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DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Department of studies in Mechanical Engineering

“DEFECT IDENTIFICATION IN PIPE
LINES USING PIPE INSPECTION
ROBOT”
ARJUNKUMAR.M.BETAGERI
1st sem
COMPUTER INTERGATED MANUFACTURING
Engineering
INTRODUCTION
Many accidents have happened owing to the crack
and the corrosion of pipelines. We will have severe
damages if fluid leaks from the pipeline and explodes.
It is very difficult to inspect the pipelines because
they are buried under the ground. Therefore, we are
hoping a method of inspection method with a simple
four bar mechanism from the inside of the pipelines
without digging the ground. So we proposed a new
design in inspecting pipelines.
OBJECTIVES
The main objectives are as follows
• To fabricate a pipe inspection robot.
• To design CAD models using Pro ENGINEER.
•To simulate the assembled CAD models using Pro
animation
• To determine the amount of voltage and current
required for the motor.
METHODOLOGY
 Design

and development of pipe inspection robot
using CAD software.
 Fabrication of CAD models by means of
manufacturing equipments.
 Assembling all the fabricated parts.
 Fixing a camera, motors, LEDs and mounting the
circuit board onto the crawler.
 Making it to crawl inside a pipe by means of a
remote to capture the video image in a monitor.
EXPERIMENTS
To

design a robot with constrained motion in
CAD modeling.

 To

determine the torque required for the motor
to make the crawler move.

 To

determine the actual weight of the robot with
the available actuator.

 To

determine the supply voltage for the motor.
To design a robot with constrained motion
in CAD modeling.
 This

experiment plays a vital role to make the
translational element sliding along the central frame
without stoppage in between. When the translational
element slides, the robot diameter should be varied in
order to attain the purpose of fabricating it. Certain
considerations should be made if the crawler tends to
get locked because of the linkages. These
considerations could be given as an input in CAD
modeling. In this way, I found the reason to use a
compression spring for the return motion and also for
the proper traction between the wheels and the pipe.
To determine the torque required for the
motor to make the crawler move.
 The

total weight of the crawler should be defined. It
might help us in determining the torque required by the
motors.
 The total weight W of the robot is the sum of the six
traction forces exerted on the wheel. Thus, each
traction force Frx is one six of the whole weight of the
robot structure. Thus, the size of the actuator enclosed
in the wheel is calculated by

t= Fs*R/6


Where Fs is the spring force in N
R is the radius of the wheel,
t is the torque required /wheel
Since only three motors could be used at the rear end,
To determine the actual weight of the
robot with the available actuator.
 The

supply required for the 3 individual motors will be
12V. This 280:1 gear motor spins at 60RPM at 12V,
drawing 70mA at stall generating 43 in.oz(0.3036 Nm)
torque (free running at 57.6mA).
Torque= Force * Radius
Force= Torque/Radius= 0.3036/0.0225= 13.49N=
1.375kg

From the calculation, it is clearly known that an
individual motor will drive the robot having 1.375 kg.
Perhaps 3 motors could be used for the crawling, so
that total weight of the robot should be restricted to
4.13 kg or below.
To determine the supply voltage for
the motor.




The supply required for an actuator is 12V, 70mA. Three
actuators will be used for the robot to creep inside a pipe. Since
the voltage required is 12V, we need to ensure that the
connection should be in parallel where the voltage remains the
same and the current will be sum of all the current values in each
individual.
Required voltage will be 12V (Parallel connection)
Required current I= I1+I2+I3
= 70+70+70 = 210mA
The motors draw 210mA from the battery. If we use 2100mAh
battery, it will last for 10 hours for a single charge. 18650 Lithium
batteries are available in the market with 3.7V, 2100mAh.
Hence it is concluded that three 18650 Lithium batteries with
3.7V, 2100mAh should be used for the actuators to rotate in
order to make the crawler to move inside the pipe.
DEGREES OF FREEDOM




This mechanism has got 3 revolute pairs and a prismatic pair, so
the mechanism involved here is a four bar mechanism.
Number of links, n- 4
Number of joints, j- 4
Number of higher pair, h- 0
F = 3 (n – 1) – 2 j - h.
Therefore, F= 3 (4- 1) – 2* 4 – 0
F= 3*3 – 2*4= 9 – 8
F= 1
If F = 1, the mechanism has fully constrained motion and this
represents a working mechanism which has practical utility. All the
working mechanisms have single degree of freedom.
TOTAL DEGREE OF FREEDOM


This machine has got 3 four bar mechanisms held at 120 degrees
each. These mechanisms in turn have 3 revolute pairs and a
prismatic pair, and the degree of freedom for these mechanisms
will be one, which explains that the mechanism is fully constrained.
Number of links, n- 15
Number of joints, j- 20
Number of higher pair, h- 0
F= 3(n-1)-2j-h
F= 3(15-1)- 2*20-0
F= 42-40
F=2.
Hence it is concluded that it can crawl inside a pipe and also it
could be adjusted based on the pipe diameter.
STATIC ANALYSIS




 Applying the virtual work
principle to the free-body
diagram gives
dW= Frz dz- Fqx dx= 0
where Fqx is a spring force.



This is because only Frz and Fqx
conduct work. The
corresponding coordinates of
these forces relative to the
coordinate located at the A
hinge are expressed as
z = 1.2l sinθ , x = 1.2l cosθ
STATIC ANALYSIS
dW= Frz d(1.2lsinθ)-Fqx d(-1.2lcosθ)
=Frz*1.2lcosθdθ-Fqx *1.2lsinθdθ=0
Rearranging gives
Fqx= Frz*cosθ/sinθ
Thus, the spring force at the prismatic joint B is related to the normal force
Frz by
Fqx= Frz*tan-1 θ
And the spring compressive force Fs of the robot is the sum of the six
traction forces exerted on the wheel. Thus, each traction force Frx is one six
of the compressive spring force of the robot structure.
Fqx = Fs/6
Where Fs is the spring force in N
Thus, the size of the actuator enclosed in the wheel is calculated by
τ= Frx*R= FsR/6
where R is the radius of the wheel.

at θ= 45 degrees
MACHINING PROCESS
Radial

arm drill machine

Boring

operation

Brazing
Gas

welding
DESIGN SPECIFICATION











1. Helical spring: Inner Diameter: 26.5
mm, coil diameter: 2.5mm, Pitch- 5mm.
Length- 85mm
2. Translational Element: Inner dia26mm. Outer diameter- 30mm. Length40mm
3. Wheel: Diameter- 50mm
4. Link:
Distance between the drilled holes
Link 1- 30mm
Link2- 66mm
Link3- 84mm
5. Central element: Hollow- Inner
diameter- 20mm. Outer diameter26mm. Length- 220mm.
DESIGN OF PIPE INSPECTION ROBOT
CENTRAL ELEMENT:

CENTRAL ELEMENT

Hollow:
Inner diameter- 20mm.
Outer diameter26mm.
Length- 220mm.
Material: Stainless steel
TRANSLATIONAL ELEMENT:
Inner diameter- 26mm.
Outer diameter- 30mm.
Length of the element -40mm
Material- Stainless steel

TRANSLATIONAL ELEMENT
HELICAL SPRING
Inner diameter- 26.5mm
Outer diameter- 31.5mm
Wire diameter- 2.5mm
Pitch- 5mm
Length of the spring- 70mm
Material- Spring Material

HELICAL SPRING
WHEEL:
Wheel diameter: 50mm
Width of the wheel: 6mm
Centre hole: 5mm
Material: Metal rim with
rubber

WHEEL
THREADED CAP:
Step diameter: 36,
20mm (threaded)
Centre hole: 6mm

THREADED CAP
LINKS I & II
LINKS III & IV
Wireless communication
Radio

frequency
Antenna
Transmitter
Receiver
Locating Defects



PIC robot tested successfully for movement in horizontal and vertical pipes.
Stages shows that the robot moving in horizontal, inclined and vertical pipe. The
robot has a good mobility and ability to pass over small obstacles.



the experimental scenes when the robot moved in the horizontal and vertical
direction. For ease of observation pipelines were made of PVC plastics pipes.
Testing could be done on pipelines having 140mm to 190mm inner diameter. We
tested on 160mm pipeline
Applications


Allow inspection of inaccessible and/or hazardous equipment or
work areas.



provide on-line inspection/maintenance without loss of
equipment/plant availability.



remove humans from potentially hazardous work situations



reduce equipment/plant downtime.



improve maintenance and inspection procedure thorough better
coverage and documentation.
Further ideas & implementation


To design the robot with track and wheel. (Under process)



To determine type of flow and fluid using sensors.



To rectify defects by mounting robotic arm.



To inspect and rectify flaws in a nuclear reactors pipeline.
EXPECTED RESULT
The expected result will be the crawling of the robot
inside a pipe at any inclination and the capturing image will
be viewed simultaneously through the monitor. The purpose
of the spring is to make the crawler re-positioning and to
exert proper traction between wheels and the pipe. This is a
robot with simple crawling mechanism to crawl inside the
pipelines given that the torque of the motor will be able to
make the robot creep inside a pipe and to inspect it with the
help of camera. The wireless communication will ensure the
robot crawling inside a pipe upon transmitting the signals.
The captured image will be monitored and the clear view of
the pipes which are buried under ground will be viewed.
CONCLUSION
 The

design goals of the Pipe Inspection Robot is the
adaptability to the inner diameters of the pipes and it
have been completely fulfilled, the propulsion of the
robot has been successfully conducted using three
motors, and the inspection is done using a wireless
camera.
 The prototype is designed in order to inspect pipes
with variable diameters within 140 and 190 mm and we
got the experimental Results.
THANK
YOU

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Pipe inspection robot

  • 1. DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Department of studies in Mechanical Engineering “DEFECT IDENTIFICATION IN PIPE LINES USING PIPE INSPECTION ROBOT” ARJUNKUMAR.M.BETAGERI 1st sem COMPUTER INTERGATED MANUFACTURING Engineering
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Many accidents have happened owing to the crack and the corrosion of pipelines. We will have severe damages if fluid leaks from the pipeline and explodes. It is very difficult to inspect the pipelines because they are buried under the ground. Therefore, we are hoping a method of inspection method with a simple four bar mechanism from the inside of the pipelines without digging the ground. So we proposed a new design in inspecting pipelines.
  • 3. OBJECTIVES The main objectives are as follows • To fabricate a pipe inspection robot. • To design CAD models using Pro ENGINEER. •To simulate the assembled CAD models using Pro animation • To determine the amount of voltage and current required for the motor.
  • 4. METHODOLOGY  Design and development of pipe inspection robot using CAD software.  Fabrication of CAD models by means of manufacturing equipments.  Assembling all the fabricated parts.  Fixing a camera, motors, LEDs and mounting the circuit board onto the crawler.  Making it to crawl inside a pipe by means of a remote to capture the video image in a monitor.
  • 5. EXPERIMENTS To design a robot with constrained motion in CAD modeling.  To determine the torque required for the motor to make the crawler move.  To determine the actual weight of the robot with the available actuator.  To determine the supply voltage for the motor.
  • 6. To design a robot with constrained motion in CAD modeling.  This experiment plays a vital role to make the translational element sliding along the central frame without stoppage in between. When the translational element slides, the robot diameter should be varied in order to attain the purpose of fabricating it. Certain considerations should be made if the crawler tends to get locked because of the linkages. These considerations could be given as an input in CAD modeling. In this way, I found the reason to use a compression spring for the return motion and also for the proper traction between the wheels and the pipe.
  • 7. To determine the torque required for the motor to make the crawler move.  The total weight of the crawler should be defined. It might help us in determining the torque required by the motors.  The total weight W of the robot is the sum of the six traction forces exerted on the wheel. Thus, each traction force Frx is one six of the whole weight of the robot structure. Thus, the size of the actuator enclosed in the wheel is calculated by  t= Fs*R/6  Where Fs is the spring force in N R is the radius of the wheel, t is the torque required /wheel Since only three motors could be used at the rear end,
  • 8. To determine the actual weight of the robot with the available actuator.  The supply required for the 3 individual motors will be 12V. This 280:1 gear motor spins at 60RPM at 12V, drawing 70mA at stall generating 43 in.oz(0.3036 Nm) torque (free running at 57.6mA). Torque= Force * Radius Force= Torque/Radius= 0.3036/0.0225= 13.49N= 1.375kg  From the calculation, it is clearly known that an individual motor will drive the robot having 1.375 kg. Perhaps 3 motors could be used for the crawling, so that total weight of the robot should be restricted to 4.13 kg or below.
  • 9. To determine the supply voltage for the motor.   The supply required for an actuator is 12V, 70mA. Three actuators will be used for the robot to creep inside a pipe. Since the voltage required is 12V, we need to ensure that the connection should be in parallel where the voltage remains the same and the current will be sum of all the current values in each individual. Required voltage will be 12V (Parallel connection) Required current I= I1+I2+I3 = 70+70+70 = 210mA The motors draw 210mA from the battery. If we use 2100mAh battery, it will last for 10 hours for a single charge. 18650 Lithium batteries are available in the market with 3.7V, 2100mAh. Hence it is concluded that three 18650 Lithium batteries with 3.7V, 2100mAh should be used for the actuators to rotate in order to make the crawler to move inside the pipe.
  • 10. DEGREES OF FREEDOM   This mechanism has got 3 revolute pairs and a prismatic pair, so the mechanism involved here is a four bar mechanism. Number of links, n- 4 Number of joints, j- 4 Number of higher pair, h- 0 F = 3 (n – 1) – 2 j - h. Therefore, F= 3 (4- 1) – 2* 4 – 0 F= 3*3 – 2*4= 9 – 8 F= 1 If F = 1, the mechanism has fully constrained motion and this represents a working mechanism which has practical utility. All the working mechanisms have single degree of freedom.
  • 11. TOTAL DEGREE OF FREEDOM  This machine has got 3 four bar mechanisms held at 120 degrees each. These mechanisms in turn have 3 revolute pairs and a prismatic pair, and the degree of freedom for these mechanisms will be one, which explains that the mechanism is fully constrained. Number of links, n- 15 Number of joints, j- 20 Number of higher pair, h- 0 F= 3(n-1)-2j-h F= 3(15-1)- 2*20-0 F= 42-40 F=2. Hence it is concluded that it can crawl inside a pipe and also it could be adjusted based on the pipe diameter.
  • 12. STATIC ANALYSIS    Applying the virtual work principle to the free-body diagram gives dW= Frz dz- Fqx dx= 0 where Fqx is a spring force.  This is because only Frz and Fqx conduct work. The corresponding coordinates of these forces relative to the coordinate located at the A hinge are expressed as z = 1.2l sinθ , x = 1.2l cosθ
  • 13. STATIC ANALYSIS dW= Frz d(1.2lsinθ)-Fqx d(-1.2lcosθ) =Frz*1.2lcosθdθ-Fqx *1.2lsinθdθ=0 Rearranging gives Fqx= Frz*cosθ/sinθ Thus, the spring force at the prismatic joint B is related to the normal force Frz by Fqx= Frz*tan-1 θ And the spring compressive force Fs of the robot is the sum of the six traction forces exerted on the wheel. Thus, each traction force Frx is one six of the compressive spring force of the robot structure. Fqx = Fs/6 Where Fs is the spring force in N Thus, the size of the actuator enclosed in the wheel is calculated by τ= Frx*R= FsR/6 where R is the radius of the wheel. at θ= 45 degrees
  • 14. MACHINING PROCESS Radial arm drill machine Boring operation Brazing Gas welding
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  • 27. DESIGN SPECIFICATION         1. Helical spring: Inner Diameter: 26.5 mm, coil diameter: 2.5mm, Pitch- 5mm. Length- 85mm 2. Translational Element: Inner dia26mm. Outer diameter- 30mm. Length40mm 3. Wheel: Diameter- 50mm 4. Link: Distance between the drilled holes Link 1- 30mm Link2- 66mm Link3- 84mm 5. Central element: Hollow- Inner diameter- 20mm. Outer diameter26mm. Length- 220mm.
  • 28. DESIGN OF PIPE INSPECTION ROBOT
  • 29. CENTRAL ELEMENT: CENTRAL ELEMENT Hollow: Inner diameter- 20mm. Outer diameter26mm. Length- 220mm. Material: Stainless steel
  • 30. TRANSLATIONAL ELEMENT: Inner diameter- 26mm. Outer diameter- 30mm. Length of the element -40mm Material- Stainless steel TRANSLATIONAL ELEMENT
  • 31. HELICAL SPRING Inner diameter- 26.5mm Outer diameter- 31.5mm Wire diameter- 2.5mm Pitch- 5mm Length of the spring- 70mm Material- Spring Material HELICAL SPRING
  • 32. WHEEL: Wheel diameter: 50mm Width of the wheel: 6mm Centre hole: 5mm Material: Metal rim with rubber WHEEL
  • 33. THREADED CAP: Step diameter: 36, 20mm (threaded) Centre hole: 6mm THREADED CAP
  • 34. LINKS I & II
  • 37. Locating Defects  PIC robot tested successfully for movement in horizontal and vertical pipes. Stages shows that the robot moving in horizontal, inclined and vertical pipe. The robot has a good mobility and ability to pass over small obstacles.  the experimental scenes when the robot moved in the horizontal and vertical direction. For ease of observation pipelines were made of PVC plastics pipes. Testing could be done on pipelines having 140mm to 190mm inner diameter. We tested on 160mm pipeline
  • 38. Applications  Allow inspection of inaccessible and/or hazardous equipment or work areas.  provide on-line inspection/maintenance without loss of equipment/plant availability.  remove humans from potentially hazardous work situations  reduce equipment/plant downtime.  improve maintenance and inspection procedure thorough better coverage and documentation.
  • 39. Further ideas & implementation  To design the robot with track and wheel. (Under process)  To determine type of flow and fluid using sensors.  To rectify defects by mounting robotic arm.  To inspect and rectify flaws in a nuclear reactors pipeline.
  • 40. EXPECTED RESULT The expected result will be the crawling of the robot inside a pipe at any inclination and the capturing image will be viewed simultaneously through the monitor. The purpose of the spring is to make the crawler re-positioning and to exert proper traction between wheels and the pipe. This is a robot with simple crawling mechanism to crawl inside the pipelines given that the torque of the motor will be able to make the robot creep inside a pipe and to inspect it with the help of camera. The wireless communication will ensure the robot crawling inside a pipe upon transmitting the signals. The captured image will be monitored and the clear view of the pipes which are buried under ground will be viewed.
  • 41. CONCLUSION  The design goals of the Pipe Inspection Robot is the adaptability to the inner diameters of the pipes and it have been completely fulfilled, the propulsion of the robot has been successfully conducted using three motors, and the inspection is done using a wireless camera.  The prototype is designed in order to inspect pipes with variable diameters within 140 and 190 mm and we got the experimental Results.