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Directorate-General for
Health & Food Safety
EU policy on perfluoroalkyl substances
(PFAS) in food and feed
Frans Verstraete
1
This presentation
• Regulating contaminants in feed and food in the EU
• Principles
• Framework Regulation (EEC) 315/93
• From risk assessment to risk management
• EFSA opinion
• Regulation on ML in food
• Recommendation on monitoring
• Feed
• Sampling and analysis
• Concluding remarks
Principles for regulating contaminants
in feed and food in the EU
* a high level of protection of human health and animal
health has to be pursued
* free movement within the European Union of feed and
food compliant with EU legislation
* international standards to be taken into account.
* feed and food placed on the market shall be safe
* contaminant levels shall be kept as low as can
reasonably be achieved following good practices at all
stages (ALARA)
3
Principles for regulating contaminants
in feed and food in the EU
• In order to achieve the general objective of a high level of protection
of human health and animal health, EU feed and food legislation
shall be based on risk analysis (process consisting of three
interconnected components: risk assessment-risk management-risk
communication)
• Risk assessment shall be based on the available scientific evidence
and undertaken in an independent, objective and transparent
manner → risk assessment performed by EFSA
• Risk management shall take into account the results of risk
assessment, other factors legitimate to the matter under
consideration and the precautionary principle where appropriate
4
CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD
• Regulatory framework :
Council Regulation (EEC) No 315/93 of 8 February
1993 laying down Community procedures for
contaminants in food
5
Regulation 315/93
Provisions
• General provision:
• food containing a contaminant in an amount which
is unacceptable from the public health viewpoint
and in particular at a toxicological level shall not
be placed on the market
• Good practice:
• contaminant levels shall be kept as low as can
reasonably be achieved following good practices
at all stages (ALARA)
6
Regulation 315/93
Provisions
▪ When necessary for protecting public health maximum
levels shall established for specific contaminants -->
Procedure for setting maximum levels. This can also include a
reference to the sampling and analysis methods to be used.
▪ Obligatory consultation of the European Food Safety
Authority(EFSA) Panel on contaminants in the food chain
before provisions having effect upon public health shall be
adopted.
• Internal market: no restriction on placing on the market for
foods complying with EU legislation for reasons relating to
their contaminant content
7
Regulating contaminants in the EU
Risk assessment
• EFSA opinion: assessment of the (human) health risks
related to the presence of a contaminant in foodstuffs
• establishment of a tolerable intake / health based guidance value /
BMDL
• exposure assessment: human exposure (average and 95 percentile)
Particular attention to vulnerable groups of population, high level
consumers, ...
• risk characterisation: human exposure assessed in relation to the health
based guidance value or Margin of Exposure (MoE)
--> is the basis for the management measures to be taken
8
From Risk Assessment to Risk
Management
• Determination of foods/food groups significantly
contributing to the exposure
• Food groups with frequent findings of high level
of contamination
• Occurrence data of the contaminant in the
various food/food groups
→ Risk management measure
9
(Regulatory) instruments/tools to
prevent/reduce contamination
• Prevention of major importance, by applying good agricultural/
manufacturing/storage practices (“prevention better than cure”)
• (Regulatory) risk management tools: maximum levels, action levels,
benchmark levels, source-directed measures, codes of practices,
encouraging/obliging application of GAP, GMP, …
• EU-Measures to reduce the contaminant level in food are determined on
a case by case basis (dependent of the nature and health risk of the
contaminant), and can be a combination of several approaches/tools into
one strategy
• Maximum levels are set at a level “As Low As Reasonably Achievable”
(ALARA) by applying good practices and are always combined with
sampling provisions and requirements for the methods of analysis for
enforcement 10
Other legitimate factors to be considered
when regulating contaminants
Considered on a case by case basis:
* Cost–benefit considerations
* Feasibility/achievability by applying good practices
* If safety cannot be guaranteed by setting maximum levels or other
regulatory measures for all consumer groups → to be complemented
by consumption advice
* Balance risks of contaminants – benefits of consumption of certain
foods (health risk – health benefit considerations)
* Analytical achievability/feasibility by routine methods to ensure
effective enforcement
* …
11
EFSA opinion on PFAS
• 2020 EFSA opinion on the risk to human health related to
the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances in food
- PFAS cause developmental effects, adverse effects on
the serum cholesterol, the liver, the immune system
and they affect birth weight
- TWI 4.4 ng/kg bw per week for the sum of PFOS,
PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS on the basis of the effects on
the immune system
– PFOS: Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid
– PFOA: Perfluorooctanoic acid
– PFNA: Perfluorononanoic acid
– PFHxS: Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid
- The exposure of parts of the European population
exceeds the TWI, which is of concern 12
Regulatory follow-up to the PFAS opinion
- Regulation on MLs
- Recommendation (EU) 2021/1431 on monitoring
- Regulation (EU) 2022/1428 on requirements for
sampling and analytical methods
13
Regulation on ML for PFAS in food
Maximum Levels (MLs) for PFAS in food
- Separate MLs for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and the sum of the 4
PFAS.
- MLs for commodities, which are relevant contributors to the
exposure, for which sufficient occurrence data are available and for
which there is sufficient analytical capability among the laboratories
to enforce the MLs.
- The ML applies to the sum of linear and branched stereoisomers,
whether they are chromatographically separated or not.
14
Regulation on MLs for PFAS in food
Maximum Levels (MLs) for PFAS in food
- For the sum of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS lower bound
concentrations are calculated on the assumption that all the
values below the limit of quantification are zero.
- MLs are established for eggs, fish meat, crustaceans and
bivalve molluscs and meat and edible offal of terrestrial
animals.
15
Regulation on MLs for PFAS in food
• Eggs, meat and edible offal (MLs are in µg/kg wet weight)
16
PFOS PFOA PFNA PFHxS Sum of 4
Eggs 1,0 0,30 0,70 0,30 1,7
Meat of bovine animals, pig and poultry 0,30 0,80 0,20 0,20 1,3
Meat of sheep 1,0 0,20 0,20 0,20 1,60
Offal of bovine animals, sheep pig and
poultry
6,0 0,70 0,40 0,50 8,0
Meat of game animals, exc. bear meat 5,0 3,5 3,5 0,60 9,0
Offal of game animals, exc. Bear offal 50 25 45 3,0 50
Regulation on MLs for PFAS in food
• Fish meat
- Category 1: all fish not included in categories 2 and 3.
Fish of categories 2 and 3 in case intended for food for
infants and young children.
- Category 2: Baltic herring, Bonito, Burbot European
sprat, Flounder, Grey mullet, Horse mackerel, Pike
(Esox spp.), Plaice, Sardine and pilchard, Seabass, Sea
catfish, Sea lamprey, Tench, Vendace, Silverly lightfish,
Wild salmon and wild trout , Wolf fish
- Category 3: Anchovy, Babel, Bream, Char, Eel, Pike-
perch, Perch, Roach, Smelt, Whitefish 17
Regulation on MLs for PFAS in food
• Fish meat, crustaceans and bivalve molluscs (MLs in µg/kg
wet weight)
18
PFOS PFOA PFNA PFHxS Sum of 4
Muscle meat of fish of
category 1
2,0 0,20 0,50 0,20 2,0
Muscle meat of fish of
category 2
7,0 1,0 2,5 0,20 8,0
Muscle meat of fish of
category 3
35 8,0 8,0 1,5 45
Crustaceans(*) and
bivalve molluscs.
3,0 0,70 1,0 1,5 5,0
Health and
Consumers
Regulation on MLs for PFAS in food
• Timelines:
- Adoption 7 December 2022.
- Publication in the Official Journal is foreseen on 8
December 2022
• Application:
- 1 January 2023.
- Foodstuffs lawfully placed on the market before the
date of application may continue to be marketed until
their date of minimum durability or use-by date.
19
PFAS Recommendation(EU) 2022/1431
• It is recommended to monitor PFAS in food from
2022-2025 in a wide range of foodstuffs .
• Commodities: fruits, vegetables, starchy roots
and tubers, cereals, nuts, food for infants and
young children, food of animal origin, non-
alcoholic drinks, wine and beer.
- Different production types
- Include hunted or wild caught animals and products
• Analysis of raw and processed products to
determine processing factors.
20
PFAS Recommendation(EU) 2022/1431
• All PFAS
- Including PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, PFBA, PFPeA,
PFHxA, PFHpA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA,
PFTeDA, PFBS, PFPS, PFHpS, PFNS, PFDS, PFUnDS,
PFDoD, PFTrDS, FOSA)
- For consideration emerging PFAS: acid form of F53B, acid
form of GenX, acid form of ADONA, Capstone A and B,
Fluorotelomer alcohols and sulfonates
21
PFAS Recommendation(EU) 2022/1431
• Target LOQs
- 0.002 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.001 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.001 µg/kg for
PFNA and 0.004 µg/kg for PFHxS in fruits, vegetables, starchy
roots and tubers and food for infants and young children
- 0.010 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.010 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.020 µg/kg for
PFNA and 0.040 µg/kg for PFHxS in milk
- 0.10 µg/kg for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS in fish meat and
meat of terrestrial animals
- 0.30 µg/kg for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS in eggs,
crustaceans and molluscs.
- 0.50 µg/kg for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS in fish oil and in
edible offal of terrestrial animals
22
PFAS Recommendation(EU) 2022/1431
• Awaiting the achievement of the limits of quantification by
their laboratories, Member States may also submit results,
which were obtained with methods with higher limits of
quantification. However action should be undertaken to
achieve the target LOQs as soon as possible
23
PFAS Recommendation(EU) 2022/1431
• Further investigations of the causes of contamination should
be carried out when exceeding the following indicative levels
- 0.010 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.010 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.005 µg/kg for
PFNA and 0.015 µg/kg for PFHxS in fruits, vegetables (except wild
fungi) , starchy roots and tubers
- 1,5 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.010 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.005 µg/kg for PFNA
and 0.015 µg/kg for PFHxS in wild fungi
- 0,020 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.010 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.050 µg/kg for
PFNA and 0.060 µg/kg for PFHxS in milk
- 0,050 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.050 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.050 µg/kg for
PFNA and 0.050 µg/kg for PFHxS in baby food
24
Health and
Consumers
PFAS in feed
• The analytical capability for feed is limited: EURL work is
ongoing.
• A monitoring Recommendation for feed will be developed
at a later stage.
• Awaiting the feed Recommendation, the food
Recommendation already contains some provisions on
feed:
- Those Member States, which have the analytical
capability to analyse PFAS in feed, are recommended to
also monitor PFAS in feed.
- In those Member States, which don’t have the required
analytical capability yet, the laboratories are
encouraged to validate methods for PFAS in feed.
25
Health and
Consumers
PFAS in feed
• Presence of PFAs in food of animal origin: investigations to
be performed on source of contamination : feed, drinking
water, soil, …
• The data on occurrence in feed will be used to allow a
discussion on the possible need to establish maximum
levels for PFAS in feed.
• Possible maximum levels in feed to be established in
Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of
the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in
animal feed
26
Sampling and analysis of PFAS
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/1428 of 24
August 2022 laying down methods of sampling and analysis for
the control of perfluoroalkyl substances in certain foodstuffs
• Sampling: similar provisions to those of dioxins and PCBs
with additional requirements to avoid contamination of the
sample.
27
Sampling and analysis of PFAS
• Analysis:
- Specific sample preparation procedures and precautions
- Within-laboratory reproducibility (intermediate precision)
(RSDR) ≤ 20 %
- Trueness: ± 20 %
- LOQ: The LOQ for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS each ≤ the ML
for the respective individual PFAS substance. Compliance with
this requirement entails that no LOQ should be derived for the
concentration of the sum of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS,
which is calculated by summing up only the concentrations of
PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS, which were quantified at or
above their respective LOQ.
• Reporting and interpretation of results 28
Concluding remarks
• EU-Measures on PFAS in food (and feed) and an
effective enforcement ensure a high level of human
health protection
• More information on regulating PFAS in food can
be found on
https://food.ec.europa.eu/safety/chemical-
safety/contaminants/catalogue/pfass_en
Thank you for
your
attention !
30

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Poly-_and_perfluoroalkyl_substances_-sources_pathways_and_environmental_data_-_report.pdf

  • 1. Directorate-General for Health & Food Safety EU policy on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in food and feed Frans Verstraete 1
  • 2. This presentation • Regulating contaminants in feed and food in the EU • Principles • Framework Regulation (EEC) 315/93 • From risk assessment to risk management • EFSA opinion • Regulation on ML in food • Recommendation on monitoring • Feed • Sampling and analysis • Concluding remarks
  • 3. Principles for regulating contaminants in feed and food in the EU * a high level of protection of human health and animal health has to be pursued * free movement within the European Union of feed and food compliant with EU legislation * international standards to be taken into account. * feed and food placed on the market shall be safe * contaminant levels shall be kept as low as can reasonably be achieved following good practices at all stages (ALARA) 3
  • 4. Principles for regulating contaminants in feed and food in the EU • In order to achieve the general objective of a high level of protection of human health and animal health, EU feed and food legislation shall be based on risk analysis (process consisting of three interconnected components: risk assessment-risk management-risk communication) • Risk assessment shall be based on the available scientific evidence and undertaken in an independent, objective and transparent manner → risk assessment performed by EFSA • Risk management shall take into account the results of risk assessment, other factors legitimate to the matter under consideration and the precautionary principle where appropriate 4
  • 5. CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD • Regulatory framework : Council Regulation (EEC) No 315/93 of 8 February 1993 laying down Community procedures for contaminants in food 5
  • 6. Regulation 315/93 Provisions • General provision: • food containing a contaminant in an amount which is unacceptable from the public health viewpoint and in particular at a toxicological level shall not be placed on the market • Good practice: • contaminant levels shall be kept as low as can reasonably be achieved following good practices at all stages (ALARA) 6
  • 7. Regulation 315/93 Provisions ▪ When necessary for protecting public health maximum levels shall established for specific contaminants --> Procedure for setting maximum levels. This can also include a reference to the sampling and analysis methods to be used. ▪ Obligatory consultation of the European Food Safety Authority(EFSA) Panel on contaminants in the food chain before provisions having effect upon public health shall be adopted. • Internal market: no restriction on placing on the market for foods complying with EU legislation for reasons relating to their contaminant content 7
  • 8. Regulating contaminants in the EU Risk assessment • EFSA opinion: assessment of the (human) health risks related to the presence of a contaminant in foodstuffs • establishment of a tolerable intake / health based guidance value / BMDL • exposure assessment: human exposure (average and 95 percentile) Particular attention to vulnerable groups of population, high level consumers, ... • risk characterisation: human exposure assessed in relation to the health based guidance value or Margin of Exposure (MoE) --> is the basis for the management measures to be taken 8
  • 9. From Risk Assessment to Risk Management • Determination of foods/food groups significantly contributing to the exposure • Food groups with frequent findings of high level of contamination • Occurrence data of the contaminant in the various food/food groups → Risk management measure 9
  • 10. (Regulatory) instruments/tools to prevent/reduce contamination • Prevention of major importance, by applying good agricultural/ manufacturing/storage practices (“prevention better than cure”) • (Regulatory) risk management tools: maximum levels, action levels, benchmark levels, source-directed measures, codes of practices, encouraging/obliging application of GAP, GMP, … • EU-Measures to reduce the contaminant level in food are determined on a case by case basis (dependent of the nature and health risk of the contaminant), and can be a combination of several approaches/tools into one strategy • Maximum levels are set at a level “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA) by applying good practices and are always combined with sampling provisions and requirements for the methods of analysis for enforcement 10
  • 11. Other legitimate factors to be considered when regulating contaminants Considered on a case by case basis: * Cost–benefit considerations * Feasibility/achievability by applying good practices * If safety cannot be guaranteed by setting maximum levels or other regulatory measures for all consumer groups → to be complemented by consumption advice * Balance risks of contaminants – benefits of consumption of certain foods (health risk – health benefit considerations) * Analytical achievability/feasibility by routine methods to ensure effective enforcement * … 11
  • 12. EFSA opinion on PFAS • 2020 EFSA opinion on the risk to human health related to the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances in food - PFAS cause developmental effects, adverse effects on the serum cholesterol, the liver, the immune system and they affect birth weight - TWI 4.4 ng/kg bw per week for the sum of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS on the basis of the effects on the immune system – PFOS: Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid – PFOA: Perfluorooctanoic acid – PFNA: Perfluorononanoic acid – PFHxS: Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid - The exposure of parts of the European population exceeds the TWI, which is of concern 12
  • 13. Regulatory follow-up to the PFAS opinion - Regulation on MLs - Recommendation (EU) 2021/1431 on monitoring - Regulation (EU) 2022/1428 on requirements for sampling and analytical methods 13
  • 14. Regulation on ML for PFAS in food Maximum Levels (MLs) for PFAS in food - Separate MLs for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and the sum of the 4 PFAS. - MLs for commodities, which are relevant contributors to the exposure, for which sufficient occurrence data are available and for which there is sufficient analytical capability among the laboratories to enforce the MLs. - The ML applies to the sum of linear and branched stereoisomers, whether they are chromatographically separated or not. 14
  • 15. Regulation on MLs for PFAS in food Maximum Levels (MLs) for PFAS in food - For the sum of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS lower bound concentrations are calculated on the assumption that all the values below the limit of quantification are zero. - MLs are established for eggs, fish meat, crustaceans and bivalve molluscs and meat and edible offal of terrestrial animals. 15
  • 16. Regulation on MLs for PFAS in food • Eggs, meat and edible offal (MLs are in µg/kg wet weight) 16 PFOS PFOA PFNA PFHxS Sum of 4 Eggs 1,0 0,30 0,70 0,30 1,7 Meat of bovine animals, pig and poultry 0,30 0,80 0,20 0,20 1,3 Meat of sheep 1,0 0,20 0,20 0,20 1,60 Offal of bovine animals, sheep pig and poultry 6,0 0,70 0,40 0,50 8,0 Meat of game animals, exc. bear meat 5,0 3,5 3,5 0,60 9,0 Offal of game animals, exc. Bear offal 50 25 45 3,0 50
  • 17. Regulation on MLs for PFAS in food • Fish meat - Category 1: all fish not included in categories 2 and 3. Fish of categories 2 and 3 in case intended for food for infants and young children. - Category 2: Baltic herring, Bonito, Burbot European sprat, Flounder, Grey mullet, Horse mackerel, Pike (Esox spp.), Plaice, Sardine and pilchard, Seabass, Sea catfish, Sea lamprey, Tench, Vendace, Silverly lightfish, Wild salmon and wild trout , Wolf fish - Category 3: Anchovy, Babel, Bream, Char, Eel, Pike- perch, Perch, Roach, Smelt, Whitefish 17
  • 18. Regulation on MLs for PFAS in food • Fish meat, crustaceans and bivalve molluscs (MLs in µg/kg wet weight) 18 PFOS PFOA PFNA PFHxS Sum of 4 Muscle meat of fish of category 1 2,0 0,20 0,50 0,20 2,0 Muscle meat of fish of category 2 7,0 1,0 2,5 0,20 8,0 Muscle meat of fish of category 3 35 8,0 8,0 1,5 45 Crustaceans(*) and bivalve molluscs. 3,0 0,70 1,0 1,5 5,0
  • 19. Health and Consumers Regulation on MLs for PFAS in food • Timelines: - Adoption 7 December 2022. - Publication in the Official Journal is foreseen on 8 December 2022 • Application: - 1 January 2023. - Foodstuffs lawfully placed on the market before the date of application may continue to be marketed until their date of minimum durability or use-by date. 19
  • 20. PFAS Recommendation(EU) 2022/1431 • It is recommended to monitor PFAS in food from 2022-2025 in a wide range of foodstuffs . • Commodities: fruits, vegetables, starchy roots and tubers, cereals, nuts, food for infants and young children, food of animal origin, non- alcoholic drinks, wine and beer. - Different production types - Include hunted or wild caught animals and products • Analysis of raw and processed products to determine processing factors. 20
  • 21. PFAS Recommendation(EU) 2022/1431 • All PFAS - Including PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFPS, PFHpS, PFNS, PFDS, PFUnDS, PFDoD, PFTrDS, FOSA) - For consideration emerging PFAS: acid form of F53B, acid form of GenX, acid form of ADONA, Capstone A and B, Fluorotelomer alcohols and sulfonates 21
  • 22. PFAS Recommendation(EU) 2022/1431 • Target LOQs - 0.002 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.001 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.001 µg/kg for PFNA and 0.004 µg/kg for PFHxS in fruits, vegetables, starchy roots and tubers and food for infants and young children - 0.010 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.010 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.020 µg/kg for PFNA and 0.040 µg/kg for PFHxS in milk - 0.10 µg/kg for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS in fish meat and meat of terrestrial animals - 0.30 µg/kg for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS in eggs, crustaceans and molluscs. - 0.50 µg/kg for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS in fish oil and in edible offal of terrestrial animals 22
  • 23. PFAS Recommendation(EU) 2022/1431 • Awaiting the achievement of the limits of quantification by their laboratories, Member States may also submit results, which were obtained with methods with higher limits of quantification. However action should be undertaken to achieve the target LOQs as soon as possible 23
  • 24. PFAS Recommendation(EU) 2022/1431 • Further investigations of the causes of contamination should be carried out when exceeding the following indicative levels - 0.010 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.010 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.005 µg/kg for PFNA and 0.015 µg/kg for PFHxS in fruits, vegetables (except wild fungi) , starchy roots and tubers - 1,5 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.010 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.005 µg/kg for PFNA and 0.015 µg/kg for PFHxS in wild fungi - 0,020 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.010 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.050 µg/kg for PFNA and 0.060 µg/kg for PFHxS in milk - 0,050 µg/kg for PFOS, 0.050 µg/kg for PFOA, 0.050 µg/kg for PFNA and 0.050 µg/kg for PFHxS in baby food 24
  • 25. Health and Consumers PFAS in feed • The analytical capability for feed is limited: EURL work is ongoing. • A monitoring Recommendation for feed will be developed at a later stage. • Awaiting the feed Recommendation, the food Recommendation already contains some provisions on feed: - Those Member States, which have the analytical capability to analyse PFAS in feed, are recommended to also monitor PFAS in feed. - In those Member States, which don’t have the required analytical capability yet, the laboratories are encouraged to validate methods for PFAS in feed. 25
  • 26. Health and Consumers PFAS in feed • Presence of PFAs in food of animal origin: investigations to be performed on source of contamination : feed, drinking water, soil, … • The data on occurrence in feed will be used to allow a discussion on the possible need to establish maximum levels for PFAS in feed. • Possible maximum levels in feed to be established in Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed 26
  • 27. Sampling and analysis of PFAS Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/1428 of 24 August 2022 laying down methods of sampling and analysis for the control of perfluoroalkyl substances in certain foodstuffs • Sampling: similar provisions to those of dioxins and PCBs with additional requirements to avoid contamination of the sample. 27
  • 28. Sampling and analysis of PFAS • Analysis: - Specific sample preparation procedures and precautions - Within-laboratory reproducibility (intermediate precision) (RSDR) ≤ 20 % - Trueness: ± 20 % - LOQ: The LOQ for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS each ≤ the ML for the respective individual PFAS substance. Compliance with this requirement entails that no LOQ should be derived for the concentration of the sum of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS, which is calculated by summing up only the concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS, which were quantified at or above their respective LOQ. • Reporting and interpretation of results 28
  • 29. Concluding remarks • EU-Measures on PFAS in food (and feed) and an effective enforcement ensure a high level of human health protection • More information on regulating PFAS in food can be found on https://food.ec.europa.eu/safety/chemical- safety/contaminants/catalogue/pfass_en