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Pneumonia
Prepared by Ms. Gunjegaonkar M.B.
SJVPM’S Rasiklal M. Dhariwal College of Pharmacy, Chinchwad
Introduction to Pneumonia
• Pneumonia is a respiratory infection in one or both the lungs caused
by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
• It is characterized by inflammation of the alveolar space and/or the
interstitial tissue of lungs.
• Pneumonia that is result from the aspiration of stomach contents is
known as aspiration pneumonia.
• Both viral and bacterial pneumonia are contagious.
Introduction to Pneumonia
• This means they spread from person to person through inhalation of
airborne droplets from a sneeze or cough.
• On the other hand, the fungal pneumonia dose not spread from
person to person.
On the basis of clinical features, pneumonia is
classified as:
• 1. Typical pneumonia: It manifests with sudden onset of malaise,
fever, and a productive cough. On auscultation, crackles and bronchial
breath sounds are audible.
• 2. Atypical pneumonia: It manifests with gradual onset of
unproductive cough, dyspnoea, and extrapulmonary manifestations.
Auscultation is usually unremarkable
On the basis of etiology and pathogenesis,
pneumonias are classified as:
• 1. Bacterial pneumonia can be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, etc.
• 2. Viral pneumonia can be caused by Influenza viruse, Coronaviridae (e.g.,
SARS-CoV-2),etc.
• 3. Fungal pneumonias can be caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii, Aspergillus
fumigates, etc.
• 4. Non-infective pneumonia such as aspiration pneumonia.
PATHOGENESIS:
• The microorganisms enter into the lungs by one of the following four
routes:
• 1. Inhalation of the microbes as aerosolized particles.
• 2. Aspiration of organisms from the or pharyngeal contents.
• 3. May enter the lung via the bloodstream from an extrapulmonary
site of infection.
• 4. Direct spread from a neighboring site of infection.
PATHOGENESIS
• Normally, lung is protected from microorganisms by various defense
mechanisms such as nasopharyngeal filtering action, mucociliary
action of the lower respiratory airways, the presence of
phagocytosing alveolar macrophages and immunoglobulin's.
• Failure of these defense mechanisms and presence of certain
predisposing factors result no band Chronic diseases (COPD,
rheumatoid arthritis)
Clinical Manifestation of Pneumonia
• 1. Typical pneumonia: It manifests with sudden onset of malaise, fever,
chills and a productive cough. On auscultation, crackles and bronchial
breath sounds are audible.(Auscultation is listening to the internal sounds
of the body such as sounds of heart, lungs, etc., using a stethoscope).
• Atypical pneumonia: It manifests with gradual onset of unproductive
cough, dyspnea and extrapulmonary manifestations. Auscultation is usually
unremarkable. Common extrapulmonary features include malaise, fatigue,
headaches, sore throat, and muscle pain.
Diagnosis of Pneumonia
• Chest X-ray
• Blood culture - it involves testing of blood sample
• Testing of sputum culture
• Fluid sample testing
• Bronchoscopy
• Pulse oximetry- it is used to measure the amount of oxygen in blood
• CT scan which provide information about infection in lungs
Non-Pharmacological Management of Pneumonia
• Get plenty of rest, stay home
• Stay hydrated, drink lots of water and juices.
• Use nebulizer whenever necessary.in pneumonias.
Risk factors:
• Old age
• Alcoholism
• Immobility of any cause
• Immunosuppression
• Crowded living condition
• Malnutrition
• Infectious Diseases eg. Homeless shelter
• Specific medication eg. amidarone
Pharmacological Management of Pneumonia
• Currently, there are three vaccines available that can significantly
reduce childhood mortality from and related to pneumonia.
• These are
(i) Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV)
(ii) Hib-containing pentavalent vaccine (Hib - Haemophilus influenzae
type b)
(iii) Measles vaccine.
The pneumonia vaccines available for adults are: Pneumovax (PPSV23)
and Prevnar (PCV13).
Pharmacological Management of Pneumonia
Drug therapy:
• Most cases of viral pneumonia are self-limiting, although therapy of
influenza pneumonia with specific antiviral agents such as
amantadine or rimantadine may speed up recovery.
• Treatment of bacterial pneumonia, initially involves empiric antibiotic
therapy based on severity and patient risk factors.
Pharmacological Management of Pneumonia
Also supportive care should be provided to treat pneumonia.
Supportive therapy may include
Sufficient rest and physical therapy
Hydration
Treat hypoxemia
Incentive spirometer
Antipyretics, analgesics as needed (e.g., paracetamol)
Expectorants and mucolytic
Antitussives (e.g., codeine)Drugs

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Pnemonia.pptx introductions of pneumonia

  • 1. Pneumonia Prepared by Ms. Gunjegaonkar M.B. SJVPM’S Rasiklal M. Dhariwal College of Pharmacy, Chinchwad
  • 2. Introduction to Pneumonia • Pneumonia is a respiratory infection in one or both the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. • It is characterized by inflammation of the alveolar space and/or the interstitial tissue of lungs. • Pneumonia that is result from the aspiration of stomach contents is known as aspiration pneumonia. • Both viral and bacterial pneumonia are contagious.
  • 3. Introduction to Pneumonia • This means they spread from person to person through inhalation of airborne droplets from a sneeze or cough. • On the other hand, the fungal pneumonia dose not spread from person to person.
  • 4. On the basis of clinical features, pneumonia is classified as: • 1. Typical pneumonia: It manifests with sudden onset of malaise, fever, and a productive cough. On auscultation, crackles and bronchial breath sounds are audible. • 2. Atypical pneumonia: It manifests with gradual onset of unproductive cough, dyspnoea, and extrapulmonary manifestations. Auscultation is usually unremarkable
  • 5. On the basis of etiology and pathogenesis, pneumonias are classified as: • 1. Bacterial pneumonia can be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, etc. • 2. Viral pneumonia can be caused by Influenza viruse, Coronaviridae (e.g., SARS-CoV-2),etc. • 3. Fungal pneumonias can be caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii, Aspergillus fumigates, etc. • 4. Non-infective pneumonia such as aspiration pneumonia.
  • 6. PATHOGENESIS: • The microorganisms enter into the lungs by one of the following four routes: • 1. Inhalation of the microbes as aerosolized particles. • 2. Aspiration of organisms from the or pharyngeal contents. • 3. May enter the lung via the bloodstream from an extrapulmonary site of infection. • 4. Direct spread from a neighboring site of infection.
  • 7. PATHOGENESIS • Normally, lung is protected from microorganisms by various defense mechanisms such as nasopharyngeal filtering action, mucociliary action of the lower respiratory airways, the presence of phagocytosing alveolar macrophages and immunoglobulin's. • Failure of these defense mechanisms and presence of certain predisposing factors result no band Chronic diseases (COPD, rheumatoid arthritis)
  • 8. Clinical Manifestation of Pneumonia • 1. Typical pneumonia: It manifests with sudden onset of malaise, fever, chills and a productive cough. On auscultation, crackles and bronchial breath sounds are audible.(Auscultation is listening to the internal sounds of the body such as sounds of heart, lungs, etc., using a stethoscope). • Atypical pneumonia: It manifests with gradual onset of unproductive cough, dyspnea and extrapulmonary manifestations. Auscultation is usually unremarkable. Common extrapulmonary features include malaise, fatigue, headaches, sore throat, and muscle pain.
  • 9. Diagnosis of Pneumonia • Chest X-ray • Blood culture - it involves testing of blood sample • Testing of sputum culture • Fluid sample testing • Bronchoscopy • Pulse oximetry- it is used to measure the amount of oxygen in blood • CT scan which provide information about infection in lungs
  • 10. Non-Pharmacological Management of Pneumonia • Get plenty of rest, stay home • Stay hydrated, drink lots of water and juices. • Use nebulizer whenever necessary.in pneumonias.
  • 11. Risk factors: • Old age • Alcoholism • Immobility of any cause • Immunosuppression • Crowded living condition • Malnutrition • Infectious Diseases eg. Homeless shelter • Specific medication eg. amidarone
  • 12. Pharmacological Management of Pneumonia • Currently, there are three vaccines available that can significantly reduce childhood mortality from and related to pneumonia. • These are (i) Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) (ii) Hib-containing pentavalent vaccine (Hib - Haemophilus influenzae type b) (iii) Measles vaccine. The pneumonia vaccines available for adults are: Pneumovax (PPSV23) and Prevnar (PCV13).
  • 13. Pharmacological Management of Pneumonia Drug therapy: • Most cases of viral pneumonia are self-limiting, although therapy of influenza pneumonia with specific antiviral agents such as amantadine or rimantadine may speed up recovery. • Treatment of bacterial pneumonia, initially involves empiric antibiotic therapy based on severity and patient risk factors.
  • 14. Pharmacological Management of Pneumonia Also supportive care should be provided to treat pneumonia. Supportive therapy may include Sufficient rest and physical therapy Hydration Treat hypoxemia Incentive spirometer Antipyretics, analgesics as needed (e.g., paracetamol) Expectorants and mucolytic Antitussives (e.g., codeine)Drugs