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Plant Breedi
Plant Breedi
(Selection T
(
P f A
Prof. A.
Departmen
Utkal University, Bhu
Utkal University, Bhu
E-mail: abdas.uu
ing Methods
ing Methods
Techniques)
q )
B D
B. Das
nt of Botany
ubaneswar 751004,
ubaneswar 751004,
ubot@gmail.com
Defin
Plant Breeding is the s
raits of plants in order to
raits of plants in order to
haracteristics.
Pl t B di i
Plant Breeding is a me
genetic pattern of plants
nd utility for human wel
Its aims to improve the
p
f plants so that they bec
gronomically and econo
gronomically and econo
nition
science of changing the
o produce desired
o produce desired
th d f lt i th
ethod of altering the
to increase their value
lfare.
e various characteristic
come more desirable
omically
omically.
Definit
 Plant Breeding as Scienc
and heredity scientists ar
and heredity, scientists ar
traits to more consistentl
characteristics
characteristics.
 Plant Breeding as Art – B
observational skills, expe
observational skills, expe
judgment to see plant diff
 Plant Breeding as Busine
 Plant Breeding as Busine
important characteristics
environment, while also e
environment, while also e
safe and nutritious food s
tion Cont..
e – By understanding gene
re able to select appropriat
re able to select appropriat
y express desired
reeders use their
erience, intuition and
erience, intuition and
ferences.
ess – Consistency of those
ess Consistency of those
can positively impact the
ensuring the availability of
ensuring the availability of
supply.
History of Pla
 In abroad sense history o
divided into 4 parts
y
divided into 4 parts
 Pre mendelian era: before
 Pre mendelian era: before
 Mendelian era :1900 to 19
 Mendelian era :1900 to 19
 Post mendelian era:1921
 Post mendelian era:1921
 Modern era:after 1950.
 Modern era:after 1950.
ant Breeding
of plant breeding can be
g
e 1900
e 1900.
920.
920.
to 1950.
to 1950.
Pre Mend
The process of bringing a wild species u
DOMESTICATION.
9000 B.C: First evidence of plant domest
700 B.C: Babylonians and Assyrians han
y y
1694:Camerarius of Germany first to dem
crossing as a method to obtain new plan
1717:Thomas Fairchild: Developed first i
carnation species of dianthus popularly
1766:Joseph Koelrueter of germany dem
from both parents and were intermediate
scientific hybrid using tobacco
scientific hybrid using tobacco.
delian Era
under human management is referred to as
tication in the hills above the Tigris river.
nd pollinate date palm artificially.
p p y
monstrate sex in plants and suggested
nt types.
inter specific hybrid between sweet william
known as Fair Childs Mule.
monstrated that hybrid offspring received t
e in most traits observed and produced firs
Post Mend
1923:Sex: linkage between quantitative a
1926: East,E.M and Mangelsdorf,A.J: Firs
1926: East,E.M and Mangelsdorf,A.J: Firs
incompatibility in Nicotiana sanderae.
1926:Vavilov,N.I: Identified 8 main center
,
developed concept of parallel series of v
parallel series of variation or law of hom
1927:Muller mutations in fruit flies using
1927:Karpencheko developed first interg
R i
Russia.
1928:Stadler,L.J (US):First used X-rays fo
delian Era
and qualitative traits in beans.
st discovered gametophytic system of self
st discovered gametophytic system of self
rs and 3 sub centers of crop diversity. He a
p y
variation or law of homologous concept of
ologous series of variation.
X-rays.
generic hybrid between Radish and Cabba
or induction of mutations in barley.
Moder
1952-Jensen,N.F: First suggested the us
1953- Watson,Crick,and Wilkins propose
1953 Watson,Crick,and Wilkins propose
1965-Graphius, J.E: First applied Single
1994-FlaveSavr tomato developed as firs
market by calgene company of California
1995-Bt corn developed.
2005-Government of India: Approved cul
P j b H d R j th
Punjab,Haryana and Rajasthan.
rn Era
se of multi lines in oats.
ed a model for Double Helical Structure of
ed a model for Double Helical Structure of
Seed Descent (SSD) method in oats.
st genetically modified food produced for t
a.
ltivation of some Bt cotton hybrids in
ant Breeding after Instit
1871-The government of India created the
1905-The imperial Agriculture research ins
1956-Project for intensification of regiona
millets(PIRRCOM) was initiated to intensif
different centres throughout the country
different centres throughout the country.
1960-First Agricultural University establis
1961-The first hybrid maize varieties relea
coordinated projects for improvement of t
1964-First sorghum hybrid (CSH-1) was re
1965-First bajra hybrid (HB-1) was release
1991-First pigeon pea hybrid (ICPH-8) was
utional Development In
e department of Agriculture.
stitute was established in Pusa,Bihar.
l research on cotton, oilseeds and
fy research on these crops located at 17
hed at Pantnagar, Nainital,U.P.
ased by the project. ICAR initiated
the other crops.
eleased.
ed.
s released from ICRISAT.
Objec
Higher Yields
Improved Quality
Disease and Insect Resistance
Disease and Insect Resistance
Change in Maturity Duration
Agronomic Characteristics
Agronomic Characteristics
Photo and thermo Insensitivit
Synchronous Maturity
y y
Nonshattering Characteristics
Determinate Growth
D
Dormancy
Varities for New Seasons
Moisture Stress and Salt Toler
Moisture Stress and Salt Toler
Elimination of Toxic Substanc
ctives
e
e
y
s
rances
rances
ces
Activ
Creation of Genetic Variation
Selection
Evaluation
Multiplication
Distribution
Distribution
vities
onventional and Non Co
Plant Br
Self Pollinated Crops-In self-p
reproduction only of those pla
Plant Br
reproduction only of those pla
characteristics, i.e., the plants
Cross Pollinated Crops-Popul
are highly heterozygous as we
g y yg
variable inbreeding depressio
severe. So,breeding methods
i i i i i d t
or minimising in order to esca
onventional Methods of
eeding
pollinated crops,selection perm
ants that have the desirable
eeding
ants that have the desirable
s that have been selected.
lations of cross-pollinated cro
ell as heterogenous.They show
g y
on,ranging from low to very
for these crops aim at avoidin
it d i bl ff t
ape its undesirable effects.
Self Pollina
Mass Selection
Pureline Selection
Pedigree Selection
Bulk method
B k th d
Backcross method
ated Crops
Mass Selecti
In mass
selection, a large
f
number of plants
of similar
phenotype are
phenotype are
selected and
their seeds are
their seeds are
mixed together
to constitute the
new variety…
ion method
Advantages of M
It can be practiced both in self
The varieties developed throug
widely adopted than pure lines
It retains considerable variabil
improvement is possible in fut
improvement is possible in fut
Disadvantages of
Varieties are not uniform.
Since no progeny test is done,
p g y ,
plant is not known.
Mass Selection
f and cross pollinated crops.
gh mass selection are more
s.
lity and hence further
ture by selection
ture by selection.
f Mass Selection
, the genotype of the selected
, g yp
Pure line S
A pure line is the progeny o
homozygous self pollinated
homozygous,self pollinated
n this method a large num
n this method a large num
selected from self pollinate
ndividually individual plan
ndividually, individual plan
are evaluated and best prog
pureline variety
pureline variety.
Selection
of a single,
d plant
d plant.
ber of plants are
ber of plants are
ed crops and harvested
nt progenies from them
nt progenies from them
geny is released as
Advantages of Pu
The pure lines are extremely u
the variety will have the same
f
Attractive and liked by the farm
Pure lines are stable and long
Disadvantages of P
New genotypes are not created
This method is applicable to se
pp
re line Selection
uniform since all the plants in
genotype.
mers and consumers.
test for many years.
Pure line Selection
d by pure line selection.
ell pollinated crop only.
p p y
Pedigree
The pedigree may be defined
ancestors of an individual and
some distant ancestors or an
In pedigree method, individua
d th b t ti
and the subsequent generatio
tested.
Pedigree Record;
Pedigree Record;
During the entire operation
offspring relationship is ke
p g p
record.
It should be simple and accur
Method
as a description of the
d it generally goes back to
cestors in past.
al plants are selected from F2
d th i i
ons, and their progenies are
n, a record of all the parent
ept: this is known as pedigree
p p g
rate.
Pedigree Method
Pedigree M
Method Conti..
Pedigree M
Method Conti..
Advantages of Pe
Provide maximum opportunity
skills and judgement for the s
in the early segregating genera
Take less time then Bulk Metho
Disadvantages of P
Maintenance of accurate pedig
Success of this method largely
g y
breeder.
edigree Method
y for the breeder to use his
selection of plants, particularly
ations.
od.
Pedigree Method
gree records take time.
y depends upon the skill of
y p p
Bulk Me
In this, F2 and the subsequen
mass or as bulk to raise the n
At the end individual plants a
i il i di
similar manner as in pedigree
ethod
nt generations are harvested in
next generation.
re selected and evaluated in a
th d
e method.
Bulk Met
thod Conti..
Bulk Met
thod Conti..
Advantages of
This method is simple, conven
eliminates undesirable types a
f
desirable types by artificial sel
Disadvantages o
It takes much longer to develo
It is suitable for self pollinated
p
Natural selection may also wo
f Bulk Method
nient and inexpensive. It
and increases the frequency of
lection.
of Bulk Method
ops a new variety.
d crops only.
p y
rk against desirable traits.
Back cross
In back cross ,the hybrid and
subsequent generations are r
of the parents of F1.
Th i bj ti f thi
The aim objective of this cros
specific defects of high yieldi
adapted to area and has othe
adapted to area and has othe
s Method
the progenies in the
repeatedly backcrossed to one
i t i t
ss is to improve one or two
ng variety, which is well
r desirable characteristics
r desirable characteristics.
Back cross M
Method Conti..
Back cross M
Method Conti..
Advantages of Bac
It is not necessary to test the v
method because the performa
already known.
It does not require record keep
It is not affected by environme
It is not affected by environme
Disadvantages of B
Undesirable genes may also b
Hybridization has to be done f
y
required is more.
New variety cannot be superio
for the character transfer from
ck cross Method
variety developed by this
nce of recurrent parent is
ping.
ental conditions
ental conditions.
ack cross Method
e transferred to the new variet
or each backcross so time
or to the recurrent parent excep
m donor to parents.
Cross Pollin
Intra-population Improvement
Mass Selection
M difi d M S l ti
Modified Mass Selection
Recurrent selection
Recurrent selection
Reciprocal recurrent Selectio
p
Hybrid and synthetic varieties
ated Crops
t
n
s
Mass Se
Selection of Individual.
Sampling seed of selected ind
generation.
Old t th d f i
Oldest method of crop improv
Improvement of heterogenous
Improvement of heterogenous
landraces.
election
dividuals to plant next
t
vement.
s native populations or
s native populations or
Mass Sele
Same form as with self pollina
Essentially a form of materna
control.
Selected desirable plants
B lk d
Bulk seed
Repeat cycle
With strict selection breeder w
With strict selection breeder w
Slow genetic gain since lack p
Must be able to ID superior ph
p p
Not suitable for quantitative tr
ction Conti..
ated crops.
al selection since no pollination
will reduce populations size
will reduce populations size
pollination control.
henotypes.
yp
raits.
Mass Sele
Higher percentage of desirab
genotypes.
Method can only be used in
environments where trait is
d t b it bl
expressed may not be suitabl
for off season winter nurserie
Effectiveness is function of
Effectiveness is function of
heritability.
Manage field to enhance
g
differences: eg. Irrigate
excessively to increase disea
pressure.
ction Conti..
le
l
le
es.
ase
Achievements in
Early varieties of bajra babap
Toria – increase the yielding a
Abohar.
Rai – many early ,erect to sem
Y ll R i T 42 T 16
Yellow Rai – T-42,T-16.
Brown Rai- 17 dwarf, 17 medi
Maize- T-41 19 jaunpuri
Maize- T-41,19,jaunpuri.
Desi cotton- C-402,C-520.
American cotton-100F,216F.
,
Castor-B-1,B-4.
Mass Selection
uri, Jamnagar giant, pusa mot
ability by 30% and oil 56% in
mi erect types developed, type
um, DS-1,DS-2.
Modified Mas
Also known as stratified mass
mass selection.
This modification is suggeste
Field is divided into several s
plants each
plants each.
Selection is done within the p
p
Seeds are selected and comp
ti
generation.
ss Selection
s selection or grid method of
ed by GARDNER in 1961.
mall plots, eg., having 40-50
plots and not among the plots.
p g p
posite to raise the next
Recurrent S
Designed to increase the freq
population.
Developed in the 1940s for de
First suggested by Hayes and
independently by East and Jo
independently by East and Jo
Selection
q. of desirable genes within a
eveloping inbred lines.
d Garber in 1919 and
ones in 1920
ones in 1920.
Recurrent S
The schemes are divided into
Simple recurrent selection
R t l ti f GCA
Recurrent selection for GCA.
Recurrent selection for SCA
Recurrent selection for SCA.
Reciprocal recurrent selection
p
Selection
o following four types:-
n.
Simple Recurre
ent Selection
Recurrent Selection
n of SCA and GCA
Reciprocal Recu
Proposed by Comstock, Robi
select for both general and sp
General combining ability (GC
t i t bi f bl
strain to combine favorably w
lines.
Analogous to ADDITIVE gene
Analogous to ADDITIVE gene
Specific combining ability (SC
p g y (
combine favorably with one o
A l t DOMINANT
Analogous to DOMINANT gen
urrent Selection
nson, and Harvey (1949) to
pecific combining ability.
CA) is the ability of a breeding
ith th t i i b
with many other strains or inbre
action
action.
CA) is the ability of a genotype
) y g yp
or a few other genotypes.
ti
ne action.
Reciprocal Recu
Although recurrent and recipr
were originally designed and
developing superior inbreds o
used explicitly in private indu
Most new inbreds in SORGHU
PEDIGREE or pedigree type p
PEDIGREE or pedigree type p
DOUBLED HAPLOIDS proced
about 2000.
urrent Selection
rocal recurrent selection meth
used to improve the chances
of corn, these procedures are
ustry for that purpose today.
UM are developed through
procedures and in CORN
procedures and in CORN
dure have become popular sinc
Hybrid Pro
Producing of heterozygous po
homozygous lines.
Mostly used for cross-pollina
The hybrid seed must be repr
The word HYBRID denotes a p
by crossing inbreed lines,clon
y g ,
any population that are genet
oduction
opulations from the crossing o
ted crops.
roduced each year.
population of F1 plants derive
nes,open-pollinated varieties o
, p p
tically dissimilar.
Hybrid Produc
Produce inbreed lines.
Cross the inbreed lines.
Si l h b id
Single cross hybrid.
Harvest the female rows
Harvest the female rows
because they have the hybrid
seed.
• Double cross hybrid.
• Three way cross hybrid.
ction (Steps)
d
Hybrid Production
First hybrid varieties in maize
Ganga-1,Ganga-101, Ranjit a
First hybrid bajra was develop
Ludhiana in 1965 as HB-1. Su
Subsequently, B -3 and HB-5 w
released.
Bajra-PHB-10,PHB-11,BJ-104
n (Achievements)
e were released in 1961, viz.,
nd Deccan.
ped by PAU.
bsequently,HB -3 and HB-1.
were
and BK-560.
Synthetic
Steps involved in the product
Step -1 Evaluation of lines for
T l t t f
Topcross or polycross test fo
selected as parents.
Step -2 Production of the synt
Method 1. Equal seed from all
in isolation.
O lli t d d h t
Open-pollinated seed harvest
variety(syn1)
Varieties
tion of synthetic varieties:-
r GCA
GCA t t di li
or GCA; outstanding lines
thetic
l the lines mixed and planted
t d th th ti
ted as the synthetic
Synthetic
Method 2. The parental lines a
block. All the possible intercr
Equal seed from all the cross
th ti i t ( 1)
ynthetic variety(syn1).
Step-3 seed multiplication
Step-3 seed multiplication
Seed of the synthetic variety
y y
two generations before distrib
O lli ti i i l ti (
Open pollination in isolation(s
Varieties
are planted in a crossing
rosses are made.
es mixed to produced the
may be multiplied for one or
y p
bution.
2 3)
syn2 or syn3).
HETEROSIS
The increased growth vigour
parents is known as Heterosis
It is often called heterobeltios
Crop breeding to manifest het
breeding
breeding.
It brings out the Superiority in
g p y
tends to decrease from F2 ge
BREEDING
or yield of hybrids over the
s or Hybrid vigour .
sis.
terosis is called Heterosis
n F1 individuals but the vigour
g
neration onwards.
HETEROSIS
Heterosis means deviation of
character of parents.
In, plants heterosis appears d
ti l ti i d d b th U
stimulation induced by the Un
two genetically complementin
BREEDING
f offspring from the actual
due to development
i f t i f
nion of gametes coming from
ng parents.
HETEROSIS
Heterosis means deviation of
character of parents.
In, plants heterosis appears d
ti l ti i d d b th U
stimulation induced by the Un
two genetically complementin
BREEDING
f offspring from the actual
due to development
i f t i f
nion of gametes coming from
ng parents.
Undesirable Co
Genetic erosion.
Narrow Genetic Base.
I d S tibilit t Mi
Increased Susceptibility to Mi
Yield Platear
Yield Platear.
onsequences
i di
inor disease.
Thank You !!!!

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Plant Breeding.pdf

  • 1. Plant Breedi Plant Breedi (Selection T ( P f A Prof. A. Departmen Utkal University, Bhu Utkal University, Bhu E-mail: abdas.uu ing Methods ing Methods Techniques) q ) B D B. Das nt of Botany ubaneswar 751004, ubaneswar 751004, ubot@gmail.com
  • 2. Defin Plant Breeding is the s raits of plants in order to raits of plants in order to haracteristics. Pl t B di i Plant Breeding is a me genetic pattern of plants nd utility for human wel Its aims to improve the p f plants so that they bec gronomically and econo gronomically and econo nition science of changing the o produce desired o produce desired th d f lt i th ethod of altering the to increase their value lfare. e various characteristic come more desirable omically omically.
  • 3. Definit  Plant Breeding as Scienc and heredity scientists ar and heredity, scientists ar traits to more consistentl characteristics characteristics.  Plant Breeding as Art – B observational skills, expe observational skills, expe judgment to see plant diff  Plant Breeding as Busine  Plant Breeding as Busine important characteristics environment, while also e environment, while also e safe and nutritious food s tion Cont.. e – By understanding gene re able to select appropriat re able to select appropriat y express desired reeders use their erience, intuition and erience, intuition and ferences. ess – Consistency of those ess Consistency of those can positively impact the ensuring the availability of ensuring the availability of supply.
  • 4. History of Pla  In abroad sense history o divided into 4 parts y divided into 4 parts  Pre mendelian era: before  Pre mendelian era: before  Mendelian era :1900 to 19  Mendelian era :1900 to 19  Post mendelian era:1921  Post mendelian era:1921  Modern era:after 1950.  Modern era:after 1950. ant Breeding of plant breeding can be g e 1900 e 1900. 920. 920. to 1950. to 1950.
  • 5. Pre Mend The process of bringing a wild species u DOMESTICATION. 9000 B.C: First evidence of plant domest 700 B.C: Babylonians and Assyrians han y y 1694:Camerarius of Germany first to dem crossing as a method to obtain new plan 1717:Thomas Fairchild: Developed first i carnation species of dianthus popularly 1766:Joseph Koelrueter of germany dem from both parents and were intermediate scientific hybrid using tobacco scientific hybrid using tobacco. delian Era under human management is referred to as tication in the hills above the Tigris river. nd pollinate date palm artificially. p p y monstrate sex in plants and suggested nt types. inter specific hybrid between sweet william known as Fair Childs Mule. monstrated that hybrid offspring received t e in most traits observed and produced firs
  • 6. Post Mend 1923:Sex: linkage between quantitative a 1926: East,E.M and Mangelsdorf,A.J: Firs 1926: East,E.M and Mangelsdorf,A.J: Firs incompatibility in Nicotiana sanderae. 1926:Vavilov,N.I: Identified 8 main center , developed concept of parallel series of v parallel series of variation or law of hom 1927:Muller mutations in fruit flies using 1927:Karpencheko developed first interg R i Russia. 1928:Stadler,L.J (US):First used X-rays fo delian Era and qualitative traits in beans. st discovered gametophytic system of self st discovered gametophytic system of self rs and 3 sub centers of crop diversity. He a p y variation or law of homologous concept of ologous series of variation. X-rays. generic hybrid between Radish and Cabba or induction of mutations in barley.
  • 7. Moder 1952-Jensen,N.F: First suggested the us 1953- Watson,Crick,and Wilkins propose 1953 Watson,Crick,and Wilkins propose 1965-Graphius, J.E: First applied Single 1994-FlaveSavr tomato developed as firs market by calgene company of California 1995-Bt corn developed. 2005-Government of India: Approved cul P j b H d R j th Punjab,Haryana and Rajasthan. rn Era se of multi lines in oats. ed a model for Double Helical Structure of ed a model for Double Helical Structure of Seed Descent (SSD) method in oats. st genetically modified food produced for t a. ltivation of some Bt cotton hybrids in
  • 8. ant Breeding after Instit 1871-The government of India created the 1905-The imperial Agriculture research ins 1956-Project for intensification of regiona millets(PIRRCOM) was initiated to intensif different centres throughout the country different centres throughout the country. 1960-First Agricultural University establis 1961-The first hybrid maize varieties relea coordinated projects for improvement of t 1964-First sorghum hybrid (CSH-1) was re 1965-First bajra hybrid (HB-1) was release 1991-First pigeon pea hybrid (ICPH-8) was utional Development In e department of Agriculture. stitute was established in Pusa,Bihar. l research on cotton, oilseeds and fy research on these crops located at 17 hed at Pantnagar, Nainital,U.P. ased by the project. ICAR initiated the other crops. eleased. ed. s released from ICRISAT.
  • 9. Objec Higher Yields Improved Quality Disease and Insect Resistance Disease and Insect Resistance Change in Maturity Duration Agronomic Characteristics Agronomic Characteristics Photo and thermo Insensitivit Synchronous Maturity y y Nonshattering Characteristics Determinate Growth D Dormancy Varities for New Seasons Moisture Stress and Salt Toler Moisture Stress and Salt Toler Elimination of Toxic Substanc ctives e e y s rances rances ces
  • 10. Activ Creation of Genetic Variation Selection Evaluation Multiplication Distribution Distribution vities
  • 11. onventional and Non Co Plant Br Self Pollinated Crops-In self-p reproduction only of those pla Plant Br reproduction only of those pla characteristics, i.e., the plants Cross Pollinated Crops-Popul are highly heterozygous as we g y yg variable inbreeding depressio severe. So,breeding methods i i i i i d t or minimising in order to esca onventional Methods of eeding pollinated crops,selection perm ants that have the desirable eeding ants that have the desirable s that have been selected. lations of cross-pollinated cro ell as heterogenous.They show g y on,ranging from low to very for these crops aim at avoidin it d i bl ff t ape its undesirable effects.
  • 12. Self Pollina Mass Selection Pureline Selection Pedigree Selection Bulk method B k th d Backcross method ated Crops
  • 13. Mass Selecti In mass selection, a large f number of plants of similar phenotype are phenotype are selected and their seeds are their seeds are mixed together to constitute the new variety… ion method
  • 14. Advantages of M It can be practiced both in self The varieties developed throug widely adopted than pure lines It retains considerable variabil improvement is possible in fut improvement is possible in fut Disadvantages of Varieties are not uniform. Since no progeny test is done, p g y , plant is not known. Mass Selection f and cross pollinated crops. gh mass selection are more s. lity and hence further ture by selection ture by selection. f Mass Selection , the genotype of the selected , g yp
  • 15. Pure line S A pure line is the progeny o homozygous self pollinated homozygous,self pollinated n this method a large num n this method a large num selected from self pollinate ndividually individual plan ndividually, individual plan are evaluated and best prog pureline variety pureline variety. Selection of a single, d plant d plant. ber of plants are ber of plants are ed crops and harvested nt progenies from them nt progenies from them geny is released as
  • 16. Advantages of Pu The pure lines are extremely u the variety will have the same f Attractive and liked by the farm Pure lines are stable and long Disadvantages of P New genotypes are not created This method is applicable to se pp re line Selection uniform since all the plants in genotype. mers and consumers. test for many years. Pure line Selection d by pure line selection. ell pollinated crop only. p p y
  • 17. Pedigree The pedigree may be defined ancestors of an individual and some distant ancestors or an In pedigree method, individua d th b t ti and the subsequent generatio tested. Pedigree Record; Pedigree Record; During the entire operation offspring relationship is ke p g p record. It should be simple and accur Method as a description of the d it generally goes back to cestors in past. al plants are selected from F2 d th i i ons, and their progenies are n, a record of all the parent ept: this is known as pedigree p p g rate.
  • 21. Advantages of Pe Provide maximum opportunity skills and judgement for the s in the early segregating genera Take less time then Bulk Metho Disadvantages of P Maintenance of accurate pedig Success of this method largely g y breeder. edigree Method y for the breeder to use his selection of plants, particularly ations. od. Pedigree Method gree records take time. y depends upon the skill of y p p
  • 22. Bulk Me In this, F2 and the subsequen mass or as bulk to raise the n At the end individual plants a i il i di similar manner as in pedigree ethod nt generations are harvested in next generation. re selected and evaluated in a th d e method.
  • 25. Advantages of This method is simple, conven eliminates undesirable types a f desirable types by artificial sel Disadvantages o It takes much longer to develo It is suitable for self pollinated p Natural selection may also wo f Bulk Method nient and inexpensive. It and increases the frequency of lection. of Bulk Method ops a new variety. d crops only. p y rk against desirable traits.
  • 26. Back cross In back cross ,the hybrid and subsequent generations are r of the parents of F1. Th i bj ti f thi The aim objective of this cros specific defects of high yieldi adapted to area and has othe adapted to area and has othe s Method the progenies in the repeatedly backcrossed to one i t i t ss is to improve one or two ng variety, which is well r desirable characteristics r desirable characteristics.
  • 29. Advantages of Bac It is not necessary to test the v method because the performa already known. It does not require record keep It is not affected by environme It is not affected by environme Disadvantages of B Undesirable genes may also b Hybridization has to be done f y required is more. New variety cannot be superio for the character transfer from ck cross Method variety developed by this nce of recurrent parent is ping. ental conditions ental conditions. ack cross Method e transferred to the new variet or each backcross so time or to the recurrent parent excep m donor to parents.
  • 30. Cross Pollin Intra-population Improvement Mass Selection M difi d M S l ti Modified Mass Selection Recurrent selection Recurrent selection Reciprocal recurrent Selectio p Hybrid and synthetic varieties ated Crops t n s
  • 31. Mass Se Selection of Individual. Sampling seed of selected ind generation. Old t th d f i Oldest method of crop improv Improvement of heterogenous Improvement of heterogenous landraces. election dividuals to plant next t vement. s native populations or s native populations or
  • 32. Mass Sele Same form as with self pollina Essentially a form of materna control. Selected desirable plants B lk d Bulk seed Repeat cycle With strict selection breeder w With strict selection breeder w Slow genetic gain since lack p Must be able to ID superior ph p p Not suitable for quantitative tr ction Conti.. ated crops. al selection since no pollination will reduce populations size will reduce populations size pollination control. henotypes. yp raits.
  • 33. Mass Sele Higher percentage of desirab genotypes. Method can only be used in environments where trait is d t b it bl expressed may not be suitabl for off season winter nurserie Effectiveness is function of Effectiveness is function of heritability. Manage field to enhance g differences: eg. Irrigate excessively to increase disea pressure. ction Conti.. le l le es. ase
  • 34. Achievements in Early varieties of bajra babap Toria – increase the yielding a Abohar. Rai – many early ,erect to sem Y ll R i T 42 T 16 Yellow Rai – T-42,T-16. Brown Rai- 17 dwarf, 17 medi Maize- T-41 19 jaunpuri Maize- T-41,19,jaunpuri. Desi cotton- C-402,C-520. American cotton-100F,216F. , Castor-B-1,B-4. Mass Selection uri, Jamnagar giant, pusa mot ability by 30% and oil 56% in mi erect types developed, type um, DS-1,DS-2.
  • 35. Modified Mas Also known as stratified mass mass selection. This modification is suggeste Field is divided into several s plants each plants each. Selection is done within the p p Seeds are selected and comp ti generation. ss Selection s selection or grid method of ed by GARDNER in 1961. mall plots, eg., having 40-50 plots and not among the plots. p g p posite to raise the next
  • 36. Recurrent S Designed to increase the freq population. Developed in the 1940s for de First suggested by Hayes and independently by East and Jo independently by East and Jo Selection q. of desirable genes within a eveloping inbred lines. d Garber in 1919 and ones in 1920 ones in 1920.
  • 37. Recurrent S The schemes are divided into Simple recurrent selection R t l ti f GCA Recurrent selection for GCA. Recurrent selection for SCA Recurrent selection for SCA. Reciprocal recurrent selection p Selection o following four types:- n.
  • 40. Reciprocal Recu Proposed by Comstock, Robi select for both general and sp General combining ability (GC t i t bi f bl strain to combine favorably w lines. Analogous to ADDITIVE gene Analogous to ADDITIVE gene Specific combining ability (SC p g y ( combine favorably with one o A l t DOMINANT Analogous to DOMINANT gen urrent Selection nson, and Harvey (1949) to pecific combining ability. CA) is the ability of a breeding ith th t i i b with many other strains or inbre action action. CA) is the ability of a genotype ) y g yp or a few other genotypes. ti ne action.
  • 41. Reciprocal Recu Although recurrent and recipr were originally designed and developing superior inbreds o used explicitly in private indu Most new inbreds in SORGHU PEDIGREE or pedigree type p PEDIGREE or pedigree type p DOUBLED HAPLOIDS proced about 2000. urrent Selection rocal recurrent selection meth used to improve the chances of corn, these procedures are ustry for that purpose today. UM are developed through procedures and in CORN procedures and in CORN dure have become popular sinc
  • 42. Hybrid Pro Producing of heterozygous po homozygous lines. Mostly used for cross-pollina The hybrid seed must be repr The word HYBRID denotes a p by crossing inbreed lines,clon y g , any population that are genet oduction opulations from the crossing o ted crops. roduced each year. population of F1 plants derive nes,open-pollinated varieties o , p p tically dissimilar.
  • 43. Hybrid Produc Produce inbreed lines. Cross the inbreed lines. Si l h b id Single cross hybrid. Harvest the female rows Harvest the female rows because they have the hybrid seed. • Double cross hybrid. • Three way cross hybrid. ction (Steps) d
  • 44. Hybrid Production First hybrid varieties in maize Ganga-1,Ganga-101, Ranjit a First hybrid bajra was develop Ludhiana in 1965 as HB-1. Su Subsequently, B -3 and HB-5 w released. Bajra-PHB-10,PHB-11,BJ-104 n (Achievements) e were released in 1961, viz., nd Deccan. ped by PAU. bsequently,HB -3 and HB-1. were and BK-560.
  • 45. Synthetic Steps involved in the product Step -1 Evaluation of lines for T l t t f Topcross or polycross test fo selected as parents. Step -2 Production of the synt Method 1. Equal seed from all in isolation. O lli t d d h t Open-pollinated seed harvest variety(syn1) Varieties tion of synthetic varieties:- r GCA GCA t t di li or GCA; outstanding lines thetic l the lines mixed and planted t d th th ti ted as the synthetic
  • 46. Synthetic Method 2. The parental lines a block. All the possible intercr Equal seed from all the cross th ti i t ( 1) ynthetic variety(syn1). Step-3 seed multiplication Step-3 seed multiplication Seed of the synthetic variety y y two generations before distrib O lli ti i i l ti ( Open pollination in isolation(s Varieties are planted in a crossing rosses are made. es mixed to produced the may be multiplied for one or y p bution. 2 3) syn2 or syn3).
  • 47. HETEROSIS The increased growth vigour parents is known as Heterosis It is often called heterobeltios Crop breeding to manifest het breeding breeding. It brings out the Superiority in g p y tends to decrease from F2 ge BREEDING or yield of hybrids over the s or Hybrid vigour . sis. terosis is called Heterosis n F1 individuals but the vigour g neration onwards.
  • 48. HETEROSIS Heterosis means deviation of character of parents. In, plants heterosis appears d ti l ti i d d b th U stimulation induced by the Un two genetically complementin BREEDING f offspring from the actual due to development i f t i f nion of gametes coming from ng parents.
  • 49. HETEROSIS Heterosis means deviation of character of parents. In, plants heterosis appears d ti l ti i d d b th U stimulation induced by the Un two genetically complementin BREEDING f offspring from the actual due to development i f t i f nion of gametes coming from ng parents.
  • 50. Undesirable Co Genetic erosion. Narrow Genetic Base. I d S tibilit t Mi Increased Susceptibility to Mi Yield Platear Yield Platear. onsequences i di inor disease.