater longevity include: • Wealth: money increases access to good healthcare, which improves health and increases longevity • Race: whites live longer than blacks, though this is due to other social disparities, like income and education, and not to race itself • Ability to delay gratification: with the ability to delay gratification people live healthier lives and engage in healthier behaviors (e.g., exercise) • Larger social networks: having a large group of friends and close relationships with relatives increases your social support, which positively influences health • Job satisfaction: people in more powerful and more satisfying jobs tend to be healthier than people in less satisfyingjobs
  • 16. Rank Country (Years) 1 Monaco 89.52 2 Japan 84.74 3 Singapore 84.68 4 Macau 84.51 5 San Marino 83.24 6 Iceland 82.97 7 Hong Kong 82.86 8 Andorra 82.72 9 Switzerland 82.50 10 Guernsey 82.47 11 Israel 82.27 12 Luxembourg 82.17 13 Australia 82.15 14 Italy 82.12 15 Sweden 81.98 16 Liechtenstein 81.77 17 Jersey 81.76 18 Canada 81.76 19 France 81.75 20 Norway 81.70 Top 20 Countries with Highest Life Expectancy
  • 17. * MIGRATION - The spatial movement of a person or group of persons from one place to another, more or less for permanent residency. - They moved for different reasons such as economic, educational, religious, medical, social, political, work opportunities and technologies. - May be internal or international.
  • 18. Internal migration - Is the spatial movement of a person or group of persons within a country or specified territory, more or less for permanent residency. International migration - Is the spatial movement of a person or group of persons from one country to another, more or less for permanent settlement
  • 19. Forces Involved in Migration PUSH – refers to the unfavorable or unattractive conditions which impel a person to move out of an area. Example: Natural Disasters (floods, famine, volcanic eruptions) War Racial Discrimination Political Repressions
  • 20. PULL – refers to the favorable conditions or attractions of locality which lure a person or group of persons to move into that area. Example: Favorable climate Employment opportunities Peace and order Political and religious freedom Recreational and cultural facilities
  • 21. Two Types of Migration  Immigration - when one enters a country or destination  Emigration - when one leaves the country in order to move into another.
  • 22. POPULATION PYRAMID - Refers to the two- dimensional graph used to display the age and gender structure of a population. - If the birth rate is high, the pyramid will be more triangular because of the large number of babies added to the bottom each year. - If the birth rate decreases, the pyramid takes on a more diamond shape. It means that a great portion of the population are added to the nation’s productive labor force.
  • 23. Characteristics of Population  Age structure - proportion of people at the different age levels  Sex composition - refers to how the total population is composed in terms of males or females.  Dependency ratio - refers to the proportion of the 0-4 and the 65 – over age levels per one hundred persons aged 15 - 64  Population density - refers to the number of persons that can be equally and statistically distributed per square kilometer in a given geographical area considering the population in the said area.
  • 24. Population Growth The increase of population that affects and intensify major local, natural and global issues like poverty, energy crisis, environmental degradation, criminality, housing problems and inequality.
  • 25. Overpopulation indicates a scenario in which the population of a living species exceeds the carrying capacity of its ecological niche. Overpopulation is not a function of the number or density of the individuals, but rather the number of individuals compared to the resources they need to survive. In other words, it is a ratio: population over resources.
  • 26. Effects of Overpopulation: • Child poverty • High birth rates • Lower life expectancies • Lower levels of literacy • Higher rates of unemployment, especially in urban • Insufficient arable land • Little surplus food • Poor diet with ill health and diet-deficiency diseases (e.g. rickets) • Low per capita GDP • Increasingly unhygienic conditions • Government is stretchedeconomically • Increased crime rates resulting from people stealing resources to survive • Mass extinctions of plants and animals as habitat is used for farming and human settlements
  • 27. Population Control  Adoption of planned parenthood or family planning  Use of artificial birth control methods  Disseminating information on family planning  Re-educate people concerning their beliefs and practices which favor big family size.
  • 28. First, population can be reduced by conscious and deliberate control of reproduction by individuals,families or societies. Second, the more people earn and learn, the fewer children they want. Third, a truly determined, highly organized nation can check its population explosion relatively fast. This is the only certain in population control:
  • 29. Theories on Population Growth and Decline Malthusian Theory  Thomas Malthus  An Essay on the Principle of Population  If left unrestricted, human populations would continue to grow until they would become too large to be supported by the food grown on available agricultural land. He proposed that, while resources tend to grow arithmetically, population grows exponentially. At that point, the population would be restrained through mass famine and starvation. Malthus argued for population control, through moral restraint, to avoid this happening.
  • 30. Basis: •The need for food and •The passion between sexes.
  • 31. Marxian Theory - Karl Marx - the widespread poverty and misery of the working class people was, not due to an eternal law of nature but to the misconceived organization of society. Starvation was caused by the unequal distribution of the wealth and its accumulation by capitalists.
  • 32. Demographic Transition Theory - Demographic transition is a term, first used by Warren S. Thompson (1929), and later on by Frank W. Notestein (1945), referring to a historical process of change which accounts the trends in births, deaths and population growth that occurred in today’s industrialized societies, especially European societies. This process of demographic change began for the most part in the later 18th century. -The theory postulates a particular pattern of demographic change from a high fertility and high mortality to a low fertility and low mortality when a society progresses from a largely rural agrarian and illiterate society to a dominant urban, industrial, literate and modern society.
  • 33. Philippines’ Current Population Data • During 2017 Philippines population is projected to increased by 1 630 066 people and reach 104 733 524 in the beginning of 2018. • The natural increase is expected to be positive, as the number of births will exceed the number of deaths by 1 779 566. • If external migration will remain on the previous year level, the population will be declined by 149 500 due to the migration reasons. It means that the number of people who leave Philippines to settle permanently in another country (emigrants) will prevail over the number of people who move into the country (to which they are not native) in order to settle there as permanent residents (immigrants).
  • 34. According to our estimations, daily change rates of Philippines population in 2017 will be the following: • 6 765 live births average per day (281.89 in an hour) • 1 890 deaths average per day (78.74 in an hour) • -410 emigrants average per day (-17.07 in an hour) • The population of Philippines will be increased by 4 466 persons daily in 2017.
  • 35. Below are the key figures for Philippines population in 2016: • 2 430 895 live births • 679 027 deaths • Natural increase: 1 751 869 people • Net migration: -147 173 people • 51 704 640 males as of 31 December 2016 • 51 398 818 females as of 31 December 2016
  • 36. Philippines population density: Philippines population density is 343.7 people per square kilometer as of February 2017
  • 37. Philippines age structure 34.6% - population under 15 61.1% - population between 15 and 64 years old 4.3% - population 65+ In absolute figures (estimate): • 35 724 317 young people under 15 years old ( 18 223 536 males / 17 500 781 females) • 62 976 623 persons between 15 and 64 years old ( 31 491 920 males / 31 484 703 females) • 4 402 518 persons above 64 years old ( 1 900 197 males / 2 502 321 females)
  • 38. Age dependency ratio The total dependency ratio of population in Philippines is 63.7 %. • What does this value mean? It shows that the dependent part of population is more than a half of the working part. It means that the working population (labor force) in Philippines must provide goods for itself and cover expenditure on children and aged persons (this population is more than a half of working population). The value of more than 50% shows that the pressure on productive population in Philippines is relatively high. •
  • 39. Child dependency ratio •Child dependency ratio is a ratio of people below working age (under 15) to workforce of a country. •Child dependency ratio in Philippines is 56.7 %.
  • 40. Aged dependency ratio •Aged dependency ratio is a ratio of people above working age (65+) to workforce of a country. •Aged dependency ratio in Philippines is 7 %.
  • 41. Life Expectancy •Male life expectancy at birth is 68.7 years. •Female life expectancy at birth is 74.7 years. •Total life expectancy (both sexes) at birth for Philippines is 71.7 years.
  • 42. Source : United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Population Division
  • 43. References • http://www.worldometers.info/world- population/population-by-country/ • https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Sociology/De mography • http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and- law/sociology-and-social-reform/sociology-general-terms- and-concepts-63 • http://www.infoplease.com/world/statistics/life-expectancy- country.html • http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/population/theories-of- population-malthus-theory-marxs-theory-and-theory-of- demographic-transition/31397/ • http://countrymeters.info/en/Philippines