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Plasma Proteins
Rajendra Dev Bhatt, PhD Scholar
Asst. Professor
Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine
Fellow: Translational Research in (2018-2022 ) Cardiovascular Diseases in
Nepal, NHLBI & NIH, USA
Blood plasma contains 8% solids, which has 7%
albumin. The different plasma proteins are
albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen. Usually, total
plasma proteins are 6 to 8 gms / 100 ml of blood.
The proteins present in human blood plasma are a
mixture of simple proteins, glycoproteins,
lipoproteins, and other conjugated proteins called
“Plasma Protein”.
Plasma proteins are a crucial component of
blood that perform many functions in the human
body. They are produced in the liver and
circulate in the blood, which is vital in
maintaining our overall health.
Plasma protein is vital in our body. Here are the
primary functions.
Functions of Plasma Proteins
Functions of Plasma Proteins
• Protein Nutrition
• Osmotic pressure and water balance:
The most abundant plasma protein in the blood is
albumin, which plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid
balance in the body.
Albumin helps to regulate the amount of fluid in the blood
vessels, preventing excessive fluid build-up in the tissues.
It creates an oncotic pressure, which draws fluid back into
the blood vessels.
It prevents fluid from accumulating in the tissues, which
can lead to edema, a condition where excess fluid builds
up in the body.
Functions of Plasma Proteins
• Albumin is also involved in maintaining blood
pressure. It helps to prevent a drop in blood pressure
by regulating the amount of fluid in the blood vessels.
When there is a decrease in blood volume, albumin
draws fluid back into the blood vessels, which helps
to maintain blood pressure.
• During protein loss from the body, as in kidney
diseases, an excessive amount of water moves into
the tissues, producing edema.
Osmotic pressure is the force that drives the
movement of water molecules from a region of
low solute concentration to a high solute
concentration, while oncotic pressure is the force
exerted by proteins in the blood that draws water
into the blood vessels.
Functions of Plasma Proteins
Immune function:
Plasma proteins play a crucial role in the immune system.
Globulins are the primary type of plasma protein involved in
immune function, as they help to fight off infections and diseases.
There are three types of globulins – alpha, beta, and gamma – and
each has a unique function.
Alpha and beta globulins transport and bind various substances in
the blood, such as metal ions and lipids. They also play a role in
the immune system by recognizing and attacking foreign
invaders, such as bacteria and viruses.
Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins, are the
antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an
infection or disease. They recognize and neutralize foreign
invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, helping to prevent the
spread of infection.
Functions of Plasma Proteins
Buffering action:
Plasma proteins help maintain the body’s pH by acting
as ampholytes. At normal blood pH, they act as acids
and accept captions.
Transport:
One of the essential functions of plasma proteins is to
transport lipids and lipid-soluble substances throughout
the body.
Plasma proteins transport various substances in the
blood, including hormones, drugs, and fatty acids.
Functions of Plasma Proteins
Blood Coagulation:
Fibrinogen is a plasma protein that plays a
crucial role in blood clotting. When an injury or
trauma occurs, fibrinogen is converted to fibrin,
which forms a clot to stop bleeding. This process
is essential for preventing excessive bleeding and
promoting wound healing.
Types of Plasma Proteins
The three significant plasma protein fractions are
albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen.
• Albumin –55.2%
• α1-Globulin –5.3% (α1-Antitrypsin, Thyroxin
binding Globulin(TBG), Transcortin, etc.)
• α2-Globulin –8.6% (Haptoglobulin, ceruloplasmin,
α2-macroglobulin, etc.)
• β-Globulin –13.4% (β1-transferrin, β-lipoprotein, etc)
• γ -Globulin –11.0% (Antibodies, etc.)
• Fibrinogen –6.5%
Albumin
It is the most abundant class of plasma protein
(2.8 to 4.5 gm/100 ml) with the highest
electrophoretic mobility.
It is soluble in water and is precipitated by fully
saturated ammonium sulfate. Albumin is
synthesized in the liver and consists of a single
polypeptide chain of 610 amino acids with a
molecular weight of 69,000.
Globulins
By electrophoresis, plasma globulins are
separated into α1, α2, β, and ¥-globulins.
These proteins are synthesized in the liver,
whereas ¥-globulins are formed in the cells of
the reticuloendothelial system.
α1-Globulin:
This fraction includes several complex proteins
containing carbohydrates and lipids. Lipoproteins
are soluble complexes that contain non-
covalently bound lipids. These proteins act
mainly as transport carriers for different lipids in
the body.
α2-Globulins: This fraction also contains
complex proteins such as α2-glycoproteins,
plasminogen, prothrombin, haptoglobin,
ceruloplasmin (transports Cu), and α2-
macroglobulin.
β-Globulins:
This fraction of plasma protein contains these
different β-lipoproteins, which are very rich in
lipid content. It also has transferrin
(siderophilin), which transports non-heme iron in
plasma.
γ -Globulins:
These are also called Immunoglobulins and have
antibody activity. Based on their electrophoretic
mobility, they are classified as IgG, IgA, and IgM.
Immunoglobulins are clinically significant
components of globulins.
Two different types of lymphocytes involved with
immunoglobulin formation are “T-cells of Thymus”
and “B-Cells” that originate from “bone marrow.”
Fibrinogen:
It is a fibrous protein with a molecular weight of
340,000. It has six polypeptide chains which are
held together by disulfide linkages. Thrombin
converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which plays a
vital role in the clothing of the blood.
Fibrinogen
Fibrinogen is a complex protein that is involved in the
blood clotting process. It is synthesized by the liver and is
converted to fibrin during the clotting process. Fibrin
helps to form a clot, which is necessary to stop bleeding
after an injury.
In addition to these three main types of plasma proteins,
there are also a number of other proteins that are found in
smaller quantities in the blood plasma, including
lipoproteins, which transport lipids throughout the body,
and enzymes, which catalyze biochemical reactions.
Acute Phase Response
C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and
fibrinogen levels all quickly rise as part of the
acute phase response, which is the body’s initial
reaction to surgical trauma. These proteins aid in
mobilizing the body’s immune response to the
site of damage and are involved in tissue healing
and inflammation.
Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance
Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance
Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance
Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance
Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance
Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance
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Plasma proteins and their functions for Nursing .pptx

  • 1. Plasma Proteins Rajendra Dev Bhatt, PhD Scholar Asst. Professor Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine Fellow: Translational Research in (2018-2022 ) Cardiovascular Diseases in Nepal, NHLBI & NIH, USA
  • 2. Blood plasma contains 8% solids, which has 7% albumin. The different plasma proteins are albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen. Usually, total plasma proteins are 6 to 8 gms / 100 ml of blood. The proteins present in human blood plasma are a mixture of simple proteins, glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and other conjugated proteins called “Plasma Protein”.
  • 3. Plasma proteins are a crucial component of blood that perform many functions in the human body. They are produced in the liver and circulate in the blood, which is vital in maintaining our overall health. Plasma protein is vital in our body. Here are the primary functions. Functions of Plasma Proteins
  • 4. Functions of Plasma Proteins • Protein Nutrition • Osmotic pressure and water balance: The most abundant plasma protein in the blood is albumin, which plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance in the body. Albumin helps to regulate the amount of fluid in the blood vessels, preventing excessive fluid build-up in the tissues. It creates an oncotic pressure, which draws fluid back into the blood vessels. It prevents fluid from accumulating in the tissues, which can lead to edema, a condition where excess fluid builds up in the body.
  • 5. Functions of Plasma Proteins • Albumin is also involved in maintaining blood pressure. It helps to prevent a drop in blood pressure by regulating the amount of fluid in the blood vessels. When there is a decrease in blood volume, albumin draws fluid back into the blood vessels, which helps to maintain blood pressure. • During protein loss from the body, as in kidney diseases, an excessive amount of water moves into the tissues, producing edema.
  • 6. Osmotic pressure is the force that drives the movement of water molecules from a region of low solute concentration to a high solute concentration, while oncotic pressure is the force exerted by proteins in the blood that draws water into the blood vessels.
  • 7. Functions of Plasma Proteins Immune function: Plasma proteins play a crucial role in the immune system. Globulins are the primary type of plasma protein involved in immune function, as they help to fight off infections and diseases. There are three types of globulins – alpha, beta, and gamma – and each has a unique function. Alpha and beta globulins transport and bind various substances in the blood, such as metal ions and lipids. They also play a role in the immune system by recognizing and attacking foreign invaders, such as bacteria and viruses. Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins, are the antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection or disease. They recognize and neutralize foreign invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, helping to prevent the spread of infection.
  • 8. Functions of Plasma Proteins Buffering action: Plasma proteins help maintain the body’s pH by acting as ampholytes. At normal blood pH, they act as acids and accept captions. Transport: One of the essential functions of plasma proteins is to transport lipids and lipid-soluble substances throughout the body. Plasma proteins transport various substances in the blood, including hormones, drugs, and fatty acids.
  • 9. Functions of Plasma Proteins Blood Coagulation: Fibrinogen is a plasma protein that plays a crucial role in blood clotting. When an injury or trauma occurs, fibrinogen is converted to fibrin, which forms a clot to stop bleeding. This process is essential for preventing excessive bleeding and promoting wound healing.
  • 10. Types of Plasma Proteins The three significant plasma protein fractions are albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen. • Albumin –55.2% • α1-Globulin –5.3% (α1-Antitrypsin, Thyroxin binding Globulin(TBG), Transcortin, etc.) • α2-Globulin –8.6% (Haptoglobulin, ceruloplasmin, α2-macroglobulin, etc.) • β-Globulin –13.4% (β1-transferrin, β-lipoprotein, etc) • γ -Globulin –11.0% (Antibodies, etc.) • Fibrinogen –6.5%
  • 11. Albumin It is the most abundant class of plasma protein (2.8 to 4.5 gm/100 ml) with the highest electrophoretic mobility. It is soluble in water and is precipitated by fully saturated ammonium sulfate. Albumin is synthesized in the liver and consists of a single polypeptide chain of 610 amino acids with a molecular weight of 69,000.
  • 12. Globulins By electrophoresis, plasma globulins are separated into α1, α2, β, and ¥-globulins. These proteins are synthesized in the liver, whereas ¥-globulins are formed in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system.
  • 13. α1-Globulin: This fraction includes several complex proteins containing carbohydrates and lipids. Lipoproteins are soluble complexes that contain non- covalently bound lipids. These proteins act mainly as transport carriers for different lipids in the body. α2-Globulins: This fraction also contains complex proteins such as α2-glycoproteins, plasminogen, prothrombin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin (transports Cu), and α2- macroglobulin.
  • 14. β-Globulins: This fraction of plasma protein contains these different β-lipoproteins, which are very rich in lipid content. It also has transferrin (siderophilin), which transports non-heme iron in plasma.
  • 15. γ -Globulins: These are also called Immunoglobulins and have antibody activity. Based on their electrophoretic mobility, they are classified as IgG, IgA, and IgM. Immunoglobulins are clinically significant components of globulins. Two different types of lymphocytes involved with immunoglobulin formation are “T-cells of Thymus” and “B-Cells” that originate from “bone marrow.”
  • 16. Fibrinogen: It is a fibrous protein with a molecular weight of 340,000. It has six polypeptide chains which are held together by disulfide linkages. Thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which plays a vital role in the clothing of the blood.
  • 17. Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a complex protein that is involved in the blood clotting process. It is synthesized by the liver and is converted to fibrin during the clotting process. Fibrin helps to form a clot, which is necessary to stop bleeding after an injury. In addition to these three main types of plasma proteins, there are also a number of other proteins that are found in smaller quantities in the blood plasma, including lipoproteins, which transport lipids throughout the body, and enzymes, which catalyze biochemical reactions.
  • 18. Acute Phase Response C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and fibrinogen levels all quickly rise as part of the acute phase response, which is the body’s initial reaction to surgical trauma. These proteins aid in mobilizing the body’s immune response to the site of damage and are involved in tissue healing and inflammation.
  • 19. Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance
  • 20. Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance
  • 21. Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance
  • 22. Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance
  • 23. Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance
  • 24. Plasma Proteins and Clinical Significance