SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 43
Pituitary Gland
Dr. Sai Sailesh Kumar G
Professor
Department of Physiology
NRIIMS
Email: dr.goothy@gmail.com
Introduction
The pituitary gland, or hypophysis
Small endocrine gland located in a bony cavity at the base of the brain
just below the hypothalamus
The pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus by a thin connecting
stalk.
Lobes
The pituitary has two anatomically and functionally distinct lobes, the
posterior pituitary and the anterior pituitary
The posterior pituitary is composed of nervous tissue and thus is also
termed the neurohypophysis
The anterior pituitary consists of glandular epithelial tissue and
accordingly is also called the adenohypophysis (adeno means
“glandular”).
Lobes
The posterior and anterior pituitary lobes have only their location in
common.
They arise from different tissues embryonically, serve different
functions, and are subject to different control mechanisms.
Lobes
The release of hormones from both the posterior and the anterior
pituitary is directly controlled by the hypothalamus, but the natures of
these relationships are entirely different.
The posterior pituitary connects to the hypothalamus by a neural
pathway,
whereas the anterior pituitary connects to the hypothalamus by a
unique vascular link
Posterior pituitary
The actions of vasopressin and oxytocin are briefly summarized here
to make our endocrine story complete.
Vasopressin
Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH) has two major effects that
correspond to its two names:
(1) it conserves H2O during urine formation by the kidney nephrons
(an antidiuretic effect) and
(2) it causes contraction of arteriolar smooth muscle (a vessel pressor
effect)
Vasopressin
The first effect has more physiologic importance.
Under normal conditions, vasopressin is the primary endocrine factor
that regulates urinary H2O loss and overall H2O balance.
 In contrast, typical levels of vasopressin play only a minor role in
regulating blood pressure by means of promoting arteriolar
vasoconstriction.
Vasopressin
The major control for hypothalamic-induced release of vasopressin
from the posterior pituitary is input from hypothalamic
osmoreceptors, which increase vasopressin secretion in response to
a rise in plasma osmolarity.
A less powerful input from the left atrial volume receptors increases
vasopressin secretion in response to a fall in ECF volume and arterial
blood pressure
Oxytocin
Oxytocin stimulates contraction of uterine smooth muscle to help expel the infant during
childbirth, and it promotes ejection of milk from the mammary glands (breasts) during
breast-feeding.
In addition to these two major physiologic effects, oxytocin influences a variety of
behaviors, especially maternal behaviors.
For example, this hormone fittingly facilitates bonding, or attachment, between a mother
and her infant.
For this reason, oxytocin is sometimes nicknamed the “love hormone” or “cuddle
chemical.”
Anterior pituitary hormones
Unlike the posterior pituitary, which releases hormones synthesized by
the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary synthesizes the hormones it
releases into the blood.
Five different cell populations within the anterior pituitary secrete six
major peptide hormones
Anterior pituitary hormones
The anterior pituitary cells known as somatotropes secrete growth
hormone (GH, somatotropin), the primary hormone responsible for
regulating overall body growth (somato means “body”).
GH also exerts important metabolic actions
Anterior pituitary hormones
Thyrotropes secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH,
thyrotropin), which stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormone and
growth of the thyroid gland
Anterior pituitary hormones
Corticotropes produce and release adrenocorticotropic hormone
(ACTH, adrenocorticotropin), the hormone that stimulates cortisol
secretion by and promotes growth of the adrenal cortex
Anterior pituitary hormones
Gonadotropes secrete two hormones that act on the gonads
(reproductive organs, namely, the ovaries and testes)—follicle-
stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
Anterior pituitary hormones
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) helps regulate gamate
(reproductive cells, namely, ova and sperm) production in both sexes.
 In females, it stimulates growth and development of ovarian follicles,
within which the ova, or eggs, develop.
It also promotes the secretion of the hormone estrogen by the ovaries.
Anterior pituitary hormones
Luteinizing hormone (LH), also secreted by gonadotropes, helps control sex
hormone secretion in both genders.
 LH regulates ovarian secretion of the female sex hormones, estrogen and
progesterone.
 In males, the same hormone stimulates the testes to secrete the male sex
hormone, testosterone.
 In females, LH is also responsible for ovulation (egg release) and luteinization.
Anterior pituitary hormones
Lactotropes secrete prolactin (PRL), which enhances breast
development and lactation (milk production) in females. Its
reproductive function in males is uncertain.
Anterior pituitary hormones
GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, and LH are all tropic hormones because they
each regulate secretion of another specific endocrine gland.
PRL is the only one that does not stimulate the secretion of another
hormone. It acts directly on nonendocrine tissue to exert its effects.
Anterior pituitary hormones
TSH, ACTH, FSH, and LH all act at their target organs by binding with
G-protein-coupled receptors that activate the cyclic adenosine
monophosphate (cAMP) second-messenger system.
GH and PRL both exert their effects via the JAK/STAT pathway
Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting
hormones
The secretion of each anterior pituitary hormone is stimulated or inhibited by one or more
hypothalamic hypophysiotropic hormones (hypophysis means “pituitary”; tropic means
“nourishing”).
Depending on their actions, these hormones are called releasing hormones or inhibiting
hormones
For example, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates release of TSH (alias
thyrotropin) from the anterior pituitary
This three-hormone sequence is called an endocrine axis, as in the hypothalamus–
pituitary–thyroid axis.
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
The hypothalamic regulatory hormones reach the anterior pituitary by
means of a unique vascular link.
In contrast to the direct neural connection between the hypothalamus
and the posterior pituitary
The anatomic and functional link between the hypothalamus and the
anterior pituitary is an unusual capillary-to capillary connection, the
hypothalamic–hypophyseal portal system
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
A portal system is a vascular arrangement in which venous blood flows
directly from one capillary bed through a connecting vessel to another
capillary bed, as in the hepatic portal system.
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
The hypothalamic–hypophyseal portal system provides a critical link
between the brain and much of the endocrine system.
It begins in the base of the hypothalamus with a group of capillaries
that recombine into small portal vessels, which pass down through the
connecting stalk into the anterior pituitary.
Here, the portal vessels branch to form most of the anterior pituitary
capillaries, which in turn drain into the systemic venous system.
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 Almost all blood supplied to the anterior pituitary must first pass through the
hypothalamus.
Because materials can be exchanged between blood and surrounding
tissue only at the capillary level,
the hypothalamic–hypophyseal portal system provides a “private” route
through which releasing and inhibiting hormones can be picked up at the
hypothalamus and delivered immediately and directly to the anterior pituitary
at relatively high concentrations, bypassing the general circulation.
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 The axons of the neurosecretory neurons that produce the
hypothalamic regulatory hormones terminate on the capillaries at the
origin of the portal system.
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 What happens if the portal system is absent?
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 Once the hypophysiotropic hormones were picked up in the hypothalamus, they
would be returned to the heart through the systemic veins,
pumped through the pulmonary circulation,
then returned to the heart and finally be pumped into the systemic arteries for
delivery throughout the body, including the anterior pituitary.
 Not only would this process take much longer, but the hypophysiotropic hormones
would be considerably diluted before arriving at the anterior pituitary.
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 Where these releasing or inhibitory hormones are produced?
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 The hormone is synthesized in the cell body and then transported in
vesicles by motor proteins to the axon terminal.
 It is stored there until its release by exocytosis into an adjacent
capillary on appropriate stimulation.
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 What is the major difference in the hormone release of anterior and
posterior pituitary glands?
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 The major difference is that the hypophysiotropic hormones are
released into the portal vessels, which deliver them to the anterior
pituitary, where they control release of anterior pituitary hormones into
the general circulation.
 In contrast, the hypothalamic hormones stored in the posterior
pituitary are themselves released into the general circulation.
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 What regulates secretion of these hypophysiotropic hormones?
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 Like other neurons, the neurons secreting these regulatory hormones
receive abundant input of information (both neural and hormonal and
both excitatory and inhibitory) that they must integrate.
Studies are still in progress to unravel the complex neural input from
many diverse areas of the brain to the hypophysiotropic secretory
neurons.
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 One example is the marked increase in secretion of corticotropin-releasing
hormone (CRH) in response to stress
Numerous neural connections also exist between the hypothalamus and the
portions of the brain concerned with emotions (the limbic system).
Thus, The menstrual irregularities sometimes experienced by women who
are emotionally upset are a common manifestation of this relationship.
Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System
 The most common blood-borne factors that influence hypothalamic
neurosecretion are the negative-feedback effects of target-gland
hormones.
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

5.Degeneration & regeneration nerves
5.Degeneration & regeneration nerves5.Degeneration & regeneration nerves
5.Degeneration & regeneration nervesCharushila Rukadikar
 
Lecture 3 pregnancy and lactation
Lecture 3 pregnancy and lactationLecture 3 pregnancy and lactation
Lecture 3 pregnancy and lactationAyub Abdi
 
Introduction to female reproductive physiology (the guyton and hall physiology)
Introduction to female reproductive physiology (the guyton and hall physiology)Introduction to female reproductive physiology (the guyton and hall physiology)
Introduction to female reproductive physiology (the guyton and hall physiology)Maryam Fida
 
Ovarian cycle (the guyton and hall physiology)
Ovarian cycle (the guyton and hall physiology)Ovarian cycle (the guyton and hall physiology)
Ovarian cycle (the guyton and hall physiology)Maryam Fida
 
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONESFEMALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONESDr Nilesh Kate
 
The hypothalamus
The hypothalamusThe hypothalamus
The hypothalamusUphar Gupta
 
The female reproductive cycle PART 8
The female reproductive cycle PART 8The female reproductive cycle PART 8
The female reproductive cycle PART 8AnuSebastian18
 
IONIC BASIS AND RECORDING OF ACTON POTENTIAL
IONIC BASIS AND RECORDING OF ACTON POTENTIALIONIC BASIS AND RECORDING OF ACTON POTENTIAL
IONIC BASIS AND RECORDING OF ACTON POTENTIALAnu Priya
 
Reproductive physiology
Reproductive physiologyReproductive physiology
Reproductive physiologyKern Rocke
 
Excitable Tissues, Resting Membrane Potential & Action.pptx
Excitable Tissues, Resting Membrane Potential & Action.pptxExcitable Tissues, Resting Membrane Potential & Action.pptx
Excitable Tissues, Resting Membrane Potential & Action.pptxAnwar Siddiqui
 
Endocrinology of pregnancy
Endocrinology of pregnancyEndocrinology of pregnancy
Endocrinology of pregnancyTulip Academy
 
Male reproductive system by Pandian M, tutor, Dept of Physiology, DYPMCKOP,MH
Male reproductive system by Pandian M, tutor, Dept of Physiology, DYPMCKOP,MHMale reproductive system by Pandian M, tutor, Dept of Physiology, DYPMCKOP,MH
Male reproductive system by Pandian M, tutor, Dept of Physiology, DYPMCKOP,MHPandian M
 

What's hot (20)

Updated lecture 58
Updated lecture 58 Updated lecture 58
Updated lecture 58
 
Receptor.pptx
Receptor.pptxReceptor.pptx
Receptor.pptx
 
5.Degeneration & regeneration nerves
5.Degeneration & regeneration nerves5.Degeneration & regeneration nerves
5.Degeneration & regeneration nerves
 
Lecture 3 pregnancy and lactation
Lecture 3 pregnancy and lactationLecture 3 pregnancy and lactation
Lecture 3 pregnancy and lactation
 
Introduction to female reproductive physiology (the guyton and hall physiology)
Introduction to female reproductive physiology (the guyton and hall physiology)Introduction to female reproductive physiology (the guyton and hall physiology)
Introduction to female reproductive physiology (the guyton and hall physiology)
 
Ovarian cycle (the guyton and hall physiology)
Ovarian cycle (the guyton and hall physiology)Ovarian cycle (the guyton and hall physiology)
Ovarian cycle (the guyton and hall physiology)
 
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONESFEMALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES
 
Hormones of Anterior Pituitary
Hormones of Anterior PituitaryHormones of Anterior Pituitary
Hormones of Anterior Pituitary
 
Neonatal physiology
Neonatal  physiologyNeonatal  physiology
Neonatal physiology
 
The hypothalamus
The hypothalamusThe hypothalamus
The hypothalamus
 
The female reproductive cycle PART 8
The female reproductive cycle PART 8The female reproductive cycle PART 8
The female reproductive cycle PART 8
 
General embryo 2nd
General embryo 2ndGeneral embryo 2nd
General embryo 2nd
 
IONIC BASIS AND RECORDING OF ACTON POTENTIAL
IONIC BASIS AND RECORDING OF ACTON POTENTIALIONIC BASIS AND RECORDING OF ACTON POTENTIAL
IONIC BASIS AND RECORDING OF ACTON POTENTIAL
 
Reproductive physiology
Reproductive physiologyReproductive physiology
Reproductive physiology
 
SARCOTUBULAR SYSTEM
SARCOTUBULAR SYSTEMSARCOTUBULAR SYSTEM
SARCOTUBULAR SYSTEM
 
Male sex hormones
Male sex hormonesMale sex hormones
Male sex hormones
 
Excitable Tissues, Resting Membrane Potential & Action.pptx
Excitable Tissues, Resting Membrane Potential & Action.pptxExcitable Tissues, Resting Membrane Potential & Action.pptx
Excitable Tissues, Resting Membrane Potential & Action.pptx
 
Endocrinology of pregnancy
Endocrinology of pregnancyEndocrinology of pregnancy
Endocrinology of pregnancy
 
Male reproductive system by Pandian M, tutor, Dept of Physiology, DYPMCKOP,MH
Male reproductive system by Pandian M, tutor, Dept of Physiology, DYPMCKOP,MHMale reproductive system by Pandian M, tutor, Dept of Physiology, DYPMCKOP,MH
Male reproductive system by Pandian M, tutor, Dept of Physiology, DYPMCKOP,MH
 
Fetal physio - anakandy
Fetal physio - anakandyFetal physio - anakandy
Fetal physio - anakandy
 

Similar to Physiology of Pituitary gland and its hormones -3.pptx

The endocrine system
The endocrine systemThe endocrine system
The endocrine systemNikita Sharma
 
Pitutary gland
Pitutary gland Pitutary gland
Pitutary gland cutiepie39
 
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptx
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptxpituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptx
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptxfatimakhan2112
 
NEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.M
NEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.MNEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.M
NEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.Mvelveenamaran
 
Endocrine system pituitary gland
Endocrine system  pituitary glandEndocrine system  pituitary gland
Endocrine system pituitary glandSuprabha Panda
 
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptx
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptxPITUITARY HORMONES.pptx
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptxFatimaSundus1
 
4 & 5 ther 608 hormones & reproduction
4 & 5 ther 608 hormones & reproduction4 & 5 ther 608 hormones & reproduction
4 & 5 ther 608 hormones & reproductionfarhab dvm
 
Chemical Coordination and Integration_NEET_XI_NCERT-1.pptx
Chemical Coordination and Integration_NEET_XI_NCERT-1.pptxChemical Coordination and Integration_NEET_XI_NCERT-1.pptx
Chemical Coordination and Integration_NEET_XI_NCERT-1.pptxsaabitkhan280
 
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Dr.Patel Taranoom M.
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Dr.Patel Taranoom M.Hypothalamus & Pituitary Dr.Patel Taranoom M.
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Dr.Patel Taranoom M.sam1131512
 
pituitaryglandanatomy.pdf
pituitaryglandanatomy.pdfpituitaryglandanatomy.pdf
pituitaryglandanatomy.pdfVickyS88
 
HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS PITUITARY SECRETION.pptx
HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS PITUITARY SECRETION.pptxHYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS PITUITARY SECRETION.pptx
HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS PITUITARY SECRETION.pptxFatimaSundus1
 

Similar to Physiology of Pituitary gland and its hormones -3.pptx (20)

Endocrinology
EndocrinologyEndocrinology
Endocrinology
 
Endocrine system
Endocrine system Endocrine system
Endocrine system
 
Pitutary gland
Pitutary glandPitutary gland
Pitutary gland
 
The endocrine system
The endocrine systemThe endocrine system
The endocrine system
 
Endocrine System
Endocrine SystemEndocrine System
Endocrine System
 
Pituitary hormones and their
Pituitary hormones and theirPituitary hormones and their
Pituitary hormones and their
 
Pitutary gland
Pitutary gland Pitutary gland
Pitutary gland
 
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptx
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptxpituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptx
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptx
 
Johny's A&P endocrine system
Johny's A&P endocrine systemJohny's A&P endocrine system
Johny's A&P endocrine system
 
NEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.M
NEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.MNEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.M
NEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.M
 
Anatomy - pituitary gland and hypothalamus
Anatomy - pituitary gland and hypothalamusAnatomy - pituitary gland and hypothalamus
Anatomy - pituitary gland and hypothalamus
 
Endocrine system pituitary gland
Endocrine system  pituitary glandEndocrine system  pituitary gland
Endocrine system pituitary gland
 
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
ENDOCRINE SYSTEMENDOCRINE SYSTEM
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
 
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptx
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptxPITUITARY HORMONES.pptx
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptx
 
4 & 5 ther 608 hormones & reproduction
4 & 5 ther 608 hormones & reproduction4 & 5 ther 608 hormones & reproduction
4 & 5 ther 608 hormones & reproduction
 
Chemical Coordination and Integration_NEET_XI_NCERT-1.pptx
Chemical Coordination and Integration_NEET_XI_NCERT-1.pptxChemical Coordination and Integration_NEET_XI_NCERT-1.pptx
Chemical Coordination and Integration_NEET_XI_NCERT-1.pptx
 
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Dr.Patel Taranoom M.
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Dr.Patel Taranoom M.Hypothalamus & Pituitary Dr.Patel Taranoom M.
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Dr.Patel Taranoom M.
 
pituitaryglandanatomy.pdf
pituitaryglandanatomy.pdfpituitaryglandanatomy.pdf
pituitaryglandanatomy.pdf
 
Pituitary gland (anatomy)
Pituitary gland (anatomy)Pituitary gland (anatomy)
Pituitary gland (anatomy)
 
HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS PITUITARY SECRETION.pptx
HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS PITUITARY SECRETION.pptxHYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS PITUITARY SECRETION.pptx
HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS PITUITARY SECRETION.pptx
 

More from Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy

Adrenal cortex -10.pptx ( Adrenal cortical hormones- Aldosterone and cortisol)
Adrenal cortex -10.pptx ( Adrenal cortical hormones- Aldosterone and cortisol)Adrenal cortex -10.pptx ( Adrenal cortical hormones- Aldosterone and cortisol)
Adrenal cortex -10.pptx ( Adrenal cortical hormones- Aldosterone and cortisol)Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy
 
Glucagon-9.pptx- Physiology, functions, regulation
Glucagon-9.pptx- Physiology, functions, regulationGlucagon-9.pptx- Physiology, functions, regulation
Glucagon-9.pptx- Physiology, functions, regulationSai Sailesh Kumar Goothy
 
Endocrine Pancreas- Insulin and Diabetes mellitus
Endocrine Pancreas- Insulin and Diabetes mellitusEndocrine Pancreas- Insulin and Diabetes mellitus
Endocrine Pancreas- Insulin and Diabetes mellitusSai Sailesh Kumar Goothy
 
Thyroid hormones- synthesis, secretion, functions and disorders
Thyroid hormones- synthesis, secretion, functions and disordersThyroid hormones- synthesis, secretion, functions and disorders
Thyroid hormones- synthesis, secretion, functions and disordersSai Sailesh Kumar Goothy
 
Posterior Pituitary hormones-5.ppt- endocrine physiology
Posterior Pituitary hormones-5.ppt- endocrine physiologyPosterior Pituitary hormones-5.ppt- endocrine physiology
Posterior Pituitary hormones-5.ppt- endocrine physiologySai Sailesh Kumar Goothy
 
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptxPhysiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptxSai Sailesh Kumar Goothy
 

More from Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy (20)

Adrenal cortex -10.pptx ( Adrenal cortical hormones- Aldosterone and cortisol)
Adrenal cortex -10.pptx ( Adrenal cortical hormones- Aldosterone and cortisol)Adrenal cortex -10.pptx ( Adrenal cortical hormones- Aldosterone and cortisol)
Adrenal cortex -10.pptx ( Adrenal cortical hormones- Aldosterone and cortisol)
 
Glucagon-9.pptx- Physiology, functions, regulation
Glucagon-9.pptx- Physiology, functions, regulationGlucagon-9.pptx- Physiology, functions, regulation
Glucagon-9.pptx- Physiology, functions, regulation
 
Endocrine Pancreas- Insulin and Diabetes mellitus
Endocrine Pancreas- Insulin and Diabetes mellitusEndocrine Pancreas- Insulin and Diabetes mellitus
Endocrine Pancreas- Insulin and Diabetes mellitus
 
Thyroid hormones- synthesis, secretion, functions and disorders
Thyroid hormones- synthesis, secretion, functions and disordersThyroid hormones- synthesis, secretion, functions and disorders
Thyroid hormones- synthesis, secretion, functions and disorders
 
Posterior Pituitary hormones-5.ppt- endocrine physiology
Posterior Pituitary hormones-5.ppt- endocrine physiologyPosterior Pituitary hormones-5.ppt- endocrine physiology
Posterior Pituitary hormones-5.ppt- endocrine physiology
 
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptxPhysiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
 
Introduction Endocrinology class -2.pptx
Introduction Endocrinology class -2.pptxIntroduction Endocrinology class -2.pptx
Introduction Endocrinology class -2.pptx
 
Introduction Endocrine -1.pptx
Introduction Endocrine -1.pptxIntroduction Endocrine -1.pptx
Introduction Endocrine -1.pptx
 
NMP-9.pptx
NMP-9.pptxNMP-9.pptx
NMP-9.pptx
 
NMP-8.pptx
NMP-8.pptxNMP-8.pptx
NMP-8.pptx
 
NMP-7.pptx
NMP-7.pptxNMP-7.pptx
NMP-7.pptx
 
NMP-6.pptx
NMP-6.pptxNMP-6.pptx
NMP-6.pptx
 
NMP-5.pptx
NMP-5.pptxNMP-5.pptx
NMP-5.pptx
 
NMP-4.pptx
NMP-4.pptxNMP-4.pptx
NMP-4.pptx
 
NMP-2.pptx
NMP-2.pptxNMP-2.pptx
NMP-2.pptx
 
NMP-3.pptx
NMP-3.pptxNMP-3.pptx
NMP-3.pptx
 
NMP-1.pptx
NMP-1.pptxNMP-1.pptx
NMP-1.pptx
 
The body fluid compartments.pptx
The body fluid compartments.pptxThe body fluid compartments.pptx
The body fluid compartments.pptx
 
Physiology of Smell.pptx
Physiology of Smell.pptxPhysiology of Smell.pptx
Physiology of Smell.pptx
 
physiology of taste.pptx
physiology of taste.pptxphysiology of taste.pptx
physiology of taste.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptx
Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptxCase Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptx
Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptxNiranjan Chavan
 
POST NATAL EXERCISES AND ITS IMPACT.pptx
POST NATAL EXERCISES AND ITS IMPACT.pptxPOST NATAL EXERCISES AND ITS IMPACT.pptx
POST NATAL EXERCISES AND ITS IMPACT.pptxvirengeeta
 
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdfHistory and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdfSasikiranMarri
 
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Badalona Serveis Assistencials
 
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptxGlomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptxDr.Nusrat Tariq
 
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdfPNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners
 
call girls in munirka DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in munirka  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in munirka  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in munirka DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️saminamagar
 
April 2024 ONCOLOGY CARTOON by DR KANHU CHARAN PATRO
April 2024 ONCOLOGY CARTOON by  DR KANHU CHARAN PATROApril 2024 ONCOLOGY CARTOON by  DR KANHU CHARAN PATRO
April 2024 ONCOLOGY CARTOON by DR KANHU CHARAN PATROKanhu Charan
 
Let's Talk About It: To Disclose or Not to Disclose?
Let's Talk About It: To Disclose or Not to Disclose?Let's Talk About It: To Disclose or Not to Disclose?
Let's Talk About It: To Disclose or Not to Disclose?bkling
 
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.ppt
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.pptApiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.ppt
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.pptkedirjemalharun
 
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!ibtesaam huma
 
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara Rajendran
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara RajendranMusic Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara Rajendran
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara RajendranTara Rajendran
 
LUNG TUMORS AND ITS CLASSIFICATIONS.pdf
LUNG TUMORS AND ITS  CLASSIFICATIONS.pdfLUNG TUMORS AND ITS  CLASSIFICATIONS.pdf
LUNG TUMORS AND ITS CLASSIFICATIONS.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
SWD (Short wave diathermy)- Physiotherapy.ppt
SWD (Short wave diathermy)- Physiotherapy.pptSWD (Short wave diathermy)- Physiotherapy.ppt
SWD (Short wave diathermy)- Physiotherapy.pptMumux Mirani
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Mohamed Rizk Khodair
 
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy Platform
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy PlatformSee the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy Platform
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy PlatformKweku Zurek
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPrerana Jadhav
 
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...sdateam0
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptx
Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptxCase Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptx
Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptx
 
POST NATAL EXERCISES AND ITS IMPACT.pptx
POST NATAL EXERCISES AND ITS IMPACT.pptxPOST NATAL EXERCISES AND ITS IMPACT.pptx
POST NATAL EXERCISES AND ITS IMPACT.pptx
 
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdfHistory and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
 
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
 
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptxGlomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
Glomerular Filtration rate and its determinants.pptx
 
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdfPNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
 
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
 
call girls in munirka DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in munirka  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️call girls in munirka  DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
call girls in munirka DELHI 🔝 >༒9540349809 🔝 genuine Escort Service 🔝✔️✔️
 
April 2024 ONCOLOGY CARTOON by DR KANHU CHARAN PATRO
April 2024 ONCOLOGY CARTOON by  DR KANHU CHARAN PATROApril 2024 ONCOLOGY CARTOON by  DR KANHU CHARAN PATRO
April 2024 ONCOLOGY CARTOON by DR KANHU CHARAN PATRO
 
Let's Talk About It: To Disclose or Not to Disclose?
Let's Talk About It: To Disclose or Not to Disclose?Let's Talk About It: To Disclose or Not to Disclose?
Let's Talk About It: To Disclose or Not to Disclose?
 
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.ppt
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.pptApiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.ppt
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.ppt
 
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
 
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara Rajendran
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara RajendranMusic Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara Rajendran
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara Rajendran
 
LUNG TUMORS AND ITS CLASSIFICATIONS.pdf
LUNG TUMORS AND ITS  CLASSIFICATIONS.pdfLUNG TUMORS AND ITS  CLASSIFICATIONS.pdf
LUNG TUMORS AND ITS CLASSIFICATIONS.pdf
 
SWD (Short wave diathermy)- Physiotherapy.ppt
SWD (Short wave diathermy)- Physiotherapy.pptSWD (Short wave diathermy)- Physiotherapy.ppt
SWD (Short wave diathermy)- Physiotherapy.ppt
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
 
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy Platform
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy PlatformSee the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy Platform
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy Platform
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
 
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...
 

Physiology of Pituitary gland and its hormones -3.pptx

  • 1. Pituitary Gland Dr. Sai Sailesh Kumar G Professor Department of Physiology NRIIMS Email: dr.goothy@gmail.com
  • 2. Introduction The pituitary gland, or hypophysis Small endocrine gland located in a bony cavity at the base of the brain just below the hypothalamus The pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus by a thin connecting stalk.
  • 3. Lobes The pituitary has two anatomically and functionally distinct lobes, the posterior pituitary and the anterior pituitary The posterior pituitary is composed of nervous tissue and thus is also termed the neurohypophysis The anterior pituitary consists of glandular epithelial tissue and accordingly is also called the adenohypophysis (adeno means “glandular”).
  • 4. Lobes The posterior and anterior pituitary lobes have only their location in common. They arise from different tissues embryonically, serve different functions, and are subject to different control mechanisms.
  • 5. Lobes The release of hormones from both the posterior and the anterior pituitary is directly controlled by the hypothalamus, but the natures of these relationships are entirely different. The posterior pituitary connects to the hypothalamus by a neural pathway, whereas the anterior pituitary connects to the hypothalamus by a unique vascular link
  • 6.
  • 7. Posterior pituitary The actions of vasopressin and oxytocin are briefly summarized here to make our endocrine story complete.
  • 8. Vasopressin Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH) has two major effects that correspond to its two names: (1) it conserves H2O during urine formation by the kidney nephrons (an antidiuretic effect) and (2) it causes contraction of arteriolar smooth muscle (a vessel pressor effect)
  • 9. Vasopressin The first effect has more physiologic importance. Under normal conditions, vasopressin is the primary endocrine factor that regulates urinary H2O loss and overall H2O balance.  In contrast, typical levels of vasopressin play only a minor role in regulating blood pressure by means of promoting arteriolar vasoconstriction.
  • 10. Vasopressin The major control for hypothalamic-induced release of vasopressin from the posterior pituitary is input from hypothalamic osmoreceptors, which increase vasopressin secretion in response to a rise in plasma osmolarity. A less powerful input from the left atrial volume receptors increases vasopressin secretion in response to a fall in ECF volume and arterial blood pressure
  • 11. Oxytocin Oxytocin stimulates contraction of uterine smooth muscle to help expel the infant during childbirth, and it promotes ejection of milk from the mammary glands (breasts) during breast-feeding. In addition to these two major physiologic effects, oxytocin influences a variety of behaviors, especially maternal behaviors. For example, this hormone fittingly facilitates bonding, or attachment, between a mother and her infant. For this reason, oxytocin is sometimes nicknamed the “love hormone” or “cuddle chemical.”
  • 12.
  • 13. Anterior pituitary hormones Unlike the posterior pituitary, which releases hormones synthesized by the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary synthesizes the hormones it releases into the blood. Five different cell populations within the anterior pituitary secrete six major peptide hormones
  • 14. Anterior pituitary hormones The anterior pituitary cells known as somatotropes secrete growth hormone (GH, somatotropin), the primary hormone responsible for regulating overall body growth (somato means “body”). GH also exerts important metabolic actions
  • 15. Anterior pituitary hormones Thyrotropes secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin), which stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormone and growth of the thyroid gland
  • 16. Anterior pituitary hormones Corticotropes produce and release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, adrenocorticotropin), the hormone that stimulates cortisol secretion by and promotes growth of the adrenal cortex
  • 17. Anterior pituitary hormones Gonadotropes secrete two hormones that act on the gonads (reproductive organs, namely, the ovaries and testes)—follicle- stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
  • 18. Anterior pituitary hormones Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) helps regulate gamate (reproductive cells, namely, ova and sperm) production in both sexes.  In females, it stimulates growth and development of ovarian follicles, within which the ova, or eggs, develop. It also promotes the secretion of the hormone estrogen by the ovaries.
  • 19. Anterior pituitary hormones Luteinizing hormone (LH), also secreted by gonadotropes, helps control sex hormone secretion in both genders.  LH regulates ovarian secretion of the female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone.  In males, the same hormone stimulates the testes to secrete the male sex hormone, testosterone.  In females, LH is also responsible for ovulation (egg release) and luteinization.
  • 20. Anterior pituitary hormones Lactotropes secrete prolactin (PRL), which enhances breast development and lactation (milk production) in females. Its reproductive function in males is uncertain.
  • 21. Anterior pituitary hormones GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, and LH are all tropic hormones because they each regulate secretion of another specific endocrine gland. PRL is the only one that does not stimulate the secretion of another hormone. It acts directly on nonendocrine tissue to exert its effects.
  • 22. Anterior pituitary hormones TSH, ACTH, FSH, and LH all act at their target organs by binding with G-protein-coupled receptors that activate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) second-messenger system. GH and PRL both exert their effects via the JAK/STAT pathway
  • 23. Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones The secretion of each anterior pituitary hormone is stimulated or inhibited by one or more hypothalamic hypophysiotropic hormones (hypophysis means “pituitary”; tropic means “nourishing”). Depending on their actions, these hormones are called releasing hormones or inhibiting hormones For example, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates release of TSH (alias thyrotropin) from the anterior pituitary This three-hormone sequence is called an endocrine axis, as in the hypothalamus– pituitary–thyroid axis.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System The hypothalamic regulatory hormones reach the anterior pituitary by means of a unique vascular link. In contrast to the direct neural connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary The anatomic and functional link between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary is an unusual capillary-to capillary connection, the hypothalamic–hypophyseal portal system
  • 27. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System A portal system is a vascular arrangement in which venous blood flows directly from one capillary bed through a connecting vessel to another capillary bed, as in the hepatic portal system.
  • 28. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System The hypothalamic–hypophyseal portal system provides a critical link between the brain and much of the endocrine system. It begins in the base of the hypothalamus with a group of capillaries that recombine into small portal vessels, which pass down through the connecting stalk into the anterior pituitary. Here, the portal vessels branch to form most of the anterior pituitary capillaries, which in turn drain into the systemic venous system.
  • 29.
  • 30. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  Almost all blood supplied to the anterior pituitary must first pass through the hypothalamus. Because materials can be exchanged between blood and surrounding tissue only at the capillary level, the hypothalamic–hypophyseal portal system provides a “private” route through which releasing and inhibiting hormones can be picked up at the hypothalamus and delivered immediately and directly to the anterior pituitary at relatively high concentrations, bypassing the general circulation.
  • 31. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  The axons of the neurosecretory neurons that produce the hypothalamic regulatory hormones terminate on the capillaries at the origin of the portal system.
  • 32. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  What happens if the portal system is absent?
  • 33. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  Once the hypophysiotropic hormones were picked up in the hypothalamus, they would be returned to the heart through the systemic veins, pumped through the pulmonary circulation, then returned to the heart and finally be pumped into the systemic arteries for delivery throughout the body, including the anterior pituitary.  Not only would this process take much longer, but the hypophysiotropic hormones would be considerably diluted before arriving at the anterior pituitary.
  • 34. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  Where these releasing or inhibitory hormones are produced?
  • 35. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  The hormone is synthesized in the cell body and then transported in vesicles by motor proteins to the axon terminal.  It is stored there until its release by exocytosis into an adjacent capillary on appropriate stimulation.
  • 36. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  What is the major difference in the hormone release of anterior and posterior pituitary glands?
  • 37. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  The major difference is that the hypophysiotropic hormones are released into the portal vessels, which deliver them to the anterior pituitary, where they control release of anterior pituitary hormones into the general circulation.  In contrast, the hypothalamic hormones stored in the posterior pituitary are themselves released into the general circulation.
  • 38. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  What regulates secretion of these hypophysiotropic hormones?
  • 39. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  Like other neurons, the neurons secreting these regulatory hormones receive abundant input of information (both neural and hormonal and both excitatory and inhibitory) that they must integrate. Studies are still in progress to unravel the complex neural input from many diverse areas of the brain to the hypophysiotropic secretory neurons.
  • 40. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  One example is the marked increase in secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in response to stress Numerous neural connections also exist between the hypothalamus and the portions of the brain concerned with emotions (the limbic system). Thus, The menstrual irregularities sometimes experienced by women who are emotionally upset are a common manifestation of this relationship.
  • 41. Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System  The most common blood-borne factors that influence hypothalamic neurosecretion are the negative-feedback effects of target-gland hormones.
  • 42.