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Technology as an enabler in preventing social isolation for older adults in rural districts
Policy Priority: Addressing the low take-up of
eGovernment services, in particular by older
adults and facilitating citizen participation
1.	Summary
•	 Co-creation may become a way to improve the
quality of eGovernment services and thus their
uptake, by involving end users as partners in the
planning, design and provision of digital servic-
es.
•	 However, co-creation is a complex and demand-
ing process for both sides: government units as
well as citizens, and requires careful planning
and evaluation.
•	 Co-creation consists of several phases, from the
early identification of problems and needs, the
conceptualisation of a service and its design to
its implementation and maintenance.
•	 The biggest challenge is to engage a knowledge-
able and motivated group of citizens whose con-
tributions lead to improvements of a service that
benefits an entire target group.
•	 Co-creation requires more resources than ordi-
nary service design; it only pays off when govern-
ment units meet the proposals of citizens with
sufficient scope for action. This is more likely for
local or regional information services than for
nationwide transaction services.
•	 In order to identify services that justify the ef-
fort of co-creation, we recommend to plan four
steps, (1) a broad consultation on the collabora-
tive improvement of information services on dif-
ferent topics, (2) a formal and official selection
of a specific problem focus and the allocation of
resources for co-creation, (3) the service design
process itself, and (4) a systematic evaluation of
the co-created service.
2.	Background: Co-creation as a way to
improve user-centricity and take-up of
eGovernment services
There has been a long debate about why eGovern-
ment services have not experienced the uptake that
was anticipated, especially among citizens. Since
2001, the European Member States hold the bian-
nual Ministerial Conferences to review the achieve-
ments of eGovernment across Europe in bi-annual
benchmarking reports, featuring statistics and rec-
ommendations concerning 12 eGovernment servic-
es for citizens. Starting off with an “administration
centric” approach, over the past ten years the whole
process has shifted towards a “government-driven
user centric” approach. The latest, most innovative
stage, however, is called “customer-driven customer
centricity” and the most recent Ministerial Declara-
tion (EU Tallin, 2017) stated that the EU eGovernment
Action Plan (2016-2020) has been a “significant step
in this transformation journey”. Yet, it is realised that
“more needs to be done and faster to ensure its im-
plementation”. The preceding benchmarking report
(European Commission, 2009) shows no progress
in the user experience. In addition to more user-cen-
tricity it also asks for
Citizen engagement
That digital means are used to empower citizens
and businesses to voice the views, allowing policy
makers to collect new ideas, involve citizens more
in the creation of public services and provide better
digital public service.
In sum, citizen-driven service development of pub-
lic services has been promoted greatly at European
and national level for the past decade, and has not
been fully implemented yet.
Co-creation provides concrete solutions to improve
user centricity, by covering government-driven and
citizen-driven service development. The Mobile
Age project has undertaken five pilot projects with
both variations. In the pilot sites, services for older
adults were co-created, by older adults, a user group
in which the need for public services is particularly
high, while at the same time the uptake of e-services
is particularly low.
3.	Co-creation model and roles of citizens
in digital public service co-creation
The European Commission has high expectations
on co-creation as a promising new approach to ser-
vice development and design. The term is used in
more than 75 calls within the H2020 Framework
Policy Brief : Co-creation as a way to facilitate user-centricity
and take-up of eGovernment services. The case of digital public
services for older adults.
2
Technology as an enabler in preventing social isolation for older adults in rural districts
Programme across a variety of topic areas. How-
ever, there is no common understanding on what
co-creation means with respect to other participato-
ry or collaborative approaches (e.g. co-production or
co-design), the role of users, the role of technology
or anticipated results.
Mobile Age developed a process model for co-cre-
ating digital public services consisting of seven
streams of activities. The streams of action are
interdependent and also informed by a number of
co-creation preconditions: (1) existing strategy and
policy objectives, (2) existing collaborations, (3) ex-
isting services, (4) existing (open) data infrastruc-
ture and (5) existing IT infrastructure. There are five
core streams of activity in co-creation: (1) engaging
stakeholders, (2) co-creation a service concept, (3)
collecting, creating, validating  integrating data, (4)
co-creating software and (5) evaluating co-creation
process  results. These streams of activities lead to
a number of co-creation results: (1) new  amended
collaborations between different stakeholders, (2)
the provision of a digital service, (3) open data, (4)
software/apps and (5) an evaluation  impact as-
sessment. The figure below provides an overview on
the different aspects of the Mobile Age co-creation
methodology (for a detailed account on the Mobile
Age methodology see www.mobile-age.eu)
Strategy
 Policies
Co-creation
Preconditions Co-creation
Results
Existing
Collaborations
Existing
IT Infrastructure
Existing
Services
(Open) Data
Infrastructure
New/amended
Collaborations
App(s)
(Open) Data
Sets
Service
Delivery
Evaluation 
Impact
Assessment
Governing  managing co-creation
Engaging stakeholders
Co-creating software
Collecting, creating, validating 
integrating data
Evaluating co-creation process  results
Exploiting, maintaining  sustaining
Co-creating a service concept
Figure 1: Overview co-creation model
While participation in some co-creation initiatives is
limited to co-design of the interface of an applica-
tion, others also involve citizens in generating topics
and contents. Hence, participants can take different
roles in the co-creation process.
Explorer
Facilitator
Idea former
Designer
Data curator
/provider
User
Diffuser
Service provider
Figure 2: Roles of citizens in co-creation processes
The degree of user involvement and their agency
and control differs substantially across co-creation
projects and also with respect to the (1) structure
and frequency of interaction, (2) participants’ abil-
ities and interests, (3) equality of engaged parties
and (4) openness of task as well as predictability of
solution.
4.	Co-creation requires expertise, commit-
ment and scope for action
For most governmental authorities/administrative
bodies, co-creation is a challenge not to be underes-
timated as it is time- and resource-intensive. It also
challenges the self-confidence, self-assurance and
authority of those employees that have designed
existing services or are responsible for designing
new ones. Co-creation calls for sharing knowledge
and control over a process and its results. While this
challenge is widely discussed and policy makers
have pledged for a cultural change within govern-
ment towards more openness, it is equally impor-
tant to regard the scope for action of local govern-
ment in (re)designing its services. All of the 12 basic
eGovernment services that are subject to the regu-
lar benchmarking are complex transaction servic-
es requiring access to public registers run by other
agencies, with interoperability and security require-
ments as well as many restrictions. Local govern-
ments have almost no scope for action in changing
content, functionality and design of most of these
transaction services. In addition, most citizens lack
the expertise to improve the back-office side of ser-
vices.
However, citizens may well contribute their knowl-
edge to improving front office services, in particu-
lar local information services. For example, older
residents are well suited to co-create a district guide
as they have more expertise about what informa-
tion is relevant to them and can co-produce relevant
data. In addition, local government has the neces-
3
Technology as an enabler in preventing social isolation for older adults in rural districts
sary scope for action to implement design propos-
als and by doing so collaboratively improve the user
experience.
Policy recommendation
Not all eGovernment services are equally well-suited
for co-creation. Local information services should
be given priority as they allow for a greater legal and
technical scope of action on the side of government
as well as are more relevant to civic co-creators’
knowledge and potential contributions. In particu-
lar, Mobile Government offers many opportunities
where either printed information or static Websites
can be improved through apps for mobile devices
and fulfil the promise of anytime-anywhere-access
to required information.
5.	Consultation on High Priority Services
for pre-defined target groups
Co-creation is demanding for government as well
as for co-creating citizens. Therefore, the focus on
the service (domain) to be (re)designed needs to be
chosen carefully. Prior to embarking on a co-creation
process, initiators have to make a number of deci-
sions, relating to (1) the openness of the co-creation
process, (2) its purpose and (3) the scope of design.
Mobile Age pilots started with different degrees of
openness and encountered varying challenges in
the final implementation of a service.
In order to justify the efforts on both sides, the se-
lected service should be relevant for government as
well as for citizens. Local governments have several
information obligations towards different groups of
citizens, e.g. for parents, young people or older adults
covering different topics each. Since a relevant ser-
vice should reach as many members of the target
audience as possible, a broad (online) consultation
is an appropriate way to identify the priorities of the
target audience. For example, with regard to the tar-
get group of older citizens and the commitments of
many local governments to become age-friendly cit-
ies and communities, local governments can initiate
a consultation process based on the eight fields of
action as proposed by the WHO (see figure 3).
Policy recommendation
To justify the resources required for a successful
co-creation process, a broad consultation on a range
of possible services should be carried out in order to
select the service area with highest priority. In addi-
tion, it is crucial to allow for a certain openness so
that co-creators take control and ownership over the
process and its results.
Figure 3: Framework for age-friendly environments (WHO,
2017)
6.	Co-creation requires professional fa-
cilitators, appropriate methods and the
“right” group(s) of co-creators
Co-creation is based on the idea that the target audi-
ence of a digital service, their needs and resources,
can be represented by a small group of citizens who
participate in a co-creation process. The biggest
challenge for government, when embarking on a
co-creation process, is to engage a group of citizens
that is can speak for the needs and requirements of
the whole target group.
As co-creation of information services requires a
broad range of expertise (e.g. knowledge on the top-
ic area, ability to collect and/or create data, provide
input on interface design, support dissemination) it
is very unlikely that there are individuals who have all
these different competences and capabilities. Mo-
bile Age has made positive experiences in engaging
permanent groups with mixed competencies, e.g.
some members have local knowledge, others tech-
nical competence or engage as data curators. This
has proven be a great opportunity for all participants
to learn from each other and value each other’s spe-
cific expertise and contribution.
In order to engage co-creators effectively, appro-
priate methods have to be employed. We cannot
assume that government employees responsible
for a certain field of action have the relevant com-
petencies (e.g. as moderators and facilitators) to
select and conduct a range of co-creation interven-
tions. Participating citizens may not even consider
them to be neutral and not having their own inter-
est. Research on the success factors of citizens’
participation has shown that external professional
moderation is one of three key success factors. In
4
Technology as an enabler in preventing social isolation for older adults in rural districts
most of the Mobile Age pilots, research teams acted
as facilitators. In these processes, a broad range of
methods and tools have been employed to also al-
low for the sharing of tacit knowledge and support
co-creators along different streams of co-creation
activities. Mobile Age will provide an interactive
guidebook presenting appropriate and useful meth-
ods as well as examples of their deployment in the
co-creation of digital public services for older adults.
Policy recommendation
Successful co-creation needs professional mod-
eration and facilitation, employing the appropriate
methods for the respective target groups and sub-
ject area. In most cases this cannot be provided by
government employees responsible for a specific
subject area or policy field. Rather, external moder-
ators should be considered. They have experience
with different types of engagement methods and
guarantee for the fairness and transparency of a
process, in which government may be perceived as
a stakeholder with their own interests. The recruit-
ment and engagement of co-creators (as permanent
group or phase specific groups) depends on kind of
service and the target audience.
7.	Summary
Co-creation is a promising approach to address
the lack of user-centricity and user experience of
eGovernment services. However, there is no guaran-
tee for its success. It is a complex multi-task and
multi-stakeholder process, more demanding than
traditional citizen participation. Our own research
on success factors of citizen participation has iden-
tified three success factors: (1) a problem of high
concern to both sides, government and citizens, (2)
professional facilitation, and (3) sufficient resourc-
es. We are convinced that this is also the case for
co-creation processes of eGovernment services. It
is not easy to meet these requirements in times of
a mismatch between the many needs for services in
the public interest and low public budgets. However,
a low budget for co-creation activities does not allow
meeting its objectives and desired results. Due to
the openness and flexibility inherent to any co-crea-
tion process, providing guidelines and recommenda-
tions for such a process is a contradictory and there-
fore challenging task. Nevertheless, the lessons
learned in Mobile Age, laid down in this policy brief
and the upcoming interactive guidebook, provide a
corner stone to more user-centric public services
and the promises of open government. Each pro-
cess is a journey in a partly unknown territory and
an adventure. We can all profit from travel reports.
Therefore, it is important that future co-creation pro-
cesses are evaluated and the lessons learned are
published in order to co-create our knowledge about
this new journey.
## Authors
Dr. Juliane Jarke and Prof. Herbert Kubicek, 	
Institute for Information Management Bremen (ifib),
University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
References
EU Tallin. (2017). Tallinn Declaration on eGovern-
ment at the ministerial meeting during Estonian
Presidency of the Council of the EU on 6 October
2017. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/news-
room/document.cfm?doc_id=47559
European Commission. (2009). Smarter, Faster,
Better eGovernment: 8th Benchmark Measure-
ment. PREPARED BY: CAPGEMINI, RAND EUROPE,
IDC, SOGETI AND DTI. Retrieved from http://www.
mof.gov.cy/mof/DITS/dits.nsf/All/C1B4301D69B-
229D7C225781700420412/$file/egov_bench-
mark_20098th.pdf
WHO. (2017). Age-friendly environments in Europe.
A handbook of domains for policy action. Retrieved
from http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/
abstracts/age-friendly-environments-in-europe.-a-
handbook-of-domains-for-policy-action-2017
Title: Mobile Age
Call identifier: H2020-INSO-2015: CNECT
Topic: INSO-1-2015: ICT-enabled open government
Total Budget: €2,923,993.75
Project duration: 36 months
Start Date: February 1st, 2016
Project Coordinator: LANCASTER UNIVERSITY (ULANC)
Consortium: TINGTUN AS (TT), AGE PLATFORM EUROPE
AISBL (AGE), EVANGELISCHE STIFTUNG VOLMARSTEIN
(FTB), GOVERNMENT TO YOU (GOV2U), INSTITUT FUR INFOR-
MATIONSMANAGEMENT BREMEN GMBH (ifib), ARISTOTELIO
PANEPISTIMIO THESSALONIKIS (AUTH), UNIVERSIDAD PO-
LITECNICA DE MADRID (UPM), AYUNTAMIENTO DE ZARAGO-
ZA (ZGZ), REGION OF CENTRAL MACEDONIA (RCM)
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 693319.
This material reflects only the author's view and the Research Executive Agency (REA) is not responsible for any use that may be made of the
information it contains.

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Policy Brief : Co-creation as a way to facilitate user-centricity and take-up of eGovernment services. The case of digital public services for older adults.

  • 1. 1 Technology as an enabler in preventing social isolation for older adults in rural districts Policy Priority: Addressing the low take-up of eGovernment services, in particular by older adults and facilitating citizen participation 1. Summary • Co-creation may become a way to improve the quality of eGovernment services and thus their uptake, by involving end users as partners in the planning, design and provision of digital servic- es. • However, co-creation is a complex and demand- ing process for both sides: government units as well as citizens, and requires careful planning and evaluation. • Co-creation consists of several phases, from the early identification of problems and needs, the conceptualisation of a service and its design to its implementation and maintenance. • The biggest challenge is to engage a knowledge- able and motivated group of citizens whose con- tributions lead to improvements of a service that benefits an entire target group. • Co-creation requires more resources than ordi- nary service design; it only pays off when govern- ment units meet the proposals of citizens with sufficient scope for action. This is more likely for local or regional information services than for nationwide transaction services. • In order to identify services that justify the ef- fort of co-creation, we recommend to plan four steps, (1) a broad consultation on the collabora- tive improvement of information services on dif- ferent topics, (2) a formal and official selection of a specific problem focus and the allocation of resources for co-creation, (3) the service design process itself, and (4) a systematic evaluation of the co-created service. 2. Background: Co-creation as a way to improve user-centricity and take-up of eGovernment services There has been a long debate about why eGovern- ment services have not experienced the uptake that was anticipated, especially among citizens. Since 2001, the European Member States hold the bian- nual Ministerial Conferences to review the achieve- ments of eGovernment across Europe in bi-annual benchmarking reports, featuring statistics and rec- ommendations concerning 12 eGovernment servic- es for citizens. Starting off with an “administration centric” approach, over the past ten years the whole process has shifted towards a “government-driven user centric” approach. The latest, most innovative stage, however, is called “customer-driven customer centricity” and the most recent Ministerial Declara- tion (EU Tallin, 2017) stated that the EU eGovernment Action Plan (2016-2020) has been a “significant step in this transformation journey”. Yet, it is realised that “more needs to be done and faster to ensure its im- plementation”. The preceding benchmarking report (European Commission, 2009) shows no progress in the user experience. In addition to more user-cen- tricity it also asks for Citizen engagement That digital means are used to empower citizens and businesses to voice the views, allowing policy makers to collect new ideas, involve citizens more in the creation of public services and provide better digital public service. In sum, citizen-driven service development of pub- lic services has been promoted greatly at European and national level for the past decade, and has not been fully implemented yet. Co-creation provides concrete solutions to improve user centricity, by covering government-driven and citizen-driven service development. The Mobile Age project has undertaken five pilot projects with both variations. In the pilot sites, services for older adults were co-created, by older adults, a user group in which the need for public services is particularly high, while at the same time the uptake of e-services is particularly low. 3. Co-creation model and roles of citizens in digital public service co-creation The European Commission has high expectations on co-creation as a promising new approach to ser- vice development and design. The term is used in more than 75 calls within the H2020 Framework Policy Brief : Co-creation as a way to facilitate user-centricity and take-up of eGovernment services. The case of digital public services for older adults.
  • 2. 2 Technology as an enabler in preventing social isolation for older adults in rural districts Programme across a variety of topic areas. How- ever, there is no common understanding on what co-creation means with respect to other participato- ry or collaborative approaches (e.g. co-production or co-design), the role of users, the role of technology or anticipated results. Mobile Age developed a process model for co-cre- ating digital public services consisting of seven streams of activities. The streams of action are interdependent and also informed by a number of co-creation preconditions: (1) existing strategy and policy objectives, (2) existing collaborations, (3) ex- isting services, (4) existing (open) data infrastruc- ture and (5) existing IT infrastructure. There are five core streams of activity in co-creation: (1) engaging stakeholders, (2) co-creation a service concept, (3) collecting, creating, validating integrating data, (4) co-creating software and (5) evaluating co-creation process results. These streams of activities lead to a number of co-creation results: (1) new amended collaborations between different stakeholders, (2) the provision of a digital service, (3) open data, (4) software/apps and (5) an evaluation impact as- sessment. The figure below provides an overview on the different aspects of the Mobile Age co-creation methodology (for a detailed account on the Mobile Age methodology see www.mobile-age.eu) Strategy Policies Co-creation Preconditions Co-creation Results Existing Collaborations Existing IT Infrastructure Existing Services (Open) Data Infrastructure New/amended Collaborations App(s) (Open) Data Sets Service Delivery Evaluation Impact Assessment Governing managing co-creation Engaging stakeholders Co-creating software Collecting, creating, validating integrating data Evaluating co-creation process results Exploiting, maintaining sustaining Co-creating a service concept Figure 1: Overview co-creation model While participation in some co-creation initiatives is limited to co-design of the interface of an applica- tion, others also involve citizens in generating topics and contents. Hence, participants can take different roles in the co-creation process. Explorer Facilitator Idea former Designer Data curator /provider User Diffuser Service provider Figure 2: Roles of citizens in co-creation processes The degree of user involvement and their agency and control differs substantially across co-creation projects and also with respect to the (1) structure and frequency of interaction, (2) participants’ abil- ities and interests, (3) equality of engaged parties and (4) openness of task as well as predictability of solution. 4. Co-creation requires expertise, commit- ment and scope for action For most governmental authorities/administrative bodies, co-creation is a challenge not to be underes- timated as it is time- and resource-intensive. It also challenges the self-confidence, self-assurance and authority of those employees that have designed existing services or are responsible for designing new ones. Co-creation calls for sharing knowledge and control over a process and its results. While this challenge is widely discussed and policy makers have pledged for a cultural change within govern- ment towards more openness, it is equally impor- tant to regard the scope for action of local govern- ment in (re)designing its services. All of the 12 basic eGovernment services that are subject to the regu- lar benchmarking are complex transaction servic- es requiring access to public registers run by other agencies, with interoperability and security require- ments as well as many restrictions. Local govern- ments have almost no scope for action in changing content, functionality and design of most of these transaction services. In addition, most citizens lack the expertise to improve the back-office side of ser- vices. However, citizens may well contribute their knowl- edge to improving front office services, in particu- lar local information services. For example, older residents are well suited to co-create a district guide as they have more expertise about what informa- tion is relevant to them and can co-produce relevant data. In addition, local government has the neces-
  • 3. 3 Technology as an enabler in preventing social isolation for older adults in rural districts sary scope for action to implement design propos- als and by doing so collaboratively improve the user experience. Policy recommendation Not all eGovernment services are equally well-suited for co-creation. Local information services should be given priority as they allow for a greater legal and technical scope of action on the side of government as well as are more relevant to civic co-creators’ knowledge and potential contributions. In particu- lar, Mobile Government offers many opportunities where either printed information or static Websites can be improved through apps for mobile devices and fulfil the promise of anytime-anywhere-access to required information. 5. Consultation on High Priority Services for pre-defined target groups Co-creation is demanding for government as well as for co-creating citizens. Therefore, the focus on the service (domain) to be (re)designed needs to be chosen carefully. Prior to embarking on a co-creation process, initiators have to make a number of deci- sions, relating to (1) the openness of the co-creation process, (2) its purpose and (3) the scope of design. Mobile Age pilots started with different degrees of openness and encountered varying challenges in the final implementation of a service. In order to justify the efforts on both sides, the se- lected service should be relevant for government as well as for citizens. Local governments have several information obligations towards different groups of citizens, e.g. for parents, young people or older adults covering different topics each. Since a relevant ser- vice should reach as many members of the target audience as possible, a broad (online) consultation is an appropriate way to identify the priorities of the target audience. For example, with regard to the tar- get group of older citizens and the commitments of many local governments to become age-friendly cit- ies and communities, local governments can initiate a consultation process based on the eight fields of action as proposed by the WHO (see figure 3). Policy recommendation To justify the resources required for a successful co-creation process, a broad consultation on a range of possible services should be carried out in order to select the service area with highest priority. In addi- tion, it is crucial to allow for a certain openness so that co-creators take control and ownership over the process and its results. Figure 3: Framework for age-friendly environments (WHO, 2017) 6. Co-creation requires professional fa- cilitators, appropriate methods and the “right” group(s) of co-creators Co-creation is based on the idea that the target audi- ence of a digital service, their needs and resources, can be represented by a small group of citizens who participate in a co-creation process. The biggest challenge for government, when embarking on a co-creation process, is to engage a group of citizens that is can speak for the needs and requirements of the whole target group. As co-creation of information services requires a broad range of expertise (e.g. knowledge on the top- ic area, ability to collect and/or create data, provide input on interface design, support dissemination) it is very unlikely that there are individuals who have all these different competences and capabilities. Mo- bile Age has made positive experiences in engaging permanent groups with mixed competencies, e.g. some members have local knowledge, others tech- nical competence or engage as data curators. This has proven be a great opportunity for all participants to learn from each other and value each other’s spe- cific expertise and contribution. In order to engage co-creators effectively, appro- priate methods have to be employed. We cannot assume that government employees responsible for a certain field of action have the relevant com- petencies (e.g. as moderators and facilitators) to select and conduct a range of co-creation interven- tions. Participating citizens may not even consider them to be neutral and not having their own inter- est. Research on the success factors of citizens’ participation has shown that external professional moderation is one of three key success factors. In
  • 4. 4 Technology as an enabler in preventing social isolation for older adults in rural districts most of the Mobile Age pilots, research teams acted as facilitators. In these processes, a broad range of methods and tools have been employed to also al- low for the sharing of tacit knowledge and support co-creators along different streams of co-creation activities. Mobile Age will provide an interactive guidebook presenting appropriate and useful meth- ods as well as examples of their deployment in the co-creation of digital public services for older adults. Policy recommendation Successful co-creation needs professional mod- eration and facilitation, employing the appropriate methods for the respective target groups and sub- ject area. In most cases this cannot be provided by government employees responsible for a specific subject area or policy field. Rather, external moder- ators should be considered. They have experience with different types of engagement methods and guarantee for the fairness and transparency of a process, in which government may be perceived as a stakeholder with their own interests. The recruit- ment and engagement of co-creators (as permanent group or phase specific groups) depends on kind of service and the target audience. 7. Summary Co-creation is a promising approach to address the lack of user-centricity and user experience of eGovernment services. However, there is no guaran- tee for its success. It is a complex multi-task and multi-stakeholder process, more demanding than traditional citizen participation. Our own research on success factors of citizen participation has iden- tified three success factors: (1) a problem of high concern to both sides, government and citizens, (2) professional facilitation, and (3) sufficient resourc- es. We are convinced that this is also the case for co-creation processes of eGovernment services. It is not easy to meet these requirements in times of a mismatch between the many needs for services in the public interest and low public budgets. However, a low budget for co-creation activities does not allow meeting its objectives and desired results. Due to the openness and flexibility inherent to any co-crea- tion process, providing guidelines and recommenda- tions for such a process is a contradictory and there- fore challenging task. Nevertheless, the lessons learned in Mobile Age, laid down in this policy brief and the upcoming interactive guidebook, provide a corner stone to more user-centric public services and the promises of open government. Each pro- cess is a journey in a partly unknown territory and an adventure. We can all profit from travel reports. Therefore, it is important that future co-creation pro- cesses are evaluated and the lessons learned are published in order to co-create our knowledge about this new journey. ## Authors Dr. Juliane Jarke and Prof. Herbert Kubicek, Institute for Information Management Bremen (ifib), University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany. References EU Tallin. (2017). Tallinn Declaration on eGovern- ment at the ministerial meeting during Estonian Presidency of the Council of the EU on 6 October 2017. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/news- room/document.cfm?doc_id=47559 European Commission. (2009). Smarter, Faster, Better eGovernment: 8th Benchmark Measure- ment. PREPARED BY: CAPGEMINI, RAND EUROPE, IDC, SOGETI AND DTI. Retrieved from http://www. mof.gov.cy/mof/DITS/dits.nsf/All/C1B4301D69B- 229D7C225781700420412/$file/egov_bench- mark_20098th.pdf WHO. (2017). Age-friendly environments in Europe. A handbook of domains for policy action. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/ abstracts/age-friendly-environments-in-europe.-a- handbook-of-domains-for-policy-action-2017 Title: Mobile Age Call identifier: H2020-INSO-2015: CNECT Topic: INSO-1-2015: ICT-enabled open government Total Budget: €2,923,993.75 Project duration: 36 months Start Date: February 1st, 2016 Project Coordinator: LANCASTER UNIVERSITY (ULANC) Consortium: TINGTUN AS (TT), AGE PLATFORM EUROPE AISBL (AGE), EVANGELISCHE STIFTUNG VOLMARSTEIN (FTB), GOVERNMENT TO YOU (GOV2U), INSTITUT FUR INFOR- MATIONSMANAGEMENT BREMEN GMBH (ifib), ARISTOTELIO PANEPISTIMIO THESSALONIKIS (AUTH), UNIVERSIDAD PO- LITECNICA DE MADRID (UPM), AYUNTAMIENTO DE ZARAGO- ZA (ZGZ), REGION OF CENTRAL MACEDONIA (RCM) This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 693319. This material reflects only the author's view and the Research Executive Agency (REA) is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.